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Full text of "Compute! Magazine Issue 152"

ODrUIPUTE 



DO-IT-YOURSELF 



MAY 1993 



WII\DOWS 



3 GREAT TOOLS LET YOU 
CREATE YOUR OWN APPS 

JUMBO 

TAPE DRIVES 
10 LOW-COST 
SOLUTIONS 
10 BIG BACKUP 
PROBLEMS 

HIGH-SPEED 

MODEMS 
6 SUPER TIPS 
HELP YOU 
GET ONLINE 
AND FLYJ 



U,S, S2.95 



D "7U86"02193'" 3 



05 





The M«tm Of P 




.JSS-- 





% 




1984 

The Luggables 

1 35 ptmiids 

■ 8()8K-claMCPU 

■ SIIKRAM 

■ riiippy drive 

■ Si) hard drive 

■ AC only 

I Monochronn; display 
$4000 to $5000 




1987 

The Laptops 

I 1 3 to 20 pounds 

■ S{W8 or 8n:K6-cla>v CPU 

■ fa(IK RAM 

■ l-liippj drlM' 

■ 1(1 or :OMB hard drive 

■ AC only or 1 .5-hour baltery 

■ CG A display 
S.15flOloW50(l 



You've been wrestling with over-sized, over-priced 
portables for nine long years! Now Gateway 2000 emerges 
from the struggle and introduces the missing link in the 
evolution of portable computing. It's the HandBook, a perfect 
combination of portability and functionality for all on-the-go 
Homo Sapiens. 

The HandBook is a real PC in a revolutionary new form. 
Not a notebook, not a palmtop, the HandBook is the tlrsi 
fully-functional PC in a truly portable, handbook-sized form. 
Yon can easily take the HandBook anywhere because this 
new species measures a mere 6 .k 10 inches and weighs only 



2.75 pounds, yet it runs over .1,000 of your favorite DOS 
applications. You aren't stuck buying and learning proprietary' 
"card" programs when you have a HandBook. 

The exclusive auto-resume feature enables the HandBook to 
work like no other PC you've ever seen. Auto-resume allows 
you to suspend the computer's operation for moments or weeks 
at a time, aiul ihen return to your work right where you left off 
- in seconds, and al the touch of a button. 

With the HandBook you get 40MB of hard disk capacity to 
easily and quickly store all your DOS programs and files. 

The quiet and comfortable touch-type keyboard allows you 



)rtable Computing. 




1990 

The Notebooks 

■ 6 to 9 pounds 

■ 80286 or 803g6SX-dass CPU 
1 640K RAM 

■ Ruppy drive 

■ 20 10 40MB hard drive 

■ 2 10 3-hiour bawcr)' 
I CGA or VGA display 

ifZ^no til 54500 





Today 

The HandBook 

■ 2.7.T pounds 

■ C&T CPU. 2S6-c!a.i.s 
pcrt'omiaiKC 

■ IMHRAM 

■ 4(IMB hard drive 

■ 4..vhour halter) 

■ MO X 400 hacklil display 

■ Aulo-rcsume k-MK 

$1295 



to type as fast as yau can on your desktop keyboard. 

The HandBook's 640 x 400 resolution backlit screen can be 
read in virtually any light and is large enough to display full 
80-column lines of lexl, so you can use the HandBook 
whenever and wherever you need to. And the HandBook gives 
}'ou all this with up to 4.5 hours of life on a replaceable battery. 

The Gateway HandBook was designed specifically for you 
- today's on-the-move computer user. Once you get your 
hands on a HandBook, you'll struggle no more with a 
Neanderthal artifact 



The HandBook was named ime of the year's 
"Best of Whoi's New" produas by Popular 
Science magazine and received BYTE 
inagaziiw's Award of Dislincliim. 




i< 



GArEimy2ooo 



'Yau'iv -Jios a friend in rhr bu.um\K 

800-846-2071 

610 Gateway Drive ■ P.O.Box 2000 • North Sioux City, SD 57049-2000 
605-232-2000 • Fax 60.') -232-2023 



eVW2 CaifHOT- 2000. Inc.. HmdBml. is o hademrk ojGmmy :0ft). /nc. Ui Other brands andprodutt nanvi an iradenatks or resinmd Irademaris nf their respective eampanisi- 



cannpuTE 



VOLUME 15, NO, 5, ISSUE 152 



MAY 1993 



FEATURES 
8 

TEST LAB 

Edited by Mike Hudnafi 

We test ten jumbo tape 

drives. 

44 

EASY WINDOWS PROGRAMMING 

By Tom Campbell 

Windows programming isn't 

just for programmers 

anymore. 

66 

HIGH-SPEED 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

By Rosalind Resnick 

Expert advice on tiow to 

make your high-speed 

modem fly! 

76 

PRODUCTIVITY CHOICE 

By Clifton Karnes 

Franklin Quest's Ascend 4.0. 

COLUMNS 
4 

EDITORIAL LICENSE 

By Clifton Karnes 

What is SPA, anyway? 

34 

NEWS & NOTES 

By Jill Champion 

Top computer news. 

40 

FEEDBACK 

Answers to tough questions. 

52 

INTRODOS 

By Tony Roberts 

Supercharge your batch 

files. 

54 

TIPS & TOOLS 

Edited by 

Richard C. Leinecker 

Tips from our readers. 

58 

WINDOWS WORKSHOP 

By Clifton Karnes 

Why TrueType is the wave of 

the future. 




Co'Jer photo by Steve Krongard. This issue's 
cover features the Tandy Sensation! 



60 

HARDWARE CUNIC 

By Mark Minasi 
DOS NT: Some thoughts 
about the ultimate version of 
DOS on the eve of DOS 6.0. 
64 
PROGRAMMING POWER 
By Tom Campbell 
Should you upgrade to 
Borland's C++ 3,1? The 
answer is an emphatic yes. 
78 
PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY 
By Lynn Walford 
Why didn't I think of that? 
Creativity- and idea- 
generating software. 



80 

ART WORKS 

By Robert Bixby 

What's new in presentation, 

projection, and television 

hardware. 

86 

MULTIMEDIA PC 

By David English 

General MIDI is a standard 

that makes MIDI easier for 

everyone to use. 

128 

NEWS BITS 

By Jill Champion 

Our intrepid reporter fires off 

the top computer news 

stories at press time. 



ENTERTAINMENT 
82 

PATHWAYS 

By Steven Anzovin 

Live long and prosper: Star 

Trek's popularity floods the 

market. 

84 

DISCOVERY CHOICE 

By Clayton Walnum 

BfBderbund's Just Grandma 

and Me. 

88 

ENTERTAINMENT CHOICE 

By Scott A. May 

Sierra's King's Quest VI. 

90 

6AMEPLAY 

By Paul C. Schuytema 

Making sense of the real 

world with political 

simulators. 

93 

LADY LUCK 

By Paul C. Schuytema 

Can your luck improve with 

practice? 

REVIEWS 
97 

Tandy Sensation!, 

Rooms for Windows, 

Colorado Memory Systems 

Jumbo Trakker 250, 

Might and Magic: Clouds of 

Xeen, 

Darklands, 

Three Zoltrix Modems, 

Electronic Dictionaries, 

Tom Landry Strategy 

Football, 

John Madden Football II, 

Hong Kong Mahjong Pro, 

Star NX-1 040 Rainbow, 

Star NX-2430 Multi-Font, 

PC File 6.5, 

and Plan 9 

from Outer Space. 

ADVERTISERS INDEX 

See page 113. 



COMPUTE (ISSN 0194-357X) is published monthly in the United Sta:es and Canada by COMPUTE PulDlicaiions Internationa] Ltd 19K Broadwav New Yofk NY 10023-5965 Volump i=i 
^""^^ i^Vl^^'^"^ f, ^^o*"^ COMPUTE Pubiicattons Imernalional Lid, All rights reserved, COMPUTE is a regstered trademark of COMPUTE PubBcatons Internationa L d 
Printed iri the USA by R R, Donnelley & Sons Inc. and distributed worldwide leicept Australia and the UK) by Curtis Circulation Company. RO Box 9102 Ftennsauken NJ 081O9 Distributed 
in Ausira la by The HoM^tz Group, RO, Box 306. Cammeray NSW 2062 Australia and in the UK by Northern and Shell Pic . PO. Bo>: 3ai . Millharbour London E14 9TW Second<lass Doslaoe 
paid 81 New York. NY and at additional mailing offices POSTMASTER: S«nd address changes to COMPLrrE Magazine, RO, Box 3245 Harlan lA 51537-3041 Tel (800) 727-6937Eniire 
contents copyrighted, AJI rights resan/ed. Nothing may be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission Irom the publisher Subscriplicrs' US AFO - S19 94 one year Canada 
^i;^! f*? rn.f IPrr^ n"i?i ''"f ^"^^ "^"^^ S2,95 in US, The publisher disclaims all responsibiHy to return unsolicited matter, and all rights in portons published theieol remairi the sde 
StTIro, Gr«n^^ I^C 27lS"Tjr(9ll)1?tM09 """' '" " '" ^"°'^ '^"™ *^ """'^'^ °' "^^ ™^^'"'=- ""°™' ""'"^^ =*"= ""^"^ ^'^24 W. Wendover A^e 



2 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



Advanced Sigrtal Proce$$aig 
(ASP) !hUvcrs4Ari',iUimc 
}tiirdivar£ itata coiitprcs&iQii 
anil saves up to 65% of CPU 
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Enhanced Features incluih 
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Sound Blasterie ASP 
We're not p^ing games arpKKe. 



Sure, games are great. But with new 
applications ranging from voice recognition 
to full-blown integrated multimedia, it's time 
to get serious about PC audio. With 
Sound Blasterne ASP.™ 

The 16 ASP comes with all the features 
you'd expect on a professional- quality 
sound board, plus more than $500 in bundled 
software. . .all for a suggested retail of just 
under $350. 

But the real secret lies in Creative Labs' 
exclusive Advanced Signal Processing tech- 
nology: realtime hardware data compression 
that delivers full CD-quality stereo at a frac- 
tion of the CPU power required by other 



16-bit boards. And downloadable algorithms 
that enable future upgrades like voice recogni- 
tion, time control and special effects. 

So if you thought the original 
Sound Blaster set tihe standard for games, 
you're right. But the 16-bit PC Sound Barrier 
has now been broken. With 
Sound Blaster 16 ASP: 
the new Sound Standard for 
CD-qualit)' PC Audio. 

For more information 
calll-800-998-LABS. 




s^^^^ CRU TIVE 



CREATIVE LAI 






©Copyright 1992 Creative Labs, lite All specifications &ubi«l tochange vs-ithout notice. 

Sound 6liS(cr, ASF, and Wave Bhsler are tradt-marks uf Cri-ative Labs, Inc. Allothfr sofbvare and traiiemarks areou-ned bj^ iheir re^Kctive awnpanies. 

International inquiries: Creative TechnoIog>' Lid. Singapore, TEL 65-733-0233. FAX 6>77>0353. 



Circle Reader Service Numtwr 125 



EDITORIAL LICENSE 



Clifton Karnes 



II you open the 

door on the SPA and 

take a look Inside. 

you'll see that this 

organization Is 

much more than just 

the sottware police. 



If you've heard" of the SPA 
(Software Publisher's Asso- 
ciation), you probably 
: ; think of it as the software 
police. The SPA certainly has 
been the most active counter- 
piracy group in the country, 
and the organization has 
played a key role in several ar- 
rests and legal actions 
against software pirates. Re- 
cently, for example, the SPA 
aided the FBI in closing 
down "Rustle & Edie's," a 
huge pirate BBS located in 
Boardman, Ohio. This counter- 
piracy activity is important, 
and it's worth noting that this 
not only helps software pub- 
lishers but protects consum- 
ers, too. But the SPA is much 
more than just an antipiracy or- 
ganization, and that's what I 
want to talk about this month. 
The SPA is a worldwide as- 
sociation with more than 1000 




members from the software 
publishing industry The mem- 
bership is generally divided in- 
to business, consumer, and 
education groups, and the en- 
tire body meets twice each 
year, in spring and fall. The 
SPA spring symposium was 
held this past March in sunny 
San Diego and was attended 
by a record number of mem- 
bers. I attended several meet- 
ings, and what impressed me 
most was that the focus was 
not on software publishers 
themselves but on consum- 
ers. On how to give us more 
value for our money. And on 
how to make it easier for us to 
make buying decisions. Here 
are some examples. 

At one of the symposium's 
first meetings, Phil Adam of In- 
terplay Productions told a 
group of assembled consum- 
er section members that all 
software publishers needed 
to arrive at a standard way to 
express the requirements for 
their software. "If we can 
make our packages clear and 
easy to understand, so some- 
one standing in a store look- 
ing at our software can tell in 
a few seconds if the program 
will work with his or her hard- 
ware, we'll make it easier for 
everyone to make intelligent 
decisions on whether or not 
to buy our package, If our soft- 
ware won't work on a user's 
system, or won't work well, we 
don't want someone to buy it 
and be disappointed later 
when they try it. And if every 
package in the store is la- 
beled in the same clear way 
it will be easy for consumers 
to compare and easily tel 
what's going on." Clearly Phil 
Is interested in more than just 
sales. He wants to increase 
the overall quality of software 
across the board, so end us- 
ers are better served. 

The next day, in a session 
devoted to the future of con- 
sumer software, Jeff Braun 
from fvlaxis gave a visionary's 



view of the future. "Every 
year," he said, "we have to 
give consumers more of 
what's important to them." 
One aspect of this escalating 
value is the integration of dif- 
ferent software products, 
something like the way Win- 
dows programs can integrate 
with each other using DDE 
and OLE. Jeff said he's work- 
ing with Mallard, the maker of 
top-notch flight-simulator scen- 
ery disks, so that Maxis's Sim 
products can be integrated 
with Mallard's scenery disk 
technology. "With this cooper- 
ation, you could, for example, 
fly over a city you've created, 
increasing the value of the ex- 
perience you'll get from the 
software." Jeff also thinks it's 
important for larger software 
companies to nurture smaller 
companies. "When you find tal- 
ent," he said, "do everything 
you can to make it grow." 

Another expression of this 
attitude came from Mike Knox 
of Park Place Productions, a 
company that develops soft- 
ware for Spirit of Discovery 
and several other labels. Re- 
cently, his company devel- 
oped a math-learning tool 
that Grolier is marketing. "We 
really worked on this at my 
company and it was fun! It's 
the kind of product I really 
like to do. We're paid by Gro- 
lier for producing a good prod- 
uct, Grolier gets revenue 
when it sells the final pro- 
gram, and kids learn some 
great math skills. Everybody 
wins, and that's how I like to 
do business. In fact, if it 
doesn't look like everyone's go- 
ing to win when a project's 
starting, I cancel it." 

These are just three snap- 
shots from a conference that 
lasted more than four days, 
but they show you that the 
SPA is more than just the soft- 
ware police. It's a group 
whose members are trying to 
produce better software prod- 
ucts for all of us. n 



COMPUTE N4AY 1993 



Tlie fSastest 



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. ' Or experience the heari-siopping excitemeni 
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It's easy — and exciting — with the 

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. This remarkable CD-ROM brings the world's most 
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The ALL-NEW 1993 disc offers over 2,000 

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^ photographs; and dozens of full-action video j 

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And it makes browsing and searching for 
information as easy as can be with separate > - 
alphabetical, topic and superlative indexes. WM-^- 
Priced at just $99, the 1993 Guinness Mullimedia ■ 

Disc of Records may set a record of its own: 

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The world's best CD-ROM value! 
• If you're looking for hours upon hours of fun, 
■ : excitement and learning, look to the 
1993 Guinness Multimedia Di.sc of Records. 

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How would you like to open an encyclopedia 
and actually watch U.S. Marines raise the flag 

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Featuring all 21 volumes of Grolier's Academic 
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TEST LAB 



Edited by Mike Hudnall 
Reviews by Tom Benford 

emember wiien people 
tliought 1 .44MB floppy disks 
would be great for backing 
up data? 
Those days, alas, are gone. 
And even if you don't rennem- 
ber, you're sure to recognize that 
backing up the latest generation 
of hard drives with floppies, even 
with high-capacity disks, is a nna- 
jor chore. In addition to changing 
disks for an inordinate length of 
time, you're faced with labeling 
and storing all of those disks. And 
you have to repeat this chore on 
a regular basis. 

The smallest standard hard 
drive in our January lineup of 
486SX PCs was 80MB, and the 
rest of the PCs had 120MB or larg- 
er drives. The drives in our July 
lineup of 486DX2/66 PCs will be 
at least 200MB. Consider back- 
ing them up with floppies. Then 
consider the speed and conven- 
ience of backing up your drive 
with a tape drive — and the good 
sense it makes. With a tape 
drive, you can protect your re- 
ports, appointment lists, spread- 
sheets, databases — all of your val- 
uable data — and make the best 
use of your time. 

This month Test Lab focuses on 
ten tape drives, each capable of 
backing up 250MB of data on a sin- 
gle cartridge. While 4-mm DAT 
drives store as much as two giga- 
bytes on a cartridge, they're also 
much more expensive than the 
drives tested here (most of them 
QIC), which are much better suit- 
ed to backing up a single comput- 
er. Eight of these drives are exter- 
nal, and five of them attach to a 
parallel port. Some of the drives 
use a proprietary interface, one of 
the drives is SCSI compliant, and 
one can attach to a serial port, 
Most of the drives use compres- 
sion to fill the cartridge with 250MB 
of data, one does it without com- 
pression, and one stores over 
600MB without compression. 
They range in weight from 1.25 

8 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



pounds to 9.50 pounds. In short, 
you have a variety of drives and fea- 
tures from which to choose. 

To help you choose the right 
drive for your particular needs. 
Test Lab provides in-depth re- 
views that comment on such mat- 
ters as the ease of installation 
and use, the quality of the soft- 
ware and documentation, the lev- 
el of noise produced, and the 
kinds of work environments for 
which a particular drive might 
prove well suited. In the product 
boxes accompanying the re- 
views, you'll find phces not only 
for the reviewed drives but for op- 
tions and similarly configured 
drives from the manufacturers. 
Keep in mind, however, that the 
market is changing rapidly, with 
increasing competition among 
manufacturers; you should con- 
tact the manufacturer or your re- 
tailer for the best current street 
phces before making your pur- 
chase. 

You'll also find helpful informa- 
tion in the grid of tape drive fea- 
tures — everything from recording 
formats to capacities, tape 
speeds, data transfer rates, soft- 
ware information, warranty infor- 
mation, and more. If you aren't up 



on the latest tape drive terminol- 
ogy, there's a sidebar explaining 
the various features in the grid. 

For the best indication of per- 
formance, turn to the benchmark 
graphs with performance data for 
a full backup and a full restore. 
And be sure to read the method- 
ology sidebar, which explains 
how the testing was set up and 
carried out. 

If you feel you can no longer tie 
up your computer and spend val- 
uable time backing up your data 
with floppy disks, and if you're 
ready for the sense of security 
and freedom that tape drives of- 
fer, read on. This Test Lab has in- 
formation you can use to under- 
stand the technology and make 
a more informed buying decision. 

MIKE HUDNALL 



COLORADO 
JUMBO 250 



The Colorado Jumbo 250 offers 
easy installation, clear documen- 
tation, and an optional compres- 
sion card that substantially reduc- 
es the time required for backups 
and restores of data. 
The Jumbo 250 comes with a 



me Useu Options 




Colorado Backup -■ BOS 



ndin nena 



,«rt Reference- 



nncKur 

Click OH tlic BiickiS]) button or 

key cnit-B) la coiiy files. 

RESTORE 

Click oa llie Restore button or 

key <filt-H> to copy files frna tape 

to any drlue dcslinfltion 

lOnrnRi: 

click on Conpare button or 
■I ■■' " to coipArc files on 
s oil disk ~ 




<fllt-Letter> selects keu pulldoun <Tib> aoiies arounJ screen 



Colorado Backup for DOS 




40-page installation manual 
that's easy to follow and compre- 
hend. A terrific example of lucid 
documentation, the manual 
leaves no question unanswered 
in the user's mind; it goes to 
great lengths to provide crystal- 
clear explanations and illustra- 
tions that drive the point home. 
Each step has at least a half- 
page of instruction or description 
and a diagram or an illustration, 
so virtually anyone should be 
able to perform the installation in 
half an hour or less. 

The Jumbo 250 mounts in a 
standard SYd-inch half-height 
drive bay and uses the PC's flop- 
py controller for interfacing. A spe- 
cial "piggybacker" ribbon cable 
supplied with the drive simply 
plugs into the existing floppy 
drive's ribbon cable — a great 
idea which simplifies the installa- 
tion considerably and reduces 
the possibility of connecting the 
cables incorrectly. 

Colorado Memory Systems 
also offers an optional compres- 
sion card for the Jumbo 250, a 
card that doubles the storage 
capacity of the tape and reduces 
the time required for backing up 
and restoring by 40-50 percent. 
When you use the compression 
card, the Jumbo 250 connects 
directly to the compression card 
for interfacing rather than to the 
floppy controller. I found the man- 
ual for the compression card just 
as thorough and explicit as the 
manual for the tape drive itself, 
making installation of this option- 
al card a simple and straightfor- 
vifard process, too. 

Without the card, a backup of 



Colorado Jumbo 250 
COLORADO MEMORY SYSTEMS 

800 s. Tan Ave. 
Lovelanii, CO 80537 
(800) 845-7905 
(303) 669-6500 

List price: $279.00 ($438.95 lor ex- 
ternal version, $229.00 (or optional 
compression card] 
Warranty: one year, parts and labor 



just over 241MB takes approxi- 
mately two hours; with the card, 
this same backup takes about an 
hour and ten minutes. Though rea- 
sonably fast, the Jumbo 250 is 
one of the noisier tape backup 
units reviewed, emitting a loud, 
high-pitched sound with each 
motion of the tape; this sound 
grows quite wearisome after an 
hour or two. And the Jumbo 250 
is noisy whether you use the op- 
tional compression card or run it 
straight from the floppy controller. 

The utility software for the 
drive came supplied only on bVi- 
inch media, necessitating a copy- 
over using another PC to put it on 
a 3'/2-inch floppy so it could be 
installed on the Tandy 433DX 
used for the reviews and perform- 
ance tests. Dual-sized media 
should certainly be included as a 
standard feature, since so many 
of today's machines sport only a 
single S'/a-lnch drive. 

Though DOS based, the soft- 
ware for the Jumbo 250 lets you 
run from within Windows. A Jum- 
bo 250 icon on your Windows 
desktop allows quick and conven- 
ient launching (you perform the 
backup from within a DOS win- 
dow on the desktop). 



INTERPRETER RETRIEVER/250 

INTERPRETER 

11455 w. 1-70 N. Frontage Rd. 

Wheat Ridge, CO 80D33 

(800) 232-4687 

(303) 431-8991 

List price: $529 ($679 tor Hie 250/P, 

a rugged version designed to better 

withstand urear and tear) 

Warranty: one year, parts and iaiior 



If you're looking for an internal 
tape backup that's easy to install 
and does a good job even if it 
does generate a few extra deci- 
bels in the process, the Colorado 
Jumbo 250 is worth considering. 
And if you want to get the job 
done in express fashion, you 
might want to purchase the option- 
al compression board as well. 

circle Reader Service Njmber 37t 



For coverage of the Trakk- 
er 250 drive from Colorado 
Memory Systems, see the 
Reviews section. 



INTERPRETER 
RETRlEVER/250 

Looking for a compact backup 
system that attaches to the par- 
allel port and offers easy installa- 
tion? Then take a look at the 
RETRIEVER/250 tape backup sys- 
tem from INTERPRETER, 

Installing the drive hardware 
requires only connecting the 
drive's cable to the PC's parallel 
port and connecting the AC pow- 
er adapter to the drive. I found 
the software installation equally 
simple. The install utility even pro- 
vides a few hardware tests to 
make sure that the system recog- 
nizes the drive and that every- 
thing is connected and online. In 
addition to performing read and 
write tests, the software automat- 
ically analyzes the hardware, sug- 
gesting an appropriate driver for 
the particular tape drive model 
being used. Once you've complet- 




MAY 1993 COMPUTE 9 



TEST LAB 



Dascriuc ion 



Last Full Last Hull 



DfliLV Full C:, TON-FHI , U=er GuWt pa. V 

MODIFIED C: rlodiricil hacltup Qf C: 



Start iMchip at: N/« 



Utick- It 1 LflM 



Back-It 4 



ed these tests and everything 
checks out to the program's sat- 
isfaction, the file copying from the 
installation disk commences. 

To avoid some of the problems 
encountered with other pafallel- 
port tape backups on our Tandy 
433DX test system, I attached the 
RETRIEVER/250's parallel connec- 
tor to an auxiliary parallel port 
installed in the Tandy. 

I wish this drive had a power 
switch, a feature conspicuous by 
its absence. Since the drive 
draws its operational power from 
an AC adapter, you must unplug 
it from the adapter {or the adapter 
from the AC outlet) to shut the 
drive off. While not a major flaw, 
this omission puzzles me. Why did 
the manufacturer not include so 
mundane and utilitarian a feature 
in an otherwise well-engineered de- 
vice? If you use a surge-protecting 
outlet strip to power on your PC 
and all of its peripherals, then you 
probably won't notice the lack of 
a power switch. If you plug the 
adapter directly into an AC wali out- 
let, however, you'll soon miss the 
convenience a power switch 
would provide for turning the 
RETRIEVER/250 drive off. 

The RETRIEVER/250 package 
includes a DOS version of Back- 
It 4 software, provided on both 
3'/2-inch and 5%-inch media. To 
order the Windows version of this 
software, you can call an 800 num- 
ber listed on an included flyer. 
While it would be nice if the Win- 

10 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



dows software were included, the 
flyer puts the RETRIEVER/250 a 
step ahead of some competitors 
who make no provisions whatso- 
ever for using their products from 
within Windows. 

The manual for the software 
consists of a small booklet, just 
slightly larger than a pamphlet, 
which contains only two dia- 
grams (actually screen dumps of 
the main menu and a parameter 
configuration screen). Although 
Spartan, the manual is adequate 
for its intended purposes of get- 
ting you through the installation 
process and helping you use the 
RETRIEVER/250. 

You can choose among three 
types of software compression, 
which naturally speeds up back- 
up time as the level of compres- 
sion is raised, fvlany users will 
find the INTERPRETER RETRIEV- 
ER/250 to be a good choice for 
their file-archiving tasks. 

CIrcte Reader Service Number 372 



Iomega TapeZSO PC Powered 

IOMEGA 

1821 W 4000 S 

Roy, UT 84067 

(800) 777-8179 

List price: $429 ($269 for Tape250 

insider [Internal], $279 for Tape250 

Insider HH, $548 for Tape250 

Parallel Port, $150 for optional Fast 

Hoppy Controller AT. $75 for 

optional Floppy Extender Kit) 

Warranty; five years, parts and labor 



IOMEGA TAPE250 PC 
POWERED 

A sleek external tape backup, the 
Iomega Tape250 PC Powered in- 
stalls quickly and is easy to use, 

The tape backup unit came sup- 
plied with a 37-pin proprietary 
interface and floppy drive pass- 
through cable. The cable mates 
with the ribbon cabfe connected 
to the floppy drive and "splices" 
the tape drive's cable into the cir- 
cuit path, which then connects to 
the proprietary card. The inter- 
face card, an 8-bit board, fits into 
any available half-length expan- 
sion slot. 

I found the supplied software, 
Central Point Backup for Win- 
dows and DOS, extremely easy 
to use from either platform. Unlike 
some of the other tape drive pack- 
ages reviewed here, which supply 
DOS-only software to be run from 
within a DOS window in Windows, 
this drive package includes a true 
Windows program. 

The DOS version of the soft- 
ware bears a marked resem- 
blance to the basic Windows 
interface, including a Save set- 
tings on ex/f? requester which pre- 
sents itself when you're exiting 
the program. The DOS version of 
this program also makes use of 
windowed panels to provide 
prompts, choices, and the status 
of the operation in progress. The 
first window which presents itself 
when you run the program gives 
you three choices — Backup, 
Restore, and Compare. 




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More Fax Modem 




DataPort 14.4/Fax Modem with optical technology 



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noise that other high-speed fax 
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Less noise means the highest 
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More Compatibility: 

OLl delivers hassle-free compatibili- 
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than other high-speed fax modems. 



The DataPort HA/fax Modetn 
costs less, gives you much more! 

• Optical Line Interlace (OLI) pat. pend. 

• V.32bis (l^.-lOO bps dala, 9.WI0 bps tax] 

• \'.H2bis.MXP 5 (d;Ua com;)re.s,sion. 
error correction) 

• Effeciivc sliroLighpul up lo 57,600 bps 

• Lifeiinie warranty 

• Lil'eiime loll-free technical supprjrt 



$299 



Reg. price S555. 
PC/AT/XT or Macintosh 
external model 



$289 



Reg. price $505. 
PC/AT internal card 



Comes complete with: QtiickLink II 
comm'fax software for DOS and 
Windows or the Macintosh; 
CompuSen'e bonus (S22.95 value), 
user's manual and fax modem phone 
cord. Macintosh version also includes 
Mac cable. 



More Value : ^^u get everything you want in 
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Circle Reader Service Number 170 



TEST LAB 



To select files to work on, you 
must first tag them from the 
Choose Directories section; if 
you'd like to back up these same 
fiies later (especially if you wish to 
do so regularly), you'll appreciate 
the option to save the list of these 
tagged files to another file. In suc- 
ceeding backups you'll avoid hav- 
ing to select the files all over again. 

To simplify file selection, the 
software uses a directory tree 
interface, which I like because it 
provides a useful visual represen- 
tation of the file and its location on 
the drive. 

Another nice feature I like in 
this program is its backup-time 
estimation. After you've selected 
your files and configured the tape 
drive, the software estimates how 
much time the backup will take 
even before the process has be- 
gun. There is some tarnish on this 
sterling feature, however, since the 
accuracy of the estimate leaves 
something to be desired. When I 
tried it out. the onscreen status 
clock that shows the time remain- 
ing for the operation changed 
from 1:10.00 to 2:57.00 after the 
backup had been in progress for 
approximately 40 minutes; so 
while this feature is nice to have, 
its true value depends on your 
expectations of accuracy. 

The drive operates very quiet- 



Irwin AccuTrak Plus A250E 

MAYNARD ELECTRONICS 

A Division ol Conner Peripherals 

36 Skyline Dr. 

Lake Mary, FL 32746 

(BOO) 222-5871 

(407) 253-3500 

List price: $419 ($239 for AZ50PC 

[inlernatl. $198 lor A120PC 

[internal]) 

Wananty: two years, parts and 

labor 



ly, only a whisper louder than the 
PC's cooling fan. 

Need more speed? An option- 
al one-megabit-per-second con- 
nector card from Iomega delivers 
speedier backups and restores. 

A quick-reference card and 
the drive's owner's manual ex- 
plain the hardware installation. I 
found the supplied software man- 
ual complete, well written, and 
well organized. The scope and 
content of the DOS and Windows 
sections are excellent; even if 
you're a novice, you should have 
no problem installing or using 
this drive and the Central Point 
software packed along with it, 

Combining performance and 
ease of use for both DOS and Win- 
dows users, the Iomega Tape250 
PC Powered is a good choice. 

circle Reader Service Number 373 



Backup 



s 

Resloie 



mm 

SfxrfitM 



Central Point Backup 



Backup tafeguaidt haid ditk fHet by copying then to tape 
or ditk. 



Rettoie retrieve* previoutfy backed up friet and milet 
tKeni to had iSsk. 



Conpare make* *ure yaw backed up file* ate identical to 
the original files. 



CENTRAL rOINT 

>^Backup 



Exit 



Central Point Backup for Windows 



12 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




IRWIN ACCUTRAK 
PLUS A250E 

Looking for a compact external 
tape backup unit that performs 
well and offers software for DOS, 
Windows, and OS/2? The Irwin 
AccuTrak Plus A250E fills the bill. 

Three separate manuals (for 
MS-DOS, 'Windows, and OS/2 soft- 
ware) make this one of the better 
documented and more versatile 
tape drive packages. For each of 
these software versions, the man- 
ufacturer provides both 5^4- and 
3'/2-inch media. Covering all the 
bases this way goes far toward cre- 
ating a good impression and bol- 
stering confidence in the product. 

This drive uses a proprietary 
interface card which will fit into any 
8-bit half-length expansion slot. A 
ten-position DIP switch on the 
card allows you to resolve any ad- 
dress conflicts with other devices 
which may be in the system, but 
the default settings worked just 
fine in the Tandy 433DX test sys- 
tem. Once you insert the board, all 
that remains is to connect the ca- 
ble to both the D connector on the 
card's mounting bracket and the 
port on the back of the tape drive. 
Unlike most other external tape 
drives, this one derives its power 
from the PC itself via the interface 
card and cable. If your power sup- 
ply already has all the peripherals 
it can handle, you'll want to use the 
optional external power adapter 
for this tape drive. 

The AccuTrak Plus A250E's 
driver software installs quickly 




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Both computers feature the Advanced Graphics Architecture™ that 
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You also get a 24-hour Helpline and optional on-site service.** This offer 
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your Amiga dealer today Or, call 1-800-66 AMIGA. 

circle Reader Service Number 269 




PROGRAM EXTENDED 



C' Commodore 

AMIGA 





./-: 



r^:^ 



THROUGH MAY 2nd, 1993. 






TEST LAB 



and easily with minimal user inter- 
activity. I particularly liked the 
DOS version of the software, 
since it provides an excellent 
range of options that I can invoke 
from the DOS command line— a 
highly useful feature for automat- 
ing backups via batch files. The 
manual supplies an ample 
description (in tables) of all com- 
mands and parameters that can 
be implemented. A quick-refer- 
ence card also helps you navi- 
gate different sections of the pro- 
gram, especially those sections 
you encounter as you become 
acquainted with the software. 

While the drive performed with- 
out a hitch, I was somewhat sur- 
prised at how much tape it re- 
quired to back up 241MB of data 
without compression; I needed 
three tape cassettes (120MB un- 
compressed capacity) to back 
up the hard drive, whereas only 
two cassettes were required with 
other drives covered here. If you 
have lots of data to back up with 
this drive, it's a good idea to 
have several preformatted tapes 
on hand and ready for use. Of 
course, to save tape and speed 
up the process, you can also per- 
form selective backups, in which 
only specific files are archived. 

This drive is quite compact, 
only 4.9 inches high x 2.6 inches 
wide X 7.5 inches deep, making 
it easily portable. But since the 
drive requires an internal inter- 
face card, it won't be well suited 



Irwin AcGuTrak Pius A250E 

MAYNARD ELECTRONICS 

A Division ol Conner Peripherals 

36 Skyline Dr. 

Lake Mary, FL 32746 

(800) 222-5871 

(407) 263-3500 

List price: $419 ($209 tor A250PC 

[Internal], $198 tor A120PC [Inter- 

nail) 

Warranty: two years, parts and 

labor 



for use with most laptop or note- 
book computers. 

Overall, the Irwin AccuTrak 
Plus A250E is a solid unit that 
looks good and performs well 
while giving you the choice of 
using it under DOS, Windows, or 
OS/2. 

CIrcEe Reader Service Number 374 

IRWIN tZPOKT 

Because it connects to the paral- 
lel port rather than a special inter- 
face card, the Irwin EzPort exter- 
nal tape drive merits the consid- 
eration of people looking for a non- 
floppy backup solution for their 
notebook computers. 

Installing this drive should be 
a very simple and straightforward 
affair, requiring only the connec- 
tion of the drive's cable to the 
PC's parallel port and loading the 
EzTape Software. For the vast 
majority of installations, that's all 
you'll need to do. However, if 






you're the owner of a Tandy 
433DX (or presumably any of the 
Tandy Omni Profile 486 comput- 
ers, which all use this same moth- 
erboard), you're going to have 
some problems. 

The parallel printer port on 
these Tandy machines deviates 
from true 100-percent IBM-stan- 
dard coimpatibility in some 
respects. In many instances this 
deviation from 100-percent com- 
patibility won't be noticed, since 
normal printer functions seem to 
be without any problems. Howev- 
er, some other devices that use 
the parallel port for communica- 
tion, as does the EzPort, don't 
find the required signals they're 
looking for on the Tandy parallel 
port, thus making a successful 
installation impossible. 

The problem with the Tandy 
machines is that they do not 
allow user enabling of an inter- 
rupt for LPT1, which the tape 
drive requires for communication 
with the PC. Not finding an inter- 
rupt, the EzTape 3.1 program 
assumed no drive was connect- 
ed, prevented any further opera- 
tions, and displayed an Error: 
Tape Drive Not Found message. 

To work around this problem, 
I installed in the Tandy 433DX an 
expansion board containing an ad- 
ditional serial port and a second 
parallel port. I disabled the sehal 
port and set the parallel port to 
function as LPT2 on this board pri- 
or to inserting it in the expansion 
slot. Once the I/O board was 
installed, the software immediate- 
ly acknowledged the presence of 



14 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




S«UU 1 


Pl*i 


■s. 


/f 


i. 




ai 




« 




2 




4 





m 



n 



I 



Create Song? on 
Your Sound Card with 
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WhaLever your musical 

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and either a sound card 

or a MIDI instrument, 

you can compose, edit, 

play back dnd print, sheet 

music on your PC. 

Bring Your Music to Life. 

Use your mouse to chck 
musical notes and 
symbols onto a staff 
sheet. If you've got a 
Miracle'" or MIDI key- 
board, MusicTime will 
record and transcribe 
your live performance into music notation m real 
lime — right before your eyes! ■ " 

Easy to Play Back, Edit and Print. 

Play back instantly through your sound card or MIDI 
gear. Editing is easy with MusicTime's cut, copy and 
paste commands. Automatically transpose notes into 
any key. Add guitar chords. Write beautiful lyrics. 
Print out publishing-quality sheet music. 



MusicTime couldn't be 
easier, to use. 

Windows, Mac and 
MIDI Compatible. 

MusicTime is available 
for PCs with Windows'" 
or the Macintosh? and is 
compatible with The 




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Pro Audio Spectrum" and 
Thunder Board',' AdLib 
Gold'" and most popular PC sound cards. 

For your copy of MusicTime,, call Passport or visit 

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music store. If you're tired of 

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sound card, get MusicTime and 

turn your beeps aiid blasts into 

be-bop and hip-hop. 



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Circle Raadw Ssivica Number 273 . ' 



TEST LAB 




Tree rtapJt Taski iTtllltg uleu nptlon ulndou Iflbrjirian iJcLp 
nmir HbrarM I Tape I Hark [ Uiniwpk I Backup | Hestore I Scan | 

mmvmtm 

C3 . 



caopps 

C3 BUDGETS 
1331998 
C331991 
[33199Z 
C31993 

am 
caqz 

C3fl3 
C3II05 



ackup all files on <(l8k... I 

cstQPc current tape... | 

: : I 

H In mem I xlt pronraii | 



HIT 



TJl 



status ; Tage ready;^. 



EzTape 3. 1 



the drive and all functions 
became operative. 

Part of {he EzPort fiardware 
installation requires snapping a 
back piece onto the tape drive's 
25-pin connector, but this takes a 
bit of doing. Getting the pieces to 
fit snugly together (1 had to force 
them to mate so that the unit resem- 
bled the picture on the box) 
required a considerable amount of 
pressure, something users may 
not be comfortable witfi. Once 
they were together, I connected 
the power supply and interface ca- 
bles to the unit, and the software 
immediately recognized that the 
drive was connected. A backup 
was underway shortly thereafter, 

The software's onscreen timer 
isn't as accurate as it could be, 
since it updates itself with each 
new File Now Being Copied 
screen message update. While 
this takes oniy a couple of sec- 
onds for each incident, it turns 
into a considerable amount of 
time for backups of any apprecia- 
ble size. For instance, the EzTape 
timer indicated that only 12 min- 
utes had elapsed after 1 5 minutes 
of actual time had passed. 

This drive's package includes 
EzTape 3.1 software for both 
DOS and Windows on 5V4-inch 
and SVz-inch media. I found the 
software very easy to use, provid- 
ing a friendly directory tree rep- 
resentation of the file structure; 
the directory tree makes select- 

16 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



ing files for backup or restore a 
simple procedure. This drive 
required three tape cassettes to 
back up 241MB of data, so it's a 
good idea to have several Prefor- 
matted cassettes ready for use if 
you'll be doing high-volume back- 
ups with this unit. 

circle Reader Service Number 375 

MAYNARD 
ARCHIVEXL 9250E 

I found the Maynard ArchiveXL 
9250E one of the easier of this 
month's external tape drives to 
install and use. 

The 9250E uses a 37-pin pro- 
prietary card in concert with the 
PC's own controller. The proprie- 
tary card installs easily into any 
available 8-bit half-length expan- 
sion slot, and a ribbon connector 
from the PC's floppy controller con- 
nects to the proprietary card. 
Another cable attaches a D con- 
nector on the card's mounting 



Maynard ArcbtveXL 92SQE 

MAYNARD ELfCTRONICS 

A Division of Conner Peripherals 

36 Skyline Dr. 

Lake Mary, FL 32746 

{800) 222-5871 

(407) 263-3500 

List price: $679 ($279 for internal 

version) 

Warranty: one year, parts and labor 



bracket to the tape drive. 

You'll find the installation pro- 
cedure explained in a few pages 
near the back of the user manu- 
al—a rather odd location for it, 
since you would expect it to ap- 
pear in the very beginning. The 
installation instructions, albeit a 
bit brief, cover the necessary ter- 
ritory well enough; diagrams and 
illustrations serve to simplify the 
installation so that even if you're 
a novice, you should have no prob- 
lem performing it. 

The software provided by May- 
nard, QlCstream for DOS, runs un- 
der Windows as a full-screen DOS 
application provided that you run 
Windows in standard mode. This 
is bound to be a limiting feature for 
most Windows users, who run Win- 
dows in enhanced mode. 

Many users will undoubtedly 
want to use the QlCstream soft- 
ware directly from DOS, since it 
lends itself well to use in batch 
files to automate the backup proc- 
ess. While not as feature packed 
as some of the other backup soft- 
ware packages I've seen, the 
QlCstream software is very easy 
to use, Performing a full backup 
requires a few keystrokes and 
answering four questions (for exam- 
ple, whether you want to use com- 
pression, back up all files and sub- 
directories, and so forth). 

The ArchiveXL 9250E is certain- 
ly one of the quieter tape backup 
units I've come into contact with 
thus far; I could barely hear the 
drive in operation over the sys- 
tem's cooling fan. No loud, high- 
pitched whines here — just a bare- 
ly audible hum as the mechanism 
shuttles the tape back and forth. 





CompuServe does Windows. 



Introducing a whole new way to look 
at CompuSer\'e: CompuServe Information 
Manager for Windows (WinCIM'"). It's a fully 
integrated Windows application, and lets you 
take ad^•antage of Window- s 
when you're on CompuServe. 
It'll make your session 
faster, more efficient, 
easier, and a lot more fun. 

With the help of icons 
and pull-down menus, jou'll 
find your CompuServe time is almost effortless 
Cruise the forums, browse through your 
messages, download files — it's all about as 
simple as clicking a mouse button. 




And with WinCIM you can do more 
offline, too. That means evervthing from 
writing letters to reading the answers to your 
hardware and software questions can be done 
much more economically. 

So take a look for yourself. 
If you're already a CompuServe 
member, just t)'pe GO WINCIM, 
if vou aren't, call us for more 
information at 1 800 848-8199. 
Either way, you'll soon see why 
the best view is the one from CompuServe 
Information Manager for Windows. 



CompuServe^ 



The information service you won't outgrow.' 



Winilowi is A tTadcmark of .MlLTO*nfl Curporalitwi. 



Circle Reader Service Number 1D8 



TEST LAB 



feb 11. 1993 OICstrc»« yBrlioo 3.e3a le) 1992 flrehlue Corp, 



■iA*4 Itiilii new ►►►»■ 



Director!^ of * tape 
Tape utilities 



Create a Macro 



Sclieddle 4 Macro 



Esc 5x11 qiCstre,.= 



QlCstreaw 3.0 



This drive uses QIC industry- 
standard data compression 
wlien backing up data, thereby 
increasing an archived tape's 
compatibifity with other drives. 
This compatibility is a handy fea- 
ture if you want to restore one 
drive's contents on another PC 
with a different brand or model of 
tape unit installed. 

The QlCstream software does 
not use a tree format of display- 
ing a tape's contents, and this is 
unfortunate, since directory tree 
listings are the easiest to view 
and use. Users with files buried 
six or seven directories deep will 
find that the entire pathname of 
a file runs off the side of the back- 
up/restore status screen, a defi- 
nite shortcoming if you regularly 
nest subdirectories to any extent. 

The floppy-based installation soft- 
ware supplied with the drive con- 
sisted of one 5'/i-inch disk, and I 
found no mention of how to obtain 
a SVs-inch copy of the software 
anywhere in the package. This 
necessitated copying the software 
onto a 3'/;i-inch disk on another 
PC before it could be installed on 
the Tandy 433DX test system. 

If you're interested in a tape 
backup that does what it's sup- 
posed to without a lot of bells and 
whistles and you can live with the 
minor shortcomings cited here, 
then you should check out the 
ArchiveXL 9250E from Maynard. 

Circle fleatJef Service Number 376 
18 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



MKRO SOLUTIONS 
BACKPACK 

Good things often come in small 
packages, and the Micro Solu- 
tions Backpack tape drive is an 
excellent case in point, Weighing 
in at just 2,50 pounds and meas- 
uring only 1,50 inches (height) x 
4,00 inches (v/idth) x 7.75 inch- 
es (length), the Backpack is light 
and small enough to tote along in 
most notebook or laptop carrying 
cases. And since it's an external 
unit which connects directly to 
the computer's parallel port, it 
doesn't require any internal expan- 
sion slots for installation, making 
it ideal for transportable use. 



TAPE DRIVE TIMINGS IN 

PERSPECTIVE 

Thie type of data in a file can have 
a significant effect on the amount 
of time a tape drive takes to per- 
form a backup or restore. For ex- 
ample, manufacturers sometimes 
use very large test files of Xs. O's, 
or other single characters which, 
because of the redundant nature 
of the data, yield best-case per- 
formance times: these are usually 
the figures you'll see published in 
the advertising material for ttiese 
products. It's important to remem- 
ber ttiat such files do not yield tim- 
ing results comparable to the re- 
sults involving the kinds of data 
you use on a daily basis. 

Another factor in ttie speed of 
a tape drive is the hardware that 
writes to and reads from the tape. 
Tape devices using multiple 
heads fiave a significant perform- 
anceedge over sin gle-tiead devic- 
es, and that advantage justifies 
the higher price tag for these 
units. A single-head tape drive 
requires three passes (complete 
transport of the tape from one reel 
to the other and then back again) 
to read, write, and erase data. On 
the other hand, a three-head tape 
drive can read, write, and verify or 
erase in one pass so that, all other 
factors being equal, it requires 
only one-third as much time as the 
single-head drive, 

-TOM BENFOf^D 




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^CITIZEN 

Circle Raader Service Number 166 



TEST LAB 




I found installing the Micro 
Solutions Backpack very straightfor- 
ward and uncomplicated; that 
should be the case as long as 
your PC has a parallel port that con- 
forms 100 percent to the IBM stan- 
dard. The Tandy 433DX test sys- 
tem, however, does not totally 
conform; this made the installation 
interesting, to say the least. 

An Unable to generate printer 
interrupt error message ap- 
peared very early in the installa- 
tion, and I immediately suspect- 
ed that a conflict w/ith some other 
installed device was to blame. I 
removed from the computer the 
audio card (which also contained 
a SCSI CD-ROM drive interface), 
yet the error message stiil present- 
ed itself. 

A call to tech support at Micro 
Solutions elicited a courteous 
response from the technician, 
who said the only reason for this 
message would be a device con- 
flict (which I had already eliminat- 
ed from suspicion by removing 
the audio card) or a parallel port 
that was not 100-percent IBM 
compatible. He suggested I 
install a second parallel port in 
the PC, and he felt confident that 
this would alleviate the problem. 
Fortunately, there was a multifunc- 
tion I/O card not being used in 
the lab, so I immediately installed 
it in the Tandy with the jumpers 
set to activate LPT2. Like magic, 
the error condition disappeared. 

It's very important to note here 
that this problem was not the 
fault of the Backpack tape drive 
(or the other unit reviewed here 
which encountered the same prob- 
lem). Instead, the problem in- 

20 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



Micro Solutions Backpack 

MICRO SOLUTIONS COMPUTER 

PRODUCTS 

132 W. Lincoln Kwy. 

DeKalb, IL 60115 

(815) 756-3411 

List price: S539 

Warranty: one year, parts and labor 



volves the way Tandy configures 
its parallel port on the Tandy 
Omni Profile 486 motherboards. 
If you own one of these machines 
and you're thinking of purchasing 
a Backpack, then add an expan- 
sion card with a second parallel 
port to your shopping list as well. 

The Backpack provides a print- 
er pass-through port on the unit 
so you can keep both the Back- 
pack and your printer connected 
to the PC simultaneously The de- 
vice is transparent when not in 
use, so normal printer function 
won't be disturbed in the least. 

The Backpack stores up to 
250MB using data compression 
with a standard DC2120 quarter- 
inch minicartridge. The Back- 
pack can read and write stan- 
dard QIC-80 tapes and will also 
read (but not write to) QlC-40 
tape cassettes. Featuring a 1 MB- 
per-second data transfer rate, the 
Backpack is one of the faster 
tape backup units covered here. 

The software provided with the 



Backpack is almost identical to 
that which comes with the May- 
nard ArchiveXL 9250E, and it will 
run in a DOS window from within 
Windows, even though it doesn't 
generate an icon. Using the Back- 
pack software from DOS pro- 
vides the most flexibility and great- 
est range of options. 

If you're looking for a pint- 
sized tape backup that's easy to 
tote and big on performance, the 
Backpack merits a closer look. 

circle Reader Service Number 377 

MOUNTAIN 
FILESAFE TD-250 

Another internal-mount tape 
drive, the Mountain FileSafe TD- 
250 installs easily in any 5y<-.-inch 
half-height bay accessible from 
the front of the machine and us- 
es the PC's floppy controller for 
interfacing. 

While the installation procedure 
is uncomplicated and straightfor- 
ward, the documentation assumes 
at least some prior PC knowledge 
on the part of the user. Unlike 
some of the other tape drives 
reviewed here, which go to great 
lengths for clarity and detail in 
their documentation, the FileSafe 
TD-250 comes with an installation 
guide pamphlet rather than a full- 
blown installation manual. 



p Sep 1. 1331 



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^ if:*nu(; list ■" ;chdnrfn<D 1H> Enter : CO rati mi p Flrhelp Esc:prEU screen — 



Backpack 1.0 software 



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circle Reader Service Number 164 



Disk size: Q3.5" □5.25" 
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PARSONS 

TECHNOLOGY 

Oiie Parsons Drive, I'O Box 100, Hiawatha, !A 52233 
Priority Code 77B7201 



Capyrigllt S 1993 b)' Panom Teilimlc^: Inc. Ml rights lesmvil. Aniiouiscemaits is a tradenart of Parens Ttihiolosy. 
All rraiimutria Bnervki initria dtslgiiaud as lucli m marks or rtsislatd maiki ofOielr rapectine omiers. 



TEST LAB 



RESTORE TIMES 



30 
25 
20 

15 

10 

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If you've ever installed a periph- 
eral device in your computer sys- 
tem, you shouldn't have any prob- 
lems with this installation. If you're 
a first-time installer, however, you 
may indeed have some trepida- 
tion that a bit more detail and 
explanation in the documentation 
would alleviate. You're instructed 
to "refer to [the] computer's man- 
ual or consult your dealer on in- 
stalling an internal device" right 
from the first paragraph of the 
installation pamphlet. Since the 
guide provides only three 
diagrams to illustrate the installa- 
tion process, it is entirely conceiv- 
able (and very likely) that some- 
one who has never before 
installed a tape or disl< drive 
might not fesi comfortable with 
this sketchy documentation. 

What the hardware installation 
documentation lacks is more 
than compensated for in the rath- 
er large manual provided for 
installing and using the backup 
software. You'll find clear and 
explicit text, augmented by numer- 
ous diagrams to reduce the learn- 
ing curve and increase understand- 
ing of the material. A handy quick- 
reference card contains all of the 
DOS commands and prefixes. No 
Windows software or launching op- 
tion comes with the drive package. 

The software displays an 

22 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



onscreen clock which provides 
elapsed-time information to let 
you know how long the backup/ 
restore session will take and has 
taken thus far. White this is a 
good idea, the onscreen clock 
updates itself infrequently rather 
than running in realtime, and this 
makes it difficult to estimate how 
much longer the backup or 
restore operation will take. 

The software gives you excel- 
lent file management utilities, 
allowing files to be tagged for 
selective restores and backups. 
You also get a software compres- 
sion option, which decreases 
backup and restore times while 
doubling the tape's storage capac- 
ity (you must use the compres- 
sion option to get the full 250MB 
capacity on a single tape cas- 
sette). A particularly nice feature 



Mountain FileSafe TD-250 

MOUKTAIN NETWORK 

SOLUTIONS 

240 E. Hacienda Ave. 

Campbell, CA 95008-6623 

(800) 458-0300 

(408) 379-4300 

List price: $315 ($489 for external 

version wittiout power supply, $599 

for external version witti power 

supply) 

Warranty: one year, parts and latior 



TAPE DRIVE TESTING 

IVIETHODOLOQY 

The lab tested all tape drives us- 
ing a factory-configured Tandy 
433DX desktop PC equipped with 
a 250MB hard drive. 

An accessory I/O card was 
installed in the Tandy to provide a 
second parallel port. Because the 
built-in parallel port of the Tandy 
machine does not generate an in- 
terrupt required by some of the 
tape devices that connect to this 
port, the lab tested all of the par- 
allel-port drives by using the par- 
allel port on the accessory board 
rather than the one that's part of 
the Tandy's motherboard. 

Our testing consisted of perform- 
ing a total backup of all data with- 
in selected subdirectories on the 
hard disk— 241,232,326 bytes in 
3679 files in 26 subdirectories nest- 
ed up to five levels deep. To 
make the testing more represen- 
tative of real-world activities (see 
"Tape Drive Timings in Perspec- 
tive"), we used a variety of data 
types: programs, overlays, text, 
graphics, sound, spreadsheets, 
CAD files, and more. The sizes of 
the files ranged from 17 bytes up 
to 22,876,415 bytes. 

The lab performed all tests 
from DOS and did not use any 
compression. 

Although some of the programs 
packaged with these drives in- 
clude a timing capability, we 
found the timers inaccurate in 
some cases. Therefore, al! times 
reported were obtained using an 
external digital stopwatch to en- 
sure realtime figures. 

—TOM BENFORO, PRESIDENT 
COMPUTER PRODUCT TESTING SERVICES 




Ho hairstyling tips. 




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If you can hack it 



Circle Reader Service Number 2S8 



TEST LAB 



of the software is that you don't 
have to run the tape backup pro- 
gram to perform a function; all of 
the program's functions can be 
accessed from the DOS com- 
mand line. This simplifies creating 
batch files for common backup rou- 
tines, performing selective back- 
ups, and other such applications. 
The Mountain FileSafe TD-250 
is a relatively quiet tape backup 
unit. In operation, it produces a 
low and unobtrusive machinelike 
sound while the transport mech- 
anism is in motion. 

circle Reader Service Number 378 



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FileSafe software 



TAPE DRIVE FEATURES 





Colorado 
Jumbo 250 


INTERPRETER 

RETRIEVER/250 


Iomega 
Tape250 


Irwin AccuTrak 
Plus A2S0E 


Irwin 
Export 


External or internal 


internal 


external 


external 


external 


external 


Interface 


computer's drive 
controller' 


parallel port 


proprietary with (loppy 
controller 


proprietary 


parallel port 


Dimensions in incties 


5.32 X 1.63x4.00 


7,25x2.00x5,00 


5.50x1,00x4.00 


7.50x4.90x2.60 


12.00x4.90x2.60 


Weight in pounds 


1.25 


approximately 2.00 


2.50 


1.75 


3,00 


Recording format 


QIC-80^ 


QiC-80 


Qic-eo2 


servo 


servo 


Recording density in bpi 


14.703 


14.700 


14.700 


11.600 


11,600 


Formatted capacity 

Without comDression 


125MB 


120MB 


165MB 


120MB 


120MB 


With compression 


250MB 


250MB 


250MB 


250MB 


250f»!B 


Number of tracks 


28 


28 


23 


32 


32 


Tape speed In tps 


read: 34 write: 68 


read: 34 write. 34 


read: 34 write: 68 


read: 86 wrde; 43 


read: 86 write: 43 


Data transfer rate in Kbps 


500 


up to SOtf' 


500 


500 


500 


MTBF in hours 


40,000 


50,000 


30,000 


50,000 


50,000 


MTTR 


less than 30 minutes 


less than 30 minutes 


less than 30 minutes 


less than 30 minutes 


less than 30 minutes 


Hard error rate 


less than 1 enof in 
lO's bits 


less than 1 error in 
lO'-" bits 


less than 1 error in 
10" bits 


less than l error in 
10" bits 


ess than 1 error in 
10'^ bits 


Magnetic tape 


DC2120 


3M o: compatible 


DC2120 


AccuTrak 2000-120 


AccuTrak 2000-120 


Ambient operating 
temperature in degrees 
Centigrade 


5^5 


5-35 


10-^5 


5-45 


5-45 


Relative operating humidity 


20-80% 


20-80% 


10-60% 


20-80% 


20-80% 


Data compression 


hardware option 


software option 


software option 


software option 


software opiion 


Softvare 


Colorado Backup for 
DOS 


Back-It 4^ 


Central Point Backup 


EzTape 


EzTape 


DOS 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


Windows 


no 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


Wammty 


one year 


one year 


five years 


two years 


one year 


'Unless you use tte optional proprietary compression card. 
2QIC-40 read only 


^Depending on CPU speed, parallel port design, and so forth, 
•■Also available for Windows, 



24 COIvlPUTE fVlAY 1993 



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. State . 



Zip- 



Age. 



Phone No. (. 



)- 



Check box for G.I. 
: Veteran 



Bill Benefits 
_ Active Duty 



I 
I 
I 
I 

I 
I 
I 

J 

I 
I 
I 



////:*2S 



1776 East 17th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio 441 14 



Circle Reader Service Number 294 



A School of Thousands. 
A Class of One. Since 1934. 



TEST LAB 



RELAX 600 MEG. 
TAPE VISTA 

The Relax 600 Meg. Tape Vista 
external drive employs a SCSI inter- 
face to communicate with the host 
PC. This drive uses a Teac CT- 
600F tape cassette capable of hold- 
ing 600MB of data (the total format- 
ted capacity is actually 606.9MB). 
Unlike other drives, this one 
doesn't require you to format 
cassettes prior to use, and the 
drive will use tapes from Teac 
drives such as the MT-2ST/45 
(60MB) and the MT-2ST/N 



Relax 600 Meg. Tape Vista 

RELAX TECHNOLOGV 

3181 Whipple Rd. 

Union Cify, CA 94587 

(510) 471-6T12 

List price: $879 

Warranty: one year, parts and ialior 



(160MB) series, The highly dura- 
ble CT-600F tapes can exceed 
3000 passes (one pass is an 
entire back-and-forth circuit from 
supply to take-up reel and back). 
Installing the Trantor T-338 par- 
allel-to-SCSI adapter supplied 
with the drive is a snap, since it 



PE DRIVE FEATURES 





=lclW 



plugs right into the PC's parallel 
port. You can connect a printer 
simultaneously by joining the print- 
er cable to the T-338's pass- 
through jack; the SCSI cable that 
mates with the tape drive connects 
via another jack at the opposite 
end of the adapter. Once you 



Maynard 
ArchiveXL 9250E 



Micro Solutions 
Backpack 



Mountain 
FileSafe TD-250 



Relax 600 Meg. 
Tape Vista 



Valltek 

PST-2S0F 



External or internal 



external 



external 



inlernal 



external 



external 



Interlace 



proprietary with floppy 
controller 



parallel port 



computers lloppy 
controller 



SCSI compliant parallel or serial port 



Dimensions in Inches 



8.80x2.50x4,50 



7.75 X 1.50x4.00 



8,00 X 1 63x5,75 



5.75 X 1.63 X 4.00 13.25 x 4.50 x 600 



Weight in pounds 



2,50 



3.25' 



1.50 



1-50 



9.50 



Recording format 



OIC-80 



QIC^02 



Qic-eo^ 



D/CAS-103 



QIC^)2 



Recording density in tjpi 



14,700 



14,700 



14,700 



38.400 



12,500 



Formatted capacity 
Without comprassion 



teOMB 



120MB 



NA 



606.9MB3 



250MB 



With compression 



250MB 



250MB 



250MB 



N.4 



NA 



Number of tracks 



28 



23 



23 



18 



Tape speed in ips 



read: 68 write: 34 



read: 68 write 34 



read: 34 write: 34 



read: 60 write: 60 



read: 90 write: 90 



Data transfer rate in Kbps 



296 



500 



500 



242 



up 10 800' 



^rTBF in hours 



15.000 



60.000 



12,000 



10,000 



25,000 



MTTR 



less than 30 minutes less than 30 minutes less than 30 minutes less than 30 minutes less than 30 minutes 



Hard eror rate 



less than 1 error in 
10'* bits 



less than 1 error in 
10" bits 



less Ihan 1 error in 
10" bits 



less than 1 error in 
10'3 bits 



less than 1 error in 
10-2 bits 



Magnetic tape 



M-11120B 



OC2T20 



DC212Q 



Teac CT-600F 



DC6250 



Ambient operating 
temperature in degrees 
Centigrade 



5-45 



10-40 



10-40 



5-45 



5-45 



Relative operating humidity 



20-W'% 



20-60% 



20-80% 



20-80% 



20-50'S 



Data compression 



software option 



software opton 



soltv/are option 



software with 

compression is 

available 



Software 



OlCstream 3,0 



Backpack 



FileSale 



Tran'or TapeMate 1 



Valltek 



DOS 



yes 



yes 



yes 



yes 



yes 



Windows 



no 



Wanranly 



one year 



one year 



one year 



one year 



one year 



'The l/ansformer weighs one pound, 

JQIC-40 read only. 

^For 21-track mode; 581,5MB for directory-track mode. 



^Depending on CPU speed. 

NA=no: applicable or information not available 



26 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



Imagination Rvir^ Free. 






"^ -#*" 







Fix^^ Hours Fr^o! 



DELPHI is the online service that gives you the 
freedom and the resources to expand your 
horizons. To create, to learn, to discuss, to have 
fun. ..to imagine. And now you can try DELPHI 
with no risk. You get 5 hours of evening/ 
weekend access free! 

You can join special interest 
groups for nearly every type of 
computer and download from thou- 
sands of files. Read up-to-the-minute 
news. Conduct research with 
Grolier's Encyclopedia. Enjoy a chat 
with other members or compete in 
exciting multi-player games. 



FREE TRIAL! 

Dial By Modem 

1-800-365-4636 

Press RETURN 

At Password 

Enter CPT5 



DELPHI 

Questions? Call 1 -800-695-4005 
Circle Reader Service Numbef 161 



DELPHI is also part of the Internet, the fastest 
growing online resource in the world. You'll be in 
direct contact with 4 million people at universities, 
companies, and other online networks. Send 
electronic mail. Subscribe to mailing lists. Even 
transfer files from other networks 
using "FTP" or connect directly to 
other services using "Telne.t." 
5 hours for Free! After your 5 hour 
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low-cost membership plans or cancel 
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TEST LAB 



TAPE DRIVE TERMS 

Recording format. The way that 
the data is written to the tape. The 
format defines the number and po- 
sition of tracks, the number o! bits 
per inch, and the recording code 
to be used. Most of the drives cov- 
ered here use QIC standards {es- 
tablished by Quarter Inch Car- 
tridge Standards, Inc.). which allow 
data interchange between drives 
of various manufacturers. 

Recording density. Usually ex- 
pressed in bits per inch (bpi), this 
is a measure of how mucii data is 
stored in a given length of tape. 

Formatted capacity. tJsuaily ex- 
pressed in megabytes (I\/IB}, this 
is the amount of data that can be 
stored on a formatted tape. 

Interface. The electncal and log- 
ical connection between the tape 
drive and the host computer. 

Number of tracks. The number 
of rows of serial data bits written 
across the the tape from top to bot- 
tom. 

Tape speed. Usually expressed 
in inches per second (tps), this is 
how fast the recording medium 
moves past the head during any 
operation- 
Data transfer rate. The speed at 
which data is written to or read 
from tape. This rate is determined 
by the controlfer used and is usu- 
ally expressed as kilobits per sec- 
ond (Kbps). 

MTBF. fvlean time between fail- 
ures. The average time before a 
mechanism requires repair. 

MTTR. Mean time to repair. The 
average time required to make a 
repair. 

Hard error rate. The ratio be- 
tween readable and unreadable 
data. In tape drives, error correc- 
tion codes reduce nonrecovera- 
ble errors to an insignificant level. 

Ambient operating temperature. 
The temperature range in which 
the tape drive is designed to op- 
erate. 

Relative operating humidity. 
The humidity range in which the 
tape drive is designed to operate. 
This is limited by the tape media. 

Data compression. A technique 
for increasing storage capacity by 
eliminating redundant data pat- 
terns. 

—ART STAPP 




Trantor Tape Mate 2.2 



28 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



plug the T-338 in, all that's required 
is to run the Trantor installation soft- 
ware, which copies the required de- 
vice driver and modifies the CON- 
FIG.SYS file autonnatically. You can 
connplete tfre entire highly automat- 
ed software installation process in 
just a few minutes. 

The tape drive did not come 
with any diagrams or instructions 
pertaining to the physical hard- 
ware installation, but since all of 
the cables and jacks will mate 
only one way, I had no difficulty fig- 
uring out the installation proce- 
dure. Since the Tape Vista is an ex- 
ternal unit, as is the Trantor T-338, 
there's no need to open the com- 
puter's case, and this expedites in- 
stallation as well. You don't need 
any technical prowess or special 
skills, and even if you're a total nov- 
ice, you should be able to install 
the hardware and software com- 
pletely in under 20 minutes. 

The supplied Tape fvlate back- 
up/restore/utility software runs in 
DOS, and I could not find in the 
documentation any mention of 
using the software or hardware 
with Windows. The Tape Mate soft- 
ware creates a text file log for 
recording error messages as 
well as additional tiles for back- 
up, restore, and verify history. 

The software's online help text 
isn't aligned properly in the help 
window (it scrolls off the right 
side of the display), which makes 
it difficult to view the help text. 



However, since the manual is 
very well written and organized, 
this doesn't present a major 
obstacle, and the online help 
would probably be seldom used 
in real-world circumstances. 

I particularly like the directory 
track, which the software uses 
when backing up files. This 
track, along with Tape Mate's file 
manager (which displays the con- 
tents of the tape in tree format), 
makes file management easy 
from the tape itself. To restore 
files from a tape, for example, sim- 
ply tag them; once you've 
tagged them, hitting the F10 key 
begins the restoration process. 

The Tape Vista's published 
specifications boast a restoration 
time of 42 minutes for a fuil 
600MB of data; in actuality how- 
ever, it took nearly two hours to 
restore only 241MB of data dur- 
ing the review and benchmark- 
ing. The slower speeds we experi- 
enced were probably owing to 
the external SCSI interface, 
since all para!lel-to-SCSI adapt- 
ers have significantly slower 
data transfer rates than dedicat- 
ed, internal SCSI adapters. 

Overall, the Relax 600 Meg. 
Tape Vista installs easily, per- 
formis without a hitch, and pro- 
vides a very user-friendly means 
of backing up and restoring mas- 
sive amounts of data. It's also ide- 
al for laptop or multi-PC use. 

circle Reader Service Number 379 



1 1 

MakeYour 

Productions 

Look Like 

A Million Bucks 

For Only $99. 



^™.i Upgrade your AmigaVisiori" lo the new AmigaVision Professional 

.,V^^ for only $99. 

AmigaVision Professional is ideal for interactive courseware 
designers, multimedia developers, point-of-information displays, 
and business, government, and educational presentations. 

With over 100 new improvements and features you'll save time 
and money But it'll look like you spent a fortune. 

Call CommodoreExpress at 1-800-448-9987. And start making 
million dollar productions without spending a million. 



fsm 



'i^iJ^K^I 



Feature Highlights: 

• Supporis new AGA'uokn's and resoluiions 

• Freely redisiribuiable runilme player included 

• Conirols full motion video devices 

and CD-XL motion video files 

• Plays a MIDI file out Lo a MIDI device 

or Amiga audio channels 

• New resoluiion-indcpendeni transitions 



• Streamcd-in animations and sound files mean 

faster loading and reduced memory usage 

• Word and character recognition allow hypertext 

browsing in text windows 

• Enhanced object editor now has control 

panel functions 

• Additional database functions 



C^ Commodore 

AMIGA 



CCtwimftckiiT BusirwisMjchino. Jik: . Qnnrrk'diHC. Cimuni'iiifffFAprevv and ihr riTTriJiOilDtc kic:' atr lEiu-i : .'••fr FWtrmscs, IwJ Amt^.Altl 

Circle Reader Service Number 235 



iiiii .M>.\ jR! ir^Wnurla iA CimanfxknF-Aiaij^, Inc. 



TEST LAB 



VALITEK PST-250F 

As soon as you open the box and 
see the carrying handle mounted 
atop the Valitek PST-250F, you 
realize that this isn't going to be 
a run-of-the-mill device. And this 
first impression is borne out as 
you remove the monstrously 
large (compared to other units cov- 
ered here) PST-250F from the ship- 
ping carton. Tipping the scales at 
9.5 pounds, it's certainly the heft- 
iest drive reviewed as well. 

The large physical size of the 
PST-250F is understandable, 
since it uses a DC6250 tape cas- 
sette capable of holding up to 
250MB of data without compres- 
sion. DC6250 tape cassettes, 
measuring approximately 4.25 inch- 
es X 6.50 inches, are also con- 
siderably larger than the DC2120 
cassettes used with most other 
tape backup units. Remember: 
This drive can back up as much 
as a quarter of a gigabyte without 
compression on a single tape. 

Another noteworthy feature is 
the drive's ability to connect ex- 
ternally to either the PC's serial or 
parallel port. This flexibility of I/O 
connection, coupled with the 
handy carry handle and large 
tape capacity, makes this drive 
ideal for backing up multiple PCs, 
as in a network or work group sce- 
nario. You can attach the drive to 
a PC and have a backup under- 
way within five minutes, making 
this one of the faster and easier 
to install and use of the tape back- 



Valltek Software 

VALITEK 

100 University Dr. 

Amherst, MA 01002 

(800] 825-4035 

(413) 549-2700 

List price: $1,795 

Warranty: one year, parts and labor 



up units reviewed here. 

You don't have to install the 
backup software on the PC's 
hard drive in order to use it; how- 
ever, if you prefer to install it on 
your hard disk, it will be a manual 
installation, requiring you to use 
DOS commands to make a direc- 
tory and copy the files. While this 
isn't a difficult or time-consuming 
task, an automated installation 
batch file would have been a 
nice touch to include. 

I found the software manual 
well written and appreciated the 
screen shots used to illustrate 
points in the text. The very easy soft- 
ware provides a directory tree 
interface for file selection. A handy 
Select All command simplifies com- 
plete system backups. 

I found the constant feedback 
of the software to be a particular- 
ly nice feature. 'Whenever the 
tape drive is active, the software 
provides you with lots of informa- 
tion about the current activity The 
software's status window includes 
a list of terms (rewind, searching, 
write tape, read tape, write disk, 
read disk, send data, recv data); 
the program highlights the appro- 





Valitek software 



30 



COMPUTE MAY 1993 



priate words to describe the cur- 
rent activity and status of the 
operation. The elapsed-time indi- 
cator is also particularly notewor- 
thy for its accuracy. Trailing a 
mere five seconds behind the 
actual elapsed time, it is the most 
accurate of any of the timers cov- 
ered in this month's Test Lab. 

The PST-250F's tape head is a 
three-gap head as opposed to 
the usual single-gap head found 
in other drives. There's one gap for 
reading, another for writing, and a 
third for erasing. While other tape 
drives require three passes to 
erase, read, and/or write, the PST- 
250F needs only one, performing 
all three operations in a single 
pass. This results in very speedy 
backup and restore times. 

For the discriminating user 
with high-volume archiving 
demands, the Valitek PST-250F 
makes an excellent cholce. 

Clrcle Reader Service Number 3S0 



Benchmark/performance testing 
was conducted by Computer Prod- 
uct Testing Services, Inc. CRTS is an 
independent testing and evaluation 
laboratory based in Manasquan, NJ. 
Every effort has been made to en- 
sure the accuracy and complete- 
ness of this data as of the date of test- 
ing. Performance may vary among 
samples. 




-■ ■OGwpJi^Sv'i*;-.^.-:-.- 




GBG 




Muitl-FonI ^VKKB^^ 



We created our new line of laser printers 
under very strict guidelines. 




Introducing Star's LS-5 series of laser printers. 



when we set out to create our new laser printers, we were 
bound by the same standards that enabled our dot-matrix 
and ink-jet printers to garner so many industry awards. 

Our mission was to produce a line of lasers that pos- 
sessed the very same attributes: superb print quality unsur- 
passed compatibility and excellent paper handling. 

The result is a family of laser printers of uncompromis- 
ing quality, yet outstanding value. 

introducing the Star LS-5, LS-5EX and LS-5TT. The LS-5 
series has all the features you'd expect from a high-end 
printer: dual-bin printing, which allows you to use two types 
of paper; a maintenance-frfee, high-definition one-piece 

TrueType is a trademark of ApplL* Cumpulcr. Inc. Windows is a trademarlc of Microsoft Corporation 



toner/drum cartridge for blacker blacks and more striking 
detail; and 15 scalable TrueType^" fonts for Windows™ 3.1. 
Plus, the added assurance of Star's TWo Year Warranty With 
so many features at such an affordable price, you're sure 
to be hearing a lot about the LS-5. And judging by our past 
successes, reading about it, too. 
For a brochure or your nearest 
Star dealer, call 1-800-447-4700. 
To have additional product 
information sent to you by fax, 

572 '4004 BUilT f€m SPggO 




THE LASER PRINTERS 



circle Reader Service Number 203 




COMPUTER GAMES 
ARE ABOUT TO MAKE THEIR 
BIGGEST LEAP EVER. 



^ 



The man who rewrote the laws 

of gravity is about to fly into the face 

of conventional pc technology. 

INTRODUCING MICHAEL JORDAN IN FLIGHT." 

USING OUR BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY. 

ViDEO-SiM-. WE'VE DIGITIZED EXCLUSIVE 

FOOTAGE OF MICHAEL JORDAN AND CREATED 

THE HOST FLUID, REALISTIC ANIMATION 

EVER SEEN ON A PC SPORTS TITLE. 




MICHAEL SMILES AFTER HE MAKES A SHOT, 

PULLS ON HIS SHORTS WHEN HE GETS TIRED, 

AND EVEN TALKS TO YOU WHEN HE 

FEELS LIKE IT (DIGITIZED. OF COURSE). 

WHAT'S MORE. HE'S GIVEN US HIS STRATEGIES. 

PLAYS, AND MOVES (WELL. MOST OF THEM). 




■^ms- 



You CAN EVEN MAKE YOUR OWN HIGHLIGHT 

FILMS WITH THE VIDEO EDIT LAB. 

WE'RE TALKIN' 100% MICHAEL JORDAN. 

NO ADDITIVES. No PRESERVATIVES. CHECK IT OUT. 

IT'S THE FIRST COMPUTER GAME 

PLAYED ENTIRELY ABOVE THE RIM. 







'!'<-'\'^f.M'4^: 






:'m:'\ 



£?vSPDRTS 

ELECTRDNI C ARTS 



I F I T'S IN THE GAME, 
IT'S IN THE GAME. 



Circle Reader Service Number 281 



NEWS & NOTES 



Jill Champion 



Superior 

page-printing 

performance 

a! an affordable 

price: Tl's 

new microWriler 

primers 



A New Siandord 

Texas Instruments is touting 
its new microWriter LED print- 
ers as "superaffordable per- 
sonal page printers." The mi- 
croWriter family consists of 
three models: thie PS17, witti 
17 Adobe PostScript fonts; 
the PS35, with 35 PostScript 
fonts; and the basic micro- 
Writer, which offers HP Laser- 
Jet II compatibility. 

The printers are powered 
by an LED (Light-Emitting Di- 
ode) print engine that delivers 
a resolution of 300 dots per 
inch at five pages per minute. 
Since the print engine — the 
"heart" of the microWriter de- 
sign — has few moving parts, 
you can expect longer life 
and consistently dependable 
performance. Designed to ex- 
pand as your work expands, 
the standard 2rvlB of RAM on 
the PS17 and PS35 models 
can be increased to 4MB in 
1MB or 2fv1B increments, 
while the 0.5MB of RAM on 
the basic microWriter can be 
expanded to 4.5MB. Also, 
with a simple board upgrade, 
the basic microWriter can be 
made a PostScript printer. 

Tl's microWriters print let- 
ter, legal, executive, invoice, 
and A4 and 85 paper sizes, 
as well as envelopes, labels, 




and transparencies. Your pa- 
per configuration is easily 
changed using standard soft- 
ware in either the Windows or 
Macintosh environment, with- 
out having to change the con- 
figuration at the printer control 
panel, All microWriters in- 
clude a Windows driver for 
full Windows compatibility, 
which means you can print 
Windows' resident TrueType 
fonts. Standard for the micro- 
Writers are free AppleTalit 
and automatic emulation 
switching on the PostScript 
models, easy-to-use control 
panels, and numerous expan- 
sion options for each model, 
along with a compact, contem- 
porary design that makes 
them ideal desktop printers. 

The microWriter lineup is 
very competitively priced at 
$729 for the microWriter, 
$999 for the PS17, and 
$1,299 for the PS35 model. 
For more information, contact 
Texas Instruments, Informa- 
tion Technology Group, P.O. 
Box 202230, ITG-303, Austin, 
Texas 78720-2230; (800) 527- 
3500 or (810) 771-5856. 

Sound Advice 

If you own a PC, adding 
sound will enhance your expe- 
rience. People who have 
sound report that it adds ex- 
citement and humor to using 
their computers. A few spe- 
cial sound effects can take 
the edge off your most seri- 
ous applications. And adding 
sound doesn't have to break 
your bank: Some of the new- 
est products retail for less 
than $100. 

If you don't own a sound 
card and aren't yet ready to 
spend the money for one, try 
Sound Explosion from Pro- 
grammer's Warehouse. It's soft- ■ 
ware that lets you customize 
any Windows-compatible pro- 
gram by adding giggles, 
squeaks, footsteps, explo- 
sions, or any of more than 
500 sound effects, whether or 



not you have a sound board. 
Add the clicking of an electric 
typewriter to your keyboard, 
set an alarm clock to ring as 
a reminder, or customize 
your word processor to play a 
motion picture theme. Ma- 
chine noises, crashes, horns, 
buzzers, human noises, ani- 
mal sounds, bells, swishes, 
zooms, whistles, laser zaps, 
creaks, splats, dozens of mov- 
ie themes, and many more ef- 
fects are included in the 
Sound Explosion library, Avail- 
able directly from Program- 
mer's Warehouse, the soft- 
ware is priced at $49.95. Con- 
tact Programmer's Ware- 
house, 8283 North Hayden 
Road, Suite 195, Scottsdale, 
Arizona 85258; (800) 323- 
1809, (602) 443-0659 (fax). 

If you're considering add- 
ing a sound card, the new 
SoundMaker and Sound- 
Maker Plus digital sound 
cards from Best Data Prod- 
ucts offer top-quality sound 
for digital composing, arrang- 
ing, voice-control applica- 
tions, and any use requiring 
high-fidelity sound. Both mod- 
els of SoundMaker can vocal- 
ize in up to 32 synthesized ste- 
reo voices simultaneously. 
SoundMaker Plus is equipped 
with a powerful voice recogni- 
tion capability for voice control- 
ling your PC and features an 
isolated word recognizer and 
speaker-independent vocabu- 
lary. You can have 50 to 125 
active words or phrases and 
create your own vocabulary 
that's limited in size only by 
disk space. Suggested retail 
prices are $169 for Sound- 
Maker and $197 for Sound- 
Maker Plus. For more informa- 
tion, contact Best Data Prod- 
ucts, 9304 Peering Avenue, 
Chatsworth, California 91311; 
(818) 773-9600, (818) 773- 
9619 (fax). 

Aristosoft's new version of 
Wired for Sound Pro system- 
enhancement software is de- 
signed to take full advantage 



34 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




Sorry. 



For a 



minute there, 
I thought 
you said 



$15,995, 



We did. And it does. And the Cutlass Supreme-" Special Edition has the 3.1-Uter V6, four-speed automatic, 
air, cruise, tilt and other neat stuff. So don't apologize, fust get one. Call 1-800'242-OLDS. 



EOLDSMOBILE 



THE POWER OF INTELLIGENT ENGINEERING. 

!j. C) 3H CM CV/'- Ml ri?'''~ '■■-•';"( Piiiil,- U;. .Irarrii J' 5 [i.Wj M.i.R.I'. (kv aiij funw t:ilT,i. 



NEWS & NOTES 



of your current sound card. 
Using the new talking appli- 
cations, sound effects, 
icons, and cursors, you can 
personalize your desktop vis- 
ually and audibly. The new 
release adds 200 sound ef- 
fects. 100 MIDI music files, 
eight movie screen savers, 
400 designer icons, and 
100 easy-to-see cursors 
that improve the look and 
clarity of any Windows desk- 
top. New sound applica- 
tions include Talking Calen- 
dar, Talking Clock, Talking 
Calculator, Sound Editor, 
Talking System fvlonitor, Talk- 
ing File Graveyard, Intruder 
Alert alarm, and add-ins 
that make talking games of 
fvlinesweeper and Solitaire 
(the games that come with 
Windows 3.1). For those 




Sound Ex ucu,:,. 'i-- /-■cg-am- 
mer's Warehouse 

who like to take extra-long 
work breaks, the Job Saver 
gag feature re-creates the 
sounds of someone hard at 
work by faking keyboard typ- 



ing, coughing, and other 
work-related noises. Suggest- 
ed retail price is $79. For a 
product demo and more in- 
formation, call (800) 551- 
4547, or contact Aristosoft, 
7041 Koll Center Parkway, 
Suite 160, Pleasanton, Cali- 
fornia 94566; (510) 426- 
5355, (510) 426-6703 (fax). 

Breaking NewGround 

With the introduction of 
M.O.S.T, Compton's NewMe- 
dia is eliminating one of the 
major drawbacks of CD- 
ROfvl-based software — hard- 
ware format incompatibility. 
fvl.O.S.T (fvlultiple Operating 
System Technology) will al- 
low the same CD-ROM disc 
to operate in a variety of plat- 
forms, including DOS, Win- 
dows, Macintosh, and even 



Sony's new multimedia play- 
er format, MMCD. 

"Our main objective with 
M.O.S.T," says Tom Mc- 
Grew, sales and marketing 
vice president for the compa- 
ny, "is to make compatibility 
a nonissue." A title on a 
Compton's NewMedia CD- 
ROM disc will run in several 
different operating sys- 
tems—and that also frees 
up space on retailers' 
shelves, allowing them to of- 
fer a greater variety of titles 
instead of numerous formats 
of one title. Dozens of 
M.O.S.T CD-ROM titles 
from Compton's extensive li- 
brary of education, entertain- 
ment, and information soft- 
ware should be appearing 
on retailers' shelves now. 

There's more groundbreak- 



OURSE FOR YO 




Firestone 
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ing news from Compton's: 
It's challenging the tradition 
of publishing for-sale-only 
software. The company re- 
cently entered into an agree- 
ment with Major Video Con- 
cepts to distribute more 
than 20 of its CD-ROtvl- 
based multimedia titles for 
rental \n select video stores — 
a first in the software indus- 
try, fvlajor Video Concepts 
will receive special discs 
and packaging earmarked 
for rental only. Titles will in- 
clude consumer interests, 
children's books, education 
and reference software, en- 
tertainment, music, and art. 
If you would like more infor- 
mation, contact Compton's 
NewMedia, 2320 Camino 
Vida Roble, Carlsbad, Califor- 
nia 92009; (619) 929-2500, 



(619)929-2511 (fax). 

Mystery for Young Sleuths 

There's mayhem at the Smith- 
sonian: Priceless treasures 
have disappeared, a strange 
3-D design rotates in the 
sky, and what was once a fa- 
mous painting is now a jum- 
bled-up mess. Calling all 
young detectives to help In- 
vestigator Edison put the 
pieces back together, de- 
code messages, and visual- 
ize concepts to solve the 
mysteries in Smithsonian 
Mystery at the Museums 
from Binary Zoo. 

In extraordinarily detailed 
3-D graphics and digital au- 
dio, young sleuths search 
with Edison through 12 of 
the world's most exciting mu- 
seums, thinking their way 



through games, puzzles, 
and conceptual challenges, 
and developing and enrich- 
ing problem-solving, crea- 
tive-reasoning, memory, and 
logic skills. The game's 
unique construction allows 
players to shape their own 
explorations through the 
Smithsonian's extensive col- 
lection of artifacts and exhib- 
its by setting their own lev- 
els of difficulty and investigat- 
ing the museums that most 
interest them. 

"Because so many ele- 
ments can be adjusted and 
the collection of possible 
explorations is so. vast," 
says Binary Zoo president 
Henry Karp, "the program is 
inexhaustible. It's constantly 
stimulating and challenging 
to virtually everyone." 



Recommended for ages 
7 through 14 (but fun for 
adults, too), Smithsonian Mys- 
tery at the Museums has a 
suggested retail price of 
$59.95. To find out more, 
contact Binary Zoo, 4119 Sh- 
erbrooke Street West. Montre- 
al, Quebec, Canada H32 
1A7: (514) 846-4059, (514) 
846-1171 (fax). 



Companies or public rela- 
tions firms with items of inter- 
est suitable for News & 
Notes should send Informa- 
tion along with a color slide 
or color transparency to 
News & Notes. Attn: Jill 
Champion. COMPUTE, 324 
West Wendover Avenue, 
Suite 200, Greensboro, 
North Carolina 27408. a 



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FLIGHT ASSIGNMENT: A TP 
f^'sim ula tion for a 
trustra tion- free a via tion 
experience! 



For fifteen years our flight 
simulations have won acclaim for 
their dazzling displays of techni- 
cal wizardry. Now we're using 
the computer medium to provide 
a satisfying introduction to the 
world of aviation. You might say 
that Flight Assignment: ATP 
revision D represents the current 
state of the art with a user- 
friendly twist. 




i i P Extemiii 



Six months of intensive real- 
world flying helped our engineer- 
ing staff refine ATP's flight 
characteristics and joystick 
interface, making the simulation 
both easier and more realistic to 
fly. ATP combines exceptional 
responsiveness with an easy to 



read flight manual to give you a 
great flying experience. 



While you're getting comfortable 
at the controls, let ATP's auto- 
flight mode give you a relaxed 
introduction to commercial 
aircraft flight and navigation. Sit 
back and follow the maps while 
"Jack" the autopilot and "Roger" 
the Air Traffic Controller (spoken 
ATC messages with optional 
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the aircraft from takeoff to 
touchdown. 

ATP contains visual scenery, over 
350 airports and the radio naviga- 
tion aids you need to fly jet routes 
between all major U.S. cities. Fly 
predefined flight assignments or 



select your own departure and 
destination airports. ATP 
provides inflight Air Traffic 
Control guidance and a postflight 
performance evaluation. 



SCENER Y COLLECTIONS 

Constant flowing scenery foi 
easy visual navigation 



Essential for a truly gratifying 
flight experience is the ability to 
navigate successfully "from point 
A to point B." Our new Scenery 
Collections provide a continuous 
flow of super-detailed scenery 
that's ideal for visual navigation, 
and Include comprehensive color 
maps and plotter. 





/ 




Maps and Plotter for Realistic Navigation 




X 

Great Britain and California' 
Scenery Collections make it easy 
for you to plot a course from 
Glasgow to London, or take a 
quick flight from Eureka to 
Lake Tahoe. Whether you're a 
beginner or a seasoned pro, even 
simple visua! flights help develop 
your aircraft control and naviga- 
tion skills. (While we emphasize 
visual navigation to encourage 
new pilots, Scenery Collections 
also offer excellent coverage of 
enroute and approach radio 
navigation aids for those wishing 
to advance to instrument naviga- 
tion.) 




USA SCENERY .. 

fFor the fii^t time evert ^^ 
Comple tefcomprehensi've 
USA scenery coverage 



Now the revolution continues 
with USA Scenery &. Flight Assig- 
nment System, a nationwide 
scenery database and worldwide 
automatic flight dispatcher. 
While you can switch between 
USA and ultra-detailed Scenery 
Collections at the touch of a key, 
only USA gives you comprehen- 
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States; cities, roads, railroads, 
mountains, lakes, rivers, plus 
every public access paved- 
runway airport and radio naviga- 
tion aid {including ILS 
approaches). USA provides a 
fantastic new level of default 
scenery for Flight Assignment: 
ATP and Microsoft Flight 
Simulator, giving you a smooth 
flowing, nationwide visual and 
instrument navigation platform. 




^BH 





»Tmvi 



USA's revolutionary new flight 
assignment system lets you take 
structured flights of any duration 
and difficulty, anywhere in the 
USA database or any Scenery 
Collection (even Great Britain). 
Just select a time length and diffi- 
culty level, and let the program 
take care of the rest. Or spell out 
your choice of aircraft, weather 
conditions, time of day, etc. Then 
press a key to print a copy of your 
flight log. At the destination 
airport you'll be greeted by 
special visual cues designed to 



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pattern entry and guide you down 
to a safe landing. 

Join the computer flight revolu- 
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Flight Assignment: ATP and 
Scenery Collections for IBM 
and compatibles are 
available for the suggested 
retail price of $59.95 each. 
USA East and USA West for 
IBM/compatibles are $69.95 
each. See your dealer or feel 
free to call our friendly 
sales/customer service 
people at 800-637-4983 
for additional product 
information. 



Flight Assignment, Scenery Disk and 
Scenery Collection are trademarks of 
SubLOGIC. All other products and brands 
arc trademarks or registered trademarks 
of their respective owners. 



(he Compufar Flight people 





TELEPHONE: {217)359-8482 
FAX: (217)352-1472 

ORDER LINE: (800)637-4983 
Cifcte Resder Service Number 179 




Liverpool Airport and Alap View 



uo.i auL-iiery - aeieti riiKhiighn:cl ivavigation Aiiis ami 
Floating Traffic Patterns for Frustration-Free Arrival 



FEEDBACK 



Taking Uie wrong 

bus, substituting 

characters, dropping 

your caps, sorting 

out CPU terminoiosy, 

franslating GW- 

BASIC to QuicRBASIC, 

and more 



Return of tlie Data Bus 

Dan Gookin's article. "The Ul- 
timate Windows Machine," in 
the February 1993 issue con- 
tains a mistake. The article 
says that the 486SX is 16 bits 
externally, but in fact it's 32 
bits. The 386SX does have a 
16-bit external data bus, but 
the 486SX is a full 32-bit chip. 

MICHAEL PRATT 
SASKATCHEWAN. CANADA 

The editors were asleep at 
the wheel of the data bus on 
this one. You're exactly right, 
of course. The 486SX is a full 
32-bit CPU with a 32-bit inter- 
nal data path, 32-bit external 
data bus. and a 32-bit ad- 
dress bus. We apologize for 
any confusion we've caused. 
It's interesting to note that 
the SX designation, which was 
originally applied to the 386SX, 
is an acronym for sixteen, be- 
cause the 386 has a 16-bit da- 
ta bus instead of the 32-bit da- 
ta bus found on the 386DX. 
Intel must have decided that 
SX really meant "low-cost" be- 
fore introducing the 486SX 
with its 32-bit data bus. 

Return from a Comma 

I'm looking for a QBASIC pro- 
gram, that would ailow me to 
substitute a carriage return 
(Enter key) for every comma 
in an ASCII file. f\/lany word 
processors have search and 
repiace. but I haven't found 
any that will aliow a carriage re- 
turn to be substituted. Do you 
know of any? 

DENNIS EKSTEN 
LOVES PARK. IL 

Actually, most word proces- 
sors will allow you to make 
this substitution, but the Enter 
is usually replaced by some 
special character such as Ctrl- 
M or Ctrl-Enter Similarly most 
word processors allow you to 
replace tabs with spaces and 
so on. You might check with 
technical support at the compa- 
ny that published your word 



processor But here at "Feed- 
back. " we're always looking for 
an excuse to write a quick, sim- 
ple BASIC file, and we 
couldn't resist this one. Here's 
a program that replaces each 
comma with a linefeed and a 
carriage return. Many word 
processors insert both of 
these characters when you 
press the Enter key. If your 
word processor prefers a sim- 
ple carriage return, remove + 
CHR$(10) from the seventh 
line. 

INPUT "Name of file to convert "; 

files 
OPEN files FOR INPUT AS #1 

filelS = 'temp ,_;' 

OPEN filelS FOR OUTPUT AS #2 

WHILE NaTE0F(1) 

byleS = INPUTS(1,#1) 

IF ASC(byteS! = 44 THEN byleS = 

CHRS(13) + CHRS(10) 
PRINT #Z, byte$; 
WEND 
CLOSE 

If you want to automatically re- 
place the original file with the 
changed file, add these lines 
to the end of the program (be 
very sure you know what 
you 're doing, though; this is a 
lot of power to give to an au- 
tomatic process). 

SHELL "DEL " +fileS 

SHELL "REN TEMP ._! + 

filelS 

Remember to leave a space 
between the last letter and 
the quotation mark In these 
SHELL commands. 

This simple program could 
be used to replace any single 
character in a file with any 
string of characters. For exam- 
ple, if you're writing a paper 
about pneumonoultramlcrosco- 
picsilicovolcanoconlosis and 
you don't want to type the 
word two or three times in 
each paragraph, you can use 
a symbol, such as @, that 
doesn't appear elsewhere in 
the piece. Then use your 



search and replace or this BA- 
SIC program to substitute the 
word for the symbol wherever 
it appears. Just change line 7 
to read as follows. 

IF byleS = "@" then 
byleS="pneumonoultramicrD 
scopicsificovolcanocaniosis" 

Many Questions 

Ads often say. for example, 
that a computer has an SOfvlB 
hard disk and a 1.44MB flop- 
py disk. What's the difference 
between the two, and why 
are both needed? Are all com- 
puters IBM PC compatible? 
Does that mean they're iden- 
tical to IBfVl PCs? I've read 
that PRINT and INPUT have 
the same function. Is that 
true? Do fax machines use 
the same ASCII as comput- 
ers? 

WALT HERRMAN 
ARLINGTON, TX 

A hard disk is a permanently in- 
stalled medium v/ith a large stor- 
age capacity, and a floppy 
disk is a removable medium 
with a small storage capacity. 
You need both. Software pub- 
lishers generally sell or license 
their programs on floppy 
disks, but you'll usually need 
to install these programs on 
your hard disk before you can 
use them. To install a program, 
you copy it from the floppies to 
the hard disk. 

Not all computers are IBM 
compatible, though all PCs 
are. Amigas, Macintoshes, 
Atari STs NeXTs, DEC VAX ma- 
chines, and so forth aren't IBM 
compatible. Generally, if a com- 
puter can run MS-DOS, it's 
called IBM compatible, 
though It may not be identical 
or even similar to the original 
IBM PC. 

Both PRINT and INPUT are 
capable of printing a message 
to the screen. Once PRINT 
has printed its message, the 
program moves on to the next 
Instruction. After INPUT has 



40 COMPUTE MAY 1393 






lie. Tlial's [he; 
/ith nif^htsiiiuila 
.: MalliiixJ offers thi 
st)un"t],. ^aphics and a 

.:}f\ icri)?.i,/f !:r\FI iHlu^Sii 
t Take the chnir.fj 



nearii yoii. Suddeiiiy, yo 
mu'lt .[^cc when yoi.i GEA 
ams Iroin'MallEvrd Sn(rw;w^ 
nplctc line <it' scenery-,' 
pidfsand tlighr .kh-cntmv^ 
Ihcre^libly realistic 
ilying experience. 
iraffic CoiitroUefiind aini- 



fine betore; pionecnrig the 



ul ihi: skies from nnTfm^ly Jirfoi-L-ni- perspecrivfj. 



tipn, att^^^B^Khe, intellectual challenge of l-iuildinjj 
;i ci\'tli:atihn 'M-a!l?ird pnxlticta offer you uuriiatctied real- 
is^m in simiilatidTys." ;' 

So if yi>u're a Flight Simulator®- pilot looking for a 
little more 'wiki'ih .your blue yotulcr then Mallard Soft- ' 
wart' has thegear [opisr the' workl anii even the moon at 
yiHir fingertips. , ' ■ 



, Tiifindoutijiore.jusrcair' , ■ 



it^-igfe © )993 MaiW So/niM«. i^ljmxJlictreorES (0*^^^ 



y ofjMr risfenii^.fflt'ners. 



Circle Reader Service Number 305 



When the world 

is out of balance, 

someone has to tip 

the scales! 




fi^ magical scroll reveals that the 
n source of the deadly magic 
storms ond disease \r\ Britannia lies 
on the Serpent Isle. 




|rom o full-length view, you 
I selecf clothing, armor, weapons 
and other items you'll carry on your 
journey through the Twin Pillars 
of Fire. 




toryline picks up where Ultima 
Vil The Black Gale' ended. 
Game feotures new terroin and 
magic, and an unexplored region 
of Britannio. 

mmM 

SERPENT 
ISLE' 



yUeCA^^'^'^''^ 



Ulitmo >i o i«glt1ercd fujdfltrmrfe ^^f RichEn-il OdrrkiM, Tho Bisck 

Oof*. S4rp>;ni Ute and vhe diiiiniHva ORIGIN \o^<i or* 

rradoFjiorki ef OfllGEN Sj-sii^fn*, Int. W« tji-cio woildi ii a 

rx^isrorird trvd^m^^rfc of OBIGIN ^yttt-^i k.i:. 



FEEDBACK 



printed its message, the program stops 
and awaits user input. To see the differ- 
ence, run this simple program. 

PRINT "This is a PRINT command. As soon 
as It's finished printing to the screen, tlie 
program will move on to the next com- 
mand." 

INPUT "This Is an INPUT command. When 
this message is finished printing to ttie 
screen, the program will pause and wait 
for user input. Type your name.";a$ 

FOR l = 0TO1D:PRINTaS:NEXT 

And finally, fax machines don 't use any 
kind of ASCII. The Information that 
comes over the tine from one fax ma- 
chine to another is strictly graphical 
information. One fax machine sends 
the shapes of the letters it sees on a 
page to another fax machine, which 
prints the graphical information on a 
sheet of paper it doesn 't send the let- 
ters themselves as ASCII or any other 
kind of code. 

Software is available, however that 
can interpret the shapes sent by a fax 
machine and turn them into ASCII 
code. This software is called optical char- 
acter recognition (or OCR) software. 

Boxing Revolution 

I'm trying to create drop caps in Micro- 
soft Word for Windows. I place a large 
letter in a frame and wrap text around 
it to create a large initial capital. Unfor- 
tunately, the box has an outline, which 
detracts from the appearance of my 
text. What can I do? 

SUNNY SINGH 
QUEENS, NY 

The problem Is that the frame has an 
■jtline. You can eliminate the outline of 
your frame quite easily. Click on the 
frame with your mouse to select it, pull 
down the Format menu, select Border, 
and click on the button marked None. 

Terms of Estrangement 

I'm confused about the terminology 
used in computer advertising, such as 
386-40DX 64K Cache: 486-33 Cyrix: 
486-33 EISA, 256K Cache; and 486- 
66 DX2. A short explanation of the 
significance of these terms would be 
appreciated. 

FRED BELL 
ARLINGTON. VA 

Sure. Happy to oblige. The 386 is a 32- 
bit CPU. The 486 is a faster version of 
the same chip. If it's a 486DX, it has an 
operating floating-point math coproces- 
sor which helps speed up certain 
spreadsheets and CAD programs. A 



Editor 

Art Director 

Managing Editor 

Features Editor 

Reviews Editor 

Editor. Gazette 

Editor, Amiga Resource 

Senior Copy Editor 

Copy Editor 

Editorial Assistant 

Contributing Editors 

intern 



CI f:on Karnes 

Robin C Case 

David English 

Robari BixOy 

M'ke Huanaii 

Tom Nelsei 

Denny All-m 

Karen Hulfman 

Wargarel Ramsey 

Poiiy Cilipam 

Sylvia Gra'.narn. Eddie Hiitfrnan. 

Tony Roberts, Karen Siepai< 

Kim Havlena 



Kent! Ferreli 
David Hensley Jr 
SyOil Agee 
Julia Fieming 
Lisa G Casinger 
Lc-VVanda Fox 



ART 
AiBlfttant Art Director Kenneth A, Ha'dy 
Designer Kate Wurdock 
Copy Production Manager Terry Cash 

PRODUCTION 

Production Manager De Potter 

Traftic Manager Barbara A. V^l iams 

PROGRAMMiNG i ONLINE SERVICES 

Manager Tfoy Tuci<t!r 
Programmers Bruce M Bowdan 
Steve Draper 
Bradley M Small 
ADMINISTRATION 
President COO Kairiy Keeton 
Executive Vice Presirient, William Tynan 
Operations 
Etjitorial Director 
Operations Manager 
Oflice Manager 
Sr, Administrative Assistant 
Administrative Assistant 
Receptionist 

ADVERTISING 
Vice President, Peter T Johnsr^eyer 
Associate Publisher |2t2) 496-6100 

AOVERTISING SALES OFHCES 

East Coast Rjlt-Page and Standard Dsplay Aas— Peter T Jol^ns- 
meyer. Chris Coeiho: COMPUTE Publications international Lid . 
I96S Broadway, Nev/ Yorl<, NY ttX)23, (212) J96-6100. South. 
east-Harriet Rogers, 503 A SI , SE, Wasnmgton, DC. 20003; 
(202) S'!6-5926 Fiarida— J M Hemer Associates, 3300 NE 
192nd St , Suite 192, Aventura. FL 33130. (305) 933- UB7, (305) 
933-8302 (FAX). Midwest— Full-Page and Standard Display 
AdS"Slarr Lane. National Af:counts (Manager. 1 1 1 East Wack- 
er Dr.. Suite 508, Chicago, IL 60601; (312) 819-0900, (312) 319- 
0813 (FAX) (Northwest — Jerry Tlnompson, Jules E Thompson 
Co , 1290 Howard Ave , Suile 303, Burimgame, CA 94010: (i15) 
349-8222 Lucille Dennis, (707)451-8209 Soothftest— Ian Ling- 
wood, 6728 Eton Ave , Canoga Park, CA 91303; (813) 992- 
4777 Product Mart Ads— Lucille Dennis, Jules E Thompson 
Co , 1290 Hov,ard Ave,, S'j.te 303, Burlingame, CA94010: (707) 
45 1 -8209 U K & Europe— Beverly Wardale, Flat 2. 10 Stafford 
Terrace, London ',V87 BH. England; 011-4711-937-1517. Ja- 
pan— -Intergrouo Commun'catiDns. Ltd., Jiro Se'nba. Presiaeni; 
3F Tiger BIdg 5-22 Sniba-kagn. 3-Cnome. MinatQ l^u. Tokyo 
105. Japan: 03.434.2607, passilied Ads— Ma'ia Manaseri. 1 
Woods Ct, Huntington. NY 11743; (TEL/FAX) (616) 757-9562. 

THE CORPORATION 

Bod Succiore (chairman and CEO) 

Karhy Keeton (v.ce-chairman) 

David J. Myerson (president and CEO) 

William F, Marlseb (president, marfreting, sa^es and circuisticn) 

Patrick J Gavin [sensor vce president and CFO) 

Rchard Cohen {executive vice president aro treasurer) 

Jer Winston (executive vice president, corporate services) 

Hal Hsipner (vice president, director of manufacturing) 

William Tynan (vice president, tecnnoiOQv and information 

sen/icBS) 

AOVERTISINC AND MARKETING 

Sr, VP/Corp- Dir,, HeVi Business Development: Beverly 
Wardale; VP/Dir , Group Advertising Sales. Nancy Kestenbaum; 
Sr. VP/Souinern and Midwest Advertising Dir Peter Goldsmith, 
Offices: New York 1965 Broadway, fJewYork, NY 10023-5965, 
Tel (212)496-6100, Telex 23712S Midwesi, 111 East Wacker 
Dr , Suite 508, Chicago, IL 60601, (312) 819-0900 (312) 619- 
0813 (FAX) South 1725 K St t^W, Suite 903. Washinglon. DC 
20006. Tel (202) 728-0320. West Coast 672B Eton Ave . Can- 
oga Park, CA 91303, Tel. (613) 992-4777. UK and Europe: Fiat 
2. lOSrallordTerrace. London wa7BH. England; Tel. 01 1-4711- 
937-1517 Japan: Intergroup Jirc Semba. TalGK 
J254691GLTYO, Fax 434-5970 Korea' Kaya Advtsng,, Inc., Rm. 
402 Kunshin Annex B/0 251-1. Oohwa Dong, Mapo-Ku, Seoul. 
Korea (121), Tel 719-6906, Telex K32144Kayaad 

ADMINISTRATION 
Sr, VP, CFO: Patrick J, Gavin. EVP/Corporate Se'vices. Jen Win- 
ston, EVP/Grapnics Director Frank Devmp, EVPyCirculation 
James B Marlise; VP Director Sales Prcmotions Beverly Grei- 
pet, Dir Newsstand Circulation: Paul Rolnick; Dir,, Newsstand 
Operations Joe GallO: Dir. Subscnotion CirculatFOn: Diane Mor- 
genihaler, VP Director of Fesearch: Robert Ratlner. Advertising 
Production Director: Charlene Smith. Advertising Production Traf- 
fic Mgr Pam Rizk; Traffic Dir William Harbuti; Dir , Budget and 
Finance: Tom f;1aiey; Prod-jction Mgr Tom Stmson, Asst Produc- 
tion Mgr: Nancy Rice, Mgr,, Iniernationai Div,: George Rojas: 
Exec Asst, to Bob t^uttcions: Diane O'Connell. Exec, Asst. Id 
David J Myerson: Ten Pisani; Special Asst to Bob Guccione- 
Jane Homiish. 



Circle Reader Service Number 192 



ii:^ • ■■ '^- 




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Circle Header Service Number 307 



486SX has no operating coprocessor. 

A cache is a special area of RAM 
used for holding information frequent- 
ly read from the hard disk. By retaining 
that information in fl4/W. the CPU can 
access it much faster than it could if It 
had to go back to the hard disk each 
time it needed the information. A large 
cache is generally better than a small 
cache, although, at some point, finding 
information in a cache is as time-con- 
suming as finding it on a disk, so you 
don't want a cache that's too large. 

Most CPUs are made by Intel, but 
competitors have recently entered the 
market, one of which is Cyrix A Cyrix 
486 is similar to an Intel 486. 

EISA is a bus architecture. Most com- 
puters have 16-bit ISA (Industry Stan- 
dard Architecture) buses. When the 
386 appeared, it was a 32-bit chip, so 
two new kinds of buses emerged to 
take advantage of this: the EISA (Ex- 
tended ISA) bus and the MCA (Micro 
Channel Architecture) bus. The EISA is 
compatible with the ISA. but the MCA 
isn't. Therefore, if you're planning to 
move any old cards into your new com- 
puter, you should look for an ISA or an 
EISA bus computer 

DX2 is a speed-doubling technolo- 
gy. It allows a 25-MHz CPU to operate 
internally like a 50-MHz CPU, and it al- 



lows a 33-MHz CPU to work like a 66- 
MHz CPU. Oddly this doesn 't really 
double the speed of the computer be- 
cause all external functions must stilt 
be carried out at the CPU's rated 
speed (25 or 33 MHz in these exam- 
ples). However it will make a comput- 
er noticeably faster 

All You Hove to Do Is ASC 

I recently upgraded to QuickBASIC 4.5, 
and it's fantastic. What I need to do is 
load in some GW-BASIC programs. 
How can you save a GW-BASIC pro- 
gram so that QuickBASIC can read it? 

JUSTIN CASCAGNETT 
GRAWN. Ml 

QuickBASIC's editor reads and writes 
simple ASCII files. You could use its edi- 
tor to write anything — not just BASIC pro- 
grams, but letters, papers, and so on — 
simply by turning off its syntax checking 
(pull down the Options menu and select 
Syntax Checking: to turn it back on. 
pull down the Options menu and select 
Syntax Checking again). Because early 
computers had such limited RAM and 
disk storage capacities, GW-BASIC 
saves its files in a highly compressed 
tokenized format. To save a GW-BASIC 
file 'in ASCII format, simply type save "ba- 
sicfil.bas",a and press Enter The BASIC 



program will be saved in a QuickBASIC- 
readable ASCII format. 

Zoned Again 

Your cities are in reverse order in the pro- 
gram Zone ("Feedback," January 1993). 
They should start with the time zone you 
are in and proceed east, not west. Also, 
there are places in the world where 
time zones are separated by 45 min- 
utes, 30 minutes, and 15 minutes. 

WALTER W, WOLFE 
WINSTON-SALEM, NC 

You're right. Please reverse the order of 
the DATA lines in ZONE. B AS. As to the 
other it's apparently true that some 
parts of the world don't separate time 
zones by the hour as we do here. 



Readers whose letters appear in "Feed- 
back " will receive a free COMPUTE's 
PC clock radio while supplies last. Do 
you have a question about hardware or 
software? Or have you discovered 
something that could help other PC us- 
ers? If so, we want to hear from you. 
Write to COMPUTE'S Feedback. 324 
West Wendover Avenue, Suite 200, 
Greensboro, North Carolina 27408. We 
regret that we cannot provide person- 
al replies to technical questions. ~J 



MAv 1993 COMPUTE 



43 





WINDOWS PROGRAMMING: AS EASY AS PIE 



EASY WINDOWS 
PROGRAMMING 




Making the leap into 
Windows programming 
is mucii easier tlian it 
once was. Five years ago, wlien I 
first liired a Windows program- 
mer, it was a given tliat the candi- 
date would l^now C intimately and 
tliat I'd liave to spend nine 
monttis training that programmer. 
Now, there's a middle ground; 
programming systems for the rest 
of us. Three new products, Visual 
Basic and Access by fvlicrosoft 
and Borland's ObjectVision, make 
programming in Windows simple 
enough to be possible for the 
novice yet powerful enough to be 
used by professional consultants. 
COMPUTE chose these three 
programs among many other 
capable, "easy" development 
environments because each one 
strikes the right balance in a com- 
plex mix of features, stability, 
price, documentation, raw power, 
and third-party support, Each is 
relatively open, and each can be 
extended in some way using C. 
All of them allow you to program 
the application's user interface 
visually, using the mouse to posi- 
tion controls such as buttons and 
scroll bars. All are programmable 
to some extent, and ail allow you 
to place Windows bitmaps in your 
applications and to interact with 
the Clipboard, DDE, and OLE. 



The price range is dramatic: 
SI 49,95 for ObjectVision and 
S1 99.00 for Visual Basic to 
S495.00 for Access. But that 
doesn't even tell the whole story. 
Borland offers generous runtime 
license terms for ObjectVision, 
allowing you to distribute, at no 
extra cost, a version of the pro- 
gram that can be used to execute 
but not create applications. You 
can also distribute your Visual 
Basic programs. But Access 
doesn't come with a runtime mod- 
ule; for that, you pay an extra 
S495,00 for the Access 
Developer's Kit— a total invest- 
ment of SI ,000.00 if you want oth- 
ers to use your Access programs 
without owning Access itself. On 
the other hand, Access is a much 
more powerful tool than 
ObjectVision, and while both pro- 
grams emphasize (but are not lim- 
ited to) database development, its 
price is in line with similar high- 
end database developer's tools 
such as FoxPro and dBASE IV. 

There's a point at which all 
such "easy-to-use" solutions 
begin to resist you, a point at 
which flexibility must lose to ease 
of use. I call this the wall, because 
there is no way to get over this 
obstacle when you come to it. You 
can do anything in Windows with 
C. You can do almost everything 



BY TOM CAMPBELL 



you need to do in Windows with Visual 
Basic, but at some point you may need 
a custom control or DLL written in C to 
get over the wall. Access reaches that 
point sooner for nondatabase applica- 
tions, but it never comes close to the 
wall in databases. ObjectVision hits the 
wall much earlier than the others, but 
it's a lot less expensive. When you are 
ready choose your next Windows pro- 
gramming tool, you'd better know just 
where the wall is. 

Visual Basic — For Just Plain 
Volks 

Arguably the most famous of this trio 
of products is Visual Basic 2.0, the 
Volkswagen of Windows program- 
ming. After the release of the DOS 
classic QuickBASIC in 1987, 
Microsoft seemed to be floundering a 
bit. But the release of Visual Basic in 
1991 wiped away any doubts skep- 
tics might have had that Microsoft 
pretty much owned the BASIC market. 
Visual Basic wasn't very compatible 
with QuickBASIC 4.5, but the market 
responded appropriately, buying the 
product in droves because it made 
programming Windows easy and, 
well, fun. Programmers had used 
QuickBASIC by the millions, but they 
understood that fvlicrosoft couldn't be 
expected to retain compatibility with 
the masterful DOS product without 
fatally crippling Windows hackers. 

Visual Basic iives up to its name, 
being both visual and basic. Its 
biggest departure from traditional 
BASICS is that you create the shell, or 
user interface, of the program first, 
plucking such items as push buttons, 
text boxes, and scroll bars from a 
toolbox at the left of the screen (don't 
worry, northpaws. you can move the 
toolbox anywhere) and positioning 
them on a window. Inexplicably, 
Microsoft, the company that invented 
Windows, refers to these windows as 
forms, not windows. You can have 
hundreds of these forms — windows — 
in a program. Visual Basic knows how 
to redraw them and the objects on 
them, a skill that saves you untold 
hundreds or thousands of iines of 
code per application. But this skill 
comes at a price: Visual Basic pro- 
grams that haven't been scrupulously 
optimized for memory usage can 
bring the system to its knees for sev- 
eral seconds at a time, neither warn- 
ing you nor deigning to put up that 
informative, if reviled, hourglass icon 
while it sorts out its memory situation. 
You then add code to these objects — 
forms, buttons, edit fieids, and so 
forth — to create your program. 

Each control has a property list 

46 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



I OBJEQVISION 

'I FOR WINDOWS 






^ OEJECn^SIOM 




BORLAND 






Objectvision: Create applications in hours. 




Access: Extensive database development. 

that appears automatically when you 
select the item at design time, and 
property lists can easily run into the 
dozens of items. They are very well 
organized and ruthlessly logical, to 
the point that you can often guess the 
name of the property even if you're 
only semifamiliar with Visual Basic. 
Controls can also fire events, and all 
the events you'd like or expect are 
there for you to attach code to. For 
example, not only can you write cus- 
tom code for a mouse clicking on the 
object, but you can also distinguish 
between mouse up and mouse down. 
There are events for the mouse mere- 
ly passing over the object, key-up 
and key-down events, and so on. 
There are controls for editing text, all 
kinds of buttons, combo boxes, list 
boxes, bitmap images, and even a 
spreadsheetlike grid control for dis- 
playing, but not editing, data. 

Notably missing from the standard 
edition are equivalents of 
QuickBASIC's OPEN COM, graphics. 



and IN and OUT statements. The 
graphics system is replaced by ver- 
sion 2.0's more Windows-like graph- 
ics controls and statements, but com- 
munications support is nil. You'll have 
to buy a third-party library or the Pro 
edition. As for IN and OtJT, forget it. 
Windows is not very amenable to 
direct access to your PC's hardware, 
but you'll almost never need it, 
because Windows has most of what 
you need built in. Still, be forewarned. 

Programmers of more traditional 
languages may suspect that this 
would appear to mean that a program 
can end up in the form of hundreds of 
little independent scraps of code and 
that a printout can be a real mess. 
You're right, and that's the good 
news! The bad news is that it took 
until the release of version 2.0 late in 
1992 for Microsoft to give Visual Basic 
the ability to print properties as well. 
Not until version 2.0 could I recom- 
mend Visual Basic to any program- 
ming teams or to programmers who 
rely on printouts. You can print, and 
now when you enter programs in its 
built-in editor, keywords, comments, 
variables, and constants can be 
shown in different colors, allowing 
extremely quick syntax checking. 

Visual Basic's most innovative fea- 
ture is custom controls. Suppose, for 
example, you wanted to add low-level 
MIDI handling to Visual Basic. You 
could write a custom control using the 
new multimedia extensions, give it an 
icon in the shape of a musical note, 
and voila! Users could add that note 
to their toolboxes as if it had been 
installed at the factory. That's pretty 
much what Visual Basic Professional 
Edition is, as a matter of fact. For 
$495 you get additions to Visual Basic 
for graphing, communications, three- 
dimensional controls, high-level multi- 
media (no low-level MIDI, darn it), 
funky animated buttons, spin buttons, 
electronic mail, and more. With the 
package, you also get the Control 
Development Kit, which lets you write 
new controls in C, utilities to let you 
add real Microsoft Help to your appli- 
cations, and support for fvlicrosoffs 
ODBC, which is an attempt at forging 
a standard for communications 
among disparate computer types and 
other brands of databases. 

Of the programs mentioned in this 
article, Visual Basic is easily the most 
versatile and certainly the most fun. 
The sample applications range from 
crisply competent to mind-boggling, 
its evolution has been swift and sure, 
its popularity is unparalleled in the 
Windows world, and it has a gigantic 
attermarket. Visual Basic is so modu- 





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lar that the Pro additions were pacl<- 
aged in a separate, tragically unin- 
dexed manual and a couple of extra 
disks, i loved using Pro, but if you're 
on a budget, the standard edition of 
Visual Basic is the standout bargain 
of this group. 

Access Makes the Heart Grow 
Fonder 

Microsoft's star database program 
was years in tfie making and threat- 
ens to take firm control of the 




Visual Basic: Modular, versatile, and 



Windows market. That product is 
FoxPro 2.5 for Windows — no, wait! It's 
Sybase. No, wait! It's SQL Server. No, 
it's not any of those! It's Cirrus. At 
least that's the name you'll find on a 
few pages of the Access manual and 
one or two places in the online help. 
The product, of course, is Access, 
and I'll stick my neck out on this one. 
Access, code-named Cirrus during Its 
turbulent six-year gestation, is by far 
the most significant microcomputer 
database product since dBASE II. 



Glossary 



Although the programming environ- 
ments covered in this article are all 
pretty easy to use, sometimes the 
jargon gets to be a bit much. Here's 
a translation of some of the less obvi- 
ous terms. 

binary and source compati- 
ble. Visual Basic and Access Basic 
programs go from an English-like 
appearance, as in Printer.Print "hello, 
world", to a predigested form that 
BASfC can run more quickly. The 
first representation is called source, 
and the second is called binary. 

custom controls. A function in 
Visual Basic. Custom controls let you 
draw buttons, combo boxes, and so 
forth on a form from a toolbox that C 
programmers can extend. Adhering 
to a relatively simple set of program- 
ming guidelines. C programmers 
can create custom controls that 
automatically appear on the toolbox, 
as if Microsoft had supplied them 
with Visual Basic, without changing 
Visual Basic itself. 

DDE. Dynamic Data Exchange. 
DDE is the precursor of OLE and a 
way for Windows applications to 
communicate. This lets programs 
control other programs behind the 
scenes without the user's knowledge 
or interference. See OLE, 

development environment. 
The overall set of tools a program- 
mer employs to create Windows 
applications. For example. Access 
lets you design databases, enter 
data, create labels, program in 
BASIC, and so on, each in separate 
program modules. These modules 
are seamlessly integrated into the 
Access development environment. 
Likewise, ObjectVision's develop- 
ment environment consists of differ- 
ent modules for visual program 



design, database creation, data 
entry, and so on. 

DLL. Dynamic Link Library. DLL 
is a standard formi of program that 
virtually all Windows programming 
environments can use; consequent- 
ly, a DLL written in C can be used 
from Pascal or BASIC. Windows itseif 
is a collection of DLLs. It's important 
that a programming environment be 
able to use DLLs so that third parties 
can fashion solutions not possible in 
that environment. 

easy to learn. Easy to acquire 
knowledge, as opposed to putting it 
to good use. It's easy to learn how to 
jog, for example, but it's not easy to 
run a marathon. See easy to use. 

easy to use. Easy to put knowl- 
edge to work on a routine basis. If 
you're a good typist, then taking your 
hands off the keyboard to copy text 
to the Windows Clipboard is counter- 
productive, even though the Clip- 
board is easy to learn, But if you've 
learned the product and have dis- 
covered that you can also copy 
using Ctrl-C, which isn't quite as 
easy to learn as using the mouse, 
then you'll find that product much 
easier to use, 

event driven. Programs that 
work according to menu commands 
and mouse clicks are event driven, It 
turns out that writing a program that 
can respond to a Cancel button at 
any time or that aliows the user to 
choose Exit from the File menu at 
any time requires a much different 
perspective than writing a program 
which forces the user to do things in 
a particular order. Programming 
Windows in C requires an enormous 
amount of forethought because you 
have to account manually for every 
possible click and command, tasks 



that the programming tools in this 
article handle as automatically as is 
possible. 

OLE. Object Linking and Em- 
bedding. In practice this means the 
ability to represent as pictures or 
icons in a program the application 
that created them. If you create a 
logo in the Microsoft Draw applet 
that comes with Microsoft Word, you 
can double-click on that logo, and 
OLE will automatically kick Draw into 
action, without your having to know 
what and where it is. 

runtime distribution. Writing 
a program in a programming lan- 
guage doesn't necessarily mean you 
can give it away. That's because 
some languages require that the 
development system be present for 
the program to be run. Since you 
may not be able to afford to buy a 
copy of Visual Basic for everyone 
who uses your program, for exam- 
ple, you'll need to use its runtime 
module. The runtime consists of a 
version of the language that can be 
used to execute but not modify pro- 
grams written in that language. 
When you purchase a programming 
environment, you must find out 
whether distribution is free; some 
companies charge a substantial 
amount for each copy you distribute. 

text box. A tiny, stripped-down 
word processor that lets you enter 
up to 32,000 characters in a pro- 
grammer-defined box onscreen, 

VisiCalc. The first spreadsheet, 
a precursor to 1 -2-3. VisiCalc is sig- 
nificant in that it allowed users to 
manipuiate numbers instantly and 
through direct visual interaction, 
which was impossible before com- 
puters. It's considered a break- 
through product for that reason. 



48 



COMPUTE MAY 1993 



Access is a skillful blend of data- 
base manager, forms designer, 
reports designer, and BASIC dialect 
that makes every other data manager 
on the market pale by comparison, It 
uses Windows beautifully, always 
allowing you to do visually tfie tasks 
that ordinarily require laborious typ- 
ing. In one memorable CompuServe 
exchange, a user bemoaned the fact 
that in dBASE he could copy a data- 
base in one line of code but that it 
took an unbearable number of opera- 
tions in Access. He was unaware that 
all he had to do was copy and then 
paste using the Windows Clipboard! 
Truly, Access combines ease of use 
with extraordinary power in a way that 
no program since VisiCalc has been 
able to match. 

Microsoft has made the mistake of 
marketing Access as an end-user 
tool, and it's certainly not that. Yes, a 
dedicated manual reader with a lot of 
time to spare could pick up Access, 
but it's not as easy as Microsoft 
claims. No program this powerful 
could be. If you're a database jock, 
you'll probably be simultaneously 
blown away by how easy some things 
are and stymied by tasks that a non- 
database user would find easy to 
accomplish. For example, Microsoft's 
FoxPro 2.5 for Windows does things 
in a very dBASE-like way, Adding a 
push button to your data entry form 
requires either the use of FoxPro's 
automated screen designer, which 
generates trillions of lines of code 
behind the scenes, or detailed knowl- 
edge of FoxPro's use of READ/GET (if 
you're not a dBASE or FoxPro user, 
you can — and should — safely ignore 
this sentence). The upshot of it is that 
dBASE users moving to Access will 
have difficulty coming to terms with 
the idea that a push button on an 
Access program requires no code at 
all and that the READ/GET idea has 
no place in the Access way of doing 
things. Windows users who haven't 
yet been sullied by dBASE experi- 
ence will, on the other hand, be 
instantly comfortable with this para- 
digm and would no doubt be horrified 
at the thought of having to cope with 
dBASE's consistent, if twisted, 
READ/GET scheme. The same goes 
for Paradox users, and it seems to me 
that Microsoft would have done well 
to include short chapters on Access 
for dBASE users. Access for Paradox 
users, and so on. 

Having warned you that Access is 
like no other product, I can tell you 
the best thing about it: It's like no 
other product. I became so produc- 
tive in Access in such a short time 



Buying Information 

Access 

Requires 2MB RAM (4MB recom- 
mended), hard disk with 8MB free, 
and Windows 3.0 or higher. 
$495.00 
Microsoft 

One Microsoft Way 
Redmond, WA 98052-6399 
(800) 227-4679 

ObjectVision 

Requires 2MB RAM, hard disk with 

2.5MB free, and Windows 3.0 or 

higher. 

$149.95 

Borland international 

P.O. Box 660001 

Scotts Valley, CA 95066-0001 

(800)331-0877 

Visual Basic 

Requires 1MB RAM, hard disk with 

6MB free, and Windows 3.0 or higher. 

$199.00 

Microsoft 

One Microsoft Way 

Redmond, WA 98052-6399 

(800) 227-4679 



that I decided to convert my entire 
business to Access, even though I 
was in the middle of coding it in 
another language. It's that good. If 
you're reading this article because 
you're thinking of learning a new 
Windows language, mark my words. 
Access is the best way imaginable for 
you to start making money as a con- 
sultant. The lion's share of real-life 
consulting gigs requires database 
work. Since Access is a new product, 
you'd be well served to learn it thor- 
oughly now, while it's new and you 
have a chance to become the first 
Access guru in town. There are hun- 
dreds of books on dBASE and mil- 
lions of lines of useful code written in 
dBASE and its variants, such as 
Clipper and FoxPro, it's also reason- 
ably simple to learn dBASE dialects. 
Until now, I've advised the would-be 
consultant to learn FoxPro or Clipper 
for those very reasons, and I take tra- 
dition dead seriously — maintaining old 
code is usually a programmer's bread 
and butter. Clipper may not be state- 
of-the-art, but it supports an awful lot 
of freelancers. So when I tell you that 
Access is so much better than these 
trusted standards that you should 
make it your first database develop- 
ment system, you must realize that it's 
not a snap judgment on my part. 



And to some extent, you can 
hedge your bets, because Access 
can use Paradox, dBASE, FoxPro 1 .0, 
and BTrieve files as easily as its own 
propnetary format. This lets you audi- 
tion Access while using the data files 
you're used to, quite possibly without 
disrupting daily operations at all. 
Once you get more committed to 
Access, it can convert them to its own 
format transparently. Microsoft once 
had a history of ignoring the market 
leaders when it came out with its own 
products and then wondering why 
people didn't go for an obviously 
superior solution. Excel started a new 
trend with its 1-2-3 macro and work- 
sheet conversions. Word for Windows 
continued the trend by bending over 
backward trying to accommodate 
WordPerfect users, and now Access 
is going for the jugular by offering 
data file compatibility with all the cur- 
rent market leaders. This is good 
because it allows cautious users to 
make the transition at their own 
speed. (Ironically, Access won't han- 
dle FoxPro 2.0 or higher data files, 
even though FoxPro is a Microsoft 
product, but full version 2.0 compati- 
bility will happen soon.) Access also 
surpasses every one of its competi- 
tors in its handling of multiple related 
databases, using an extension of the 
industry-standard SQL language that 
takes advantage of the standard while 
filling in its holes. 

If you're still not ready to program, 
you can go a long way in Access with 
its macros. Much more than a key- 
stroke-recording utility. Access 
macros are displayed in their own 
database grid and look a lot like 
English. You can create and edit them 
interactively to produce a turnkey 
application without ever knowing 
Access Basic. You can also start off 
by adding tiny snippets of Access 
Basic to formulas or user interface 
objects and working up from there, 
supplementing your macros with 
Access Basic as necessary. 

When you're ready to go all the 
way and dive into Access Basic, you'll 
find it well documented in two of its 
four superb manuals. If you're a Visual 
Basic user, you'll find Access happily 
similar to it, but as Microsoft is wont to 
do with its wild profusion of BASICs. 
it's neither binary nor source compati- 
ble with Access. Unlike the switch 
from QuickBASIC to Visual Basic, 
which was painful but necessary, I'm 
on the fence about Visual Basic ver- 
sus Access. The addition of a C-like 
SWITCH statement was fine, because 
there was nothing like it in Visual 
Basic, but incompatible handling of 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE 49 



properties is mucin less forgivable. 

My complaints about Access are 
so picayune that they serve only to 
illustrate how well conceived the 
product is in general. Access calls 
databases tables, which is fine, but it 
calls the entire application (which 
consists of tables, forms, reports, pro- 
gram code, macros, and queries) a 
database. Ouch! It also lacks a way to 
create databases — uh, tables — under 
program control, so if you're writing 
an application for someone else, you 
must include empty databases — that 
is, tables — to ensure they can get 
started, And as stated, distributing an 
application to someone who doesn't 
own Access requires the one-time 
purchase of Microsoft's $495 Access 
Developer's Kit, which contains noth- 
ing more than a chopped-down ver- 
sion of Access that can't be used to 
create programs. Given that this is 
only the first version of the product, 
I'm astounded I couldn't come up with 
more substantial problems, 

Ob[e<tVision — ^A Cloudier 
Picture 

Borland seems to be stumbling a bit 
with ObjectVision, but it's still a worthy 
product. ObjectVision lets you design 
and use databases in dBASE, 



Paradox, and BTrieve format. You can 
make use of all the standard Windows 
controls such as list boxes, radio but- 
tons, and so on. ObjectVision doesn't 
exactly sport a programming lan- 
guage, but you can build complete 
applications using what looks like a 
flow-chart designer. I have never felt 
entirely comfortable with this ap- 
proach, but many other users took to 
it like ducks to water. More objective- 
ly, the program lacks certain classics 
such as loops, and you have to 
kludge substitutes. 

Like Access, ObjectVision lets you 
create data-entry forms that simulta- 
neously update databases in any or 
all of its supported database formats, 
and it makes database design and 
querying a snap. There's full Windows 
font support for its forms and reports; 
as long as your application remains 
simple, you can go from nothing to a 
ready-to-go application in a matter of 
hours. If you work for the kind of client 
who likes to hover around until every 
field is spaced just so, ObjectVision 
won't let you down. Better, it costs a 
mere $149.95— and that includes the 
rights to a runtime module that you 
can distribute freely with your applica- 
tions. But it hits the wall earlier than 
Access or Visual Basic. Borland's 




solution is ObjectVision Professional, 
but I found it by far the most difficult 
to use of all these systems. Object- 
Vision Professional is a loose bundling 
of Borland's older C-i-+ development 
system for Windows, and the docu- 
mentation on extending ObjectVision 
with C is absolutely atrocious. At 
$495.00, it's simply too complicated, 
too expensive, and too badly docu- 
mented to compete with Access at 
that same price. 

Which Is Right for You? 

It's not hard to find a constituency for 
each of these products. 

Visual Basic is the hands-down 
winner for versatility, offering the best 
feature-per-dollar value. If you're a 
hobbyist or if you aren't quite sure 
which direction to go, you can't go 
wrong with Visual Basic. If money is 
no object or communications support 
is of utmost importance, get the Pro 
edition, but the standard edition is a 
tremendous value. You can distribute 
your programs free. 

Access is your only choice if you 
plan to do extensive Windows data- 
base development. It took six years to 
write Access, and that care shows. Its 
BASIC, while not quite as rich as 
Visual Basic, makes it as capable as 
any other database now on the mar- 
ket. What pulls it past all its Windows 
and DOS competitors is a tightly inte- 
grated development environment sec- 
ond to none. Access is not simple to 
learn, but it is incredibly simple to use 
and will make you more productive 
than any other database product. Use 
it if you plan to develop inventory, 
accounting, PIM, or office automation 
programs. If you will want to distribute 
your programs to nonusers, you'll 
need to spring for the $495 
Developer's Kit, so be sure to budget 
for both if necessary, 

ObjectVision will get you in and out 
of simple database chores with the 
least trouble of any of these, but it will 
also get you into trouble faster 
because it's the least programmable. 
If you don't want to commit to a full 
development system, ObjectVision's 
seductive S149.95 price may be all 
the persuasion you need. Just make 
sure your programming needs will 
never go beyond simple, because 
you may not get past the wall. 

All of these three new development 
environments are powerful, capable, 
well supported, and good investments. 
Be aware of your current needs, expe- 
rience, and future needs. Then it will 
be clear which system is for you. Soon 
you'll find that programming in 
Windows is as easy as pie. □ 



50 COMPUTE MAY 1M3 



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Circle Reader Service Number 296 



INTRODOS 



Tony Roberts 



BATCH FILE 
RUNAROUND 



Change the flow 

of your batch 

files, and you'll 

Increase 

their power. 



Most batch files are merely col- 
lections of DOS commands 
that run straight through from 
top to bottom, If you're adven- 
turous, however, you can su- 
percharge your batch files by 
interrupting the linear flow, 

CALL (in DOS versions 3.3 
and higher) is a batch com- 
mand that allows you to create 
nested batch files. Normally, 
when one batch file is run 
from within another, full control 
is handed to the second file. 
Any commands in the first 
batch file that appear after ac- 
tivation of the second one are 
ignored. 

The CALL command, how- 
ever, suspends the first batch 
file until the second is finished. 
Then control returns to the 
first batch file, and processing 
continues. To achieve this, sim- 
ply place the keyword CALL be- 
fore the name of the second 
batch file. 

How can you use this? I like 
my computer to make my net- 
work connections automatical- 
ly when I boot up, but I'm not 
interested in cluttering up the 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file with a doz- 
en network commands. So I in- 
clude the command CALL 
GONET In the AUTOEX- 
EC.BAT. When the program 
runs, AUTOEXEC.BAT tempo- 
rarily gives control to GON- 
ETBAT When GONETBAT Is 
finished, AUTOEXEC.BAT 
picks up where it left off. 

This setup is extremely help- 
ful because I use a couple of 
TSR programs that don't work 
unless they're loaded after the 
network. If I weren't able to 
use CALL GONET I'd have to 
either include all the network 
commands in the AUTOEX- 
EC.BAT or manually install 
those TSRs after the network 
was initialized. 

Another way to change 
batch program flow is to use 



the GOTO command. GOTO 
lets your batch programs 
move in different directions de- 
pending on conditions. For ex- 
ample, you could create a sin- 
gle batch file called 
START BAT that contains start- 
up instructions for several 
programs. 

At the command line, you 
could type start wp, for exam- 
ple, and the batch file would 
jump to the WP section and 
start your word-processing pro- 
gram. Similarly, typing start 
win could activate Windows, 
or typing sfarf f/nance could ini- 
tialize your financial manage- 
ment software. 

This is accomplished with 
the GOTO command and la- 
bels. A label is a batch file line 
that begins with a colon. 
Here's how the STARTBAT pro- 
gram might look. You'll have to 
replace the REfvl lines with the 
appropriate commands for 
your system. 

©ECHO OFF 

GOTO %1 

GOTO end 

:wp 

REM Insert ward processor 

commands here. 
GOTO end 
:wtn 
REM Insert Windows startup 

commands here. 
GOTO end 
:flnance 
REM Insert financial manager 

commands here. 
GOTO end 
:end 

When the batch file is exe- 
cuted, the replaceable para- 
meter {the %1 in the first line) 
Is replaced with the first word 
you typed after the batch-file 
name. If you typed start wp, 
then the %1 would be re- 
placed with wp, and the 
batch file would jump to the 
:wp label and begin its execu- 
tion. Note the line GOTO end, 
following each section. This 
prevents the program from run- 



ning away with itself and exe- 
cuting the commands in eve- 
ry section. 

Now that you're getting 
used to the idea that batch 
files don't have to run in a 
straight line, let's create one 
that runs in circles. 

To do this, we'll combine 
the GOTO command and re- 
placeable parameters used in 
the previous example with the 
SHIFT command. Let's say 
you wanted to display three 
files on your screen, but you 
didn't want to type three sep- 
arate commands, We'll create 
a batch file, called T,BAT, to 
do this. To execute this file, 
you'll type t filet file2 fileS, 
filling in the names of your 
own files for filet, file2, 
and files. 

As you can see, we've en- 
tered three replaceable para- 
meters on the command line. 
The SHIR command takes all 
of the replaceable parame- 
ters and shuffles them to the 
left. After SHIFT is executed 
once, filel is gone, and file2 
is at the head of the list. Each 
time SHIFT is executed, a 
new parameter is available 
to be substituted for %1 
in the batch file. Here's the 
batch file: 

©ECHO OFF 

:start 

IF(%1)==()G0T0 end 

TYPE %1 MORE 

PAUSE 

SHIFT 

GOTO start 

:end 

In this program, the third 
line makes sure there's a re- 
placeable parameter availa- 
ble. If so, the TYPE command 
is executed. Then the SHIFT 
command shuffles the replace- 
able parameters, and the 
GOTO command loops the 
program back to the begin- 
ning. As long as a parameter 
remains on the stack, the loop- 
ing continues. D 



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TIPS & TOOLS 



Edited by Richard C. Leineci<er 



Calculate In DOS, 

extend your 

path, and share 

your machine. 



Command Line Calculations 

Everyone has a built-in calcu- 
lator that works from the DOS 
prompt. All it takes is QBA- 
SIC, which comes with DOS, 
and a special batch file 
called CALC.BAT. Here's the 
batch file. 

ECHO OFF 

IF"%1"=="" GOTO ERROR 

REM You must specify the correct 

REM path to which 

REM you want the CALC.BAS file 

REM to be created. 

SET CREATEDIR = 

C:\WORK\XY\CALC.BAS 
ECHO PRmT "The answer is "; 

> %CREATEDIR% 
ECHO 1 PRINT %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 

%6 7o7 %8 %9 » 

%GREATEDIR% 
ECHO 2 SYSTEM » 

%CREATEDIR% 
QBASIC /RUN %CREATED!R% 
REIVI Change the above line to 
REM GW-BASIC %CREATEDIR% 
REM or BASICA %CREATEDIR% 
REM for older versions of BASIC. 
SET CREATEDIR= 
GOTO END 
:ERROR 

ECHO You must specify the correct 
ECHO parameters! 
ECHO Usage: CALC <expression> 
ECHO For BASICA and GW-BASIC, 
ECHO make sure there are no 
ECHO spaces. 

ECHO The allowed sign operators 
ECHO are (+) lor addition, 
ECHO (-) for subtraction, (*) for 
ECHO multiplication, and 
ECHO (/) for division. 
:END 

This batch file works by first 
setting an environment varia- 
ble to the path that'll contain 
the CALC.BAS file. Before leav- 
ing the batch file, it's set to 
NULL. If you have another en- 
vironment variable named 
CREATEDIR, change this in 
the CALC.BAT file. 

Next, the batch file saves 
CALC.BAS, a BASIC source 
code listing. The BASIC pro- 
gram provides an answer to 
the arithmetic problem written 



as arguments on the com- 
mand line. 

Finally, the SYSTEfvl com- 
mand returns to DOS, 



ILYA TROYCHANSKY 
BROOKLYN, NY 



Extending Paths 

Sometimes I like fo add direc- 
tories to my path, but I don't 
want them permanently. 
Here's a handy batch file to 
do just that called PATH- 
SET. BAT. This batch file 
should only be used once in 
a session. Since it only ex- 
tends the existing path, you 
could easily create a danger- 
ously long path if you used 
this program multiple times. 

ECHO OFF 

IF"%1"=="" GOTO ERROR 

SET OLDPATH=%PATH% 

PATH=%0LDPATH%;%1;%2;%3;%4; 

%S;%6;%7;%8;%g 
GOTO END 
:ERROR 
ECHO Usage: PATHSET <appended 

path> <appended path> . . . 

<appen(fed path> 
:END 



ILYA TROYCHANSKY 
BROOKLYN. NY 



Windows Variety 

When you have to stare at the 
Windows screen for hours at 
a time, it's nice to have a 
change every so often. I'm 
constantly changing colors, 
screen savers, and most of all, 
wallpaper. This is the reason I 
developed a method of auto- 
matically rotating wallpaper 
when starting Windows. First, I 
turned off my wallpaper using 
the Control Panel icon and 
then the Desktop icon (this will 
avoid an error later). Next, I cre- 
ated a batch file called 
WIN2.BAT to run Windows 
and placed it in my path. 

ECHO OFF 

C: 

CD \WINDOWS 



REN FILED. BMP 
REN FILEI.BMP 
REN FILE2.BIVIP 
HEN FILE3.BMP 
REN FILE4.B(VIP 
REN FILE5.BMP 
WIN 



FILE5.BMP 
FILED.BMP 
FILEI.BMP 
FILE2.BMP 
FILE3.BMP 
FILE4.BMP 



Next, I renamed my five favor- 
ite wallpaper files to FILEO- 
,BMP. FILEI.BMP, FILE2- 
.BMR FILE3.BMR and FILE4- 
.BMP (remember to start with 
0). 'Vou can easily change the 
number of wallpaper files. Fi- 
nally, I entered Control Panel 
again and changed my wallpa- 
per to FILED. BMP 

There is one limitation to 
this system in that all of your 
wallpaper tiles must be tiled 
or centered. 

To invoke Windows with 
the wallpaper-cycling system, 
1 just type win2 instead of win. 

DUSTIN WINTERS 
SAYVILLE. NY 

Screen Dressing 

Here's a collection of three util- 
ities that'll help you jazz up 
your text-based screens. 

The first one is called Puts. 
It draws a text string in any 
DOS color on the screen. The 
next two are related. 
Savescrn saves a screen to 
disk for later use and 
Loadscrn loads it from disk 
and puts it on the screen. 

You can type in these pro- 
grams using the DOS Debug 
command, fvlake sure the 
DOS program called Debug 
is in your path or the current di- 
rectory. Jn these examples, 
the italic text is what 
the computer prints; the 
roman text is what you 
should type. 

One way to be sure you 
get these programs exactly 
right is to have someone 
read the numbers to you as 
you type them in. 

You can also write a text 
file and pipe it into Debug 
(see "Tips & Tools" in the Feb- 
ruary 1993 COMPUTE to see 



54 COMPUTE MAY 1993 











ETA, Summer 1993. 



Mdlai'c 



Circle Reader Service Number 280 



TIPS & TOOLS 



how this is done). 

debug puts. com 

File not tound 

-elOD be 80 00 ac Oa cO 74 39 

-e1DB eS 58 00 2b cO 3e cO 26 

-e110 3b 3e 4e 04 26 30 38 49 

•e118 04 07 b8 00 b8 75 02 b4 

-e120 bO 8e cO eS 1f 00 d1 e3 

-e128 03 fb e8 18 00 bS aO 00 

-e13G f7 e3 03 fS eS Oe 00 8a 

-e138 e3 ac 3c Od 74 03 ab eb 

-e140f3 b4 4c cd 21 2b db ac 

-e 148 3c 30 7c 13 3c 39 71 Of 

-e150 2c 30 2a e4 93 b9 Oa 00 

-e153 f7 el 93 03 dS eb eS eS 

-e160 01 00 c3 ac 3c Od 74 dQ 

-B 168 3c 20 74 (7 4e c3 

-RCX 

CX OQOO 

:6e 

-W 

Writing OOBe bytes 

-Q 



The checksum for this COM file is 
062 (see "Tips & Tools" in the July 
1992 issue). To use the Puts program, 
you'll need to give it three command 
line arguments. The first one is the 
column. These values start at the left 
side of the screen with a value of 
and end at the right side of the screen 
with a value of 79. The second one is 
the row. These values start at the top 
of the screen with a value of and end 
at the bottom of the screen with a val- 
ue of 24. 

The third argument is the color It's 
made up of two parts, the foreground 
colors and the background colors. 
Both have values ranging from to 15. 
The bacl<ground colors will blink for col- 
ors greater than 7. 

To combine both components into 
the correct number, multiply the value 
of the background color by 16 and 
then add the value of the foreground 
color. 



If I want a dark blue background (col- 
or 1) and a white foreground {color 15), 
I'd calculate 1 x 16 + 15 and get a to- 
tal of 31, Here are the DOS colors. 






Black 


1 


Dark Blue 


2 


Dark Green 


3 


Dark Cyan 


4 


Dark Red 


5 


Dark Magenta 


6 


Brown/Orange 


7 


Light Gray/Dull White 


8 


Dark Gray 


9 


Light Blue 


10 


Light Green 


11 


Light Cyan 


12 


Light Red 


13 


Light Magenta 


14 


Yellow 


15 


White 



Once you've created a terrific screen. 



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you can save it to disk for later use 
with the following utility. 



debug savescrn.com 


File not found 


-el 00 be 80 00 ac Oa cO 74 44 


-e108 ac 3c Od 74 3f 3c 20 74 


-ellD 17 8b do 4a ac 3c Od 74 


-ellB 04 3c 20 75 f7 c6 44 tf 


-e120 00 b4 3c 2b eg cd 21 72 


-e128 23 8b dS 2b cO 8e dB 8b 


-e130 16 4e 04 80 3e 49 04 07 


■et38 b8 00 M 75 02 b4 bO 8e 


-e140 d8 b4 40 b9 aO Of cd 21 


-e 148 M 3e cd 21 b4 4c cd 21 


■RCX 


CX 0000 


:50 


-W 


Writing 0050 bytes 


-Q 



The checksum for this COM file is 062, 



Just tell the program the file- 
name you'd like to use. If you want 
to save a screen to a file called 
MYSCREEN, you'd type savescrn 
myscreen. 

The opposite program that loads 
your screens in follows. To use it, just 
specify the filename to load as a com- 
mand line argument. 



debug loadscrn.cam 




File not lound 




-e10Q be 80 00 ac Oa 


CO 74 43 


•e108 ac 3c Od 74 3e 


3c 20 74 


-ellO t7 8b dG 4a ac 


3c Od 74 


-B 118 04 3c 20 75 f7 


C6 44 ft 


■e120 00 b8 00 3d cd 21 72 23 


-e123 8b d8 2b cO Se d8 8b 16 


-e 130 4e 04 80 3e 49 04 07 bS 


-e 138 00 bB 75 02 b4 bO 8e d8 


-e140 b4 3f bg aO Of 


Cd 21 b4 


-e 148 3e cd 21 b4 4c cd 21 


-RCX 





CX 0000 

:4f 

■W 

Writing 0041 tiytes 

-Q 

The checksum for this COM file is 062. 
Armed with these three utilities, you'll 
have no trouble making fancy screens 
for your computer. 

RICHARD C. LEIWECKER 
MIAMI, FL 



If you have an interesting tip that you 
think would help other PC users, send 
it along with your name, address, and 
Social Security number to COMPUTES 
Tips & Tools, 324 West Wendover Av- 
enue. Suite 200, Greensboro. North 
Carolina 27408. For each tip we pub- 
lish, we'll pay you $25-$50. All tips 
submitted become the property of Gen- 
eral Media International. n 



ffiAiid T 





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WINDOWS WORKSHOP 



Clifton Karnes 



Te turn 

TrueType on, run 

Conirol Panel, 

double-click on 



TRUETYPE 
AND BEYOND 

Before discussing TrueType, 
we need to run through a little 
of the vocabulary we'll be us- 
ing when we talk about fonts. 

First, in traditional typeset- 
ting lingo, a typeface is a col- 
lection of fonts that share a 
common design. Times Ro- 
man and Helvetica are both 
typefaces, for example. 

In this same traditional lin- 
go, a font is a single coliection 
of characters (usually upper- 
and lowercase alphabets 
plus some symbols) in one 




Fonts, click 

on TrueType, and 

click on 

Enalile TrueType 

Fonts. 



point size and style. Thus, 12- 
point Times Roman italic is a 
font. It's one of the fonts that 
make up the Times Roman 
typeface. 

In modern terminology, font 
and typeface are used as syn- 
onyms, and they share both of 
the above definitions. I'll follow 
the modern terminology 

Style, which I just men- 
tioned, is another attribute of 
a font. Style can be roman {al- 
so called normal), bold, italic, 
bold italic, or underlined, to 
name the most popular. 

Fonts can be categorized in 
various ways, but the most usu- 
al way is to separate fonts into 
serif and sans-serif groups. Ser- 
ifs are the finishing strokes on 



fonts, and fonts that lack 
these strokes are called sans- 
serif, Serif fonts are generally 
easier to read in small point siz- 
es. Sans-serif fonts are bold 
and simple and are often 
used for display type (sub- 
heads, headlines, and titles). 

We're not out of the word 
woods yet. Points are normal- 
ly used to measure the height 
(and sometimes the width) of 
a font. One point is approxi- 
mately V72 of an inch. Thus, a 
72-point font is one inch tall. 
It's worth noting that the size 
is measured from the top of 
the tallest letter in the font to 
the bottom of the lowest. 

With Windows 3.1, Micro- 
soft introduced TrueType and 
revolutionized the font busi- 
ness. TrueType is an outline 
technology, which means that 
each font is stored as an out- 
ine rather than a bitmap 
(screen fonts, we learned in 
last month's column, are 
bitmaps). 

Windows takes these out- 
lines and scales them to pro- 
duce type of any size, so one 
TrueType font can be used to 
produce a huge range of 
point sizes. Better still, the 
same TrueType font is used 
for both screen and printer, so 
what you see on your screen 
is very close to what you'll see 
in print. What you see on 
screen isn't exactly like what 
you'll see in print because 
your screen is a 96-dot-per- 
tnch (dpi) device and most 
printers are 300 dpi or higher. 
But the correspondence is 
still very close. 

Windows comes with sever- 
al TypeType fonts: Ariel (ro- 
man, bold, italic, and bold ital- 
ic). Times New Roman (ro- 
man, bold, italic, and bold 
italic). Courier New {roman, 
bold, italic, and bold italic), 
and Symbol (roman). 

Ariel is a sans-serif font very 
similar to Helvetica. Times 
New Roman is a serif font sim- 
ilar to Times, and Courier New 



bears a striking resemblance 
to Courier, It's worth mention- 
ing here that in the U.S., fonts 
themselves can't be copyright- 
ed. But the font names can. 
So if someone owns the name 
Helvetica, no one else can 
use it unless they license it 
from the owner. That's why we 
see so many different names 
for what appears to be the 
same font. 

Should you use TrueType? 
There are other programs avail- 
able that do basically the 
same thing as TrueType, the 
best known being Adobe 
Type Manager (ATM) and 
Bitstream's Facelift, but al- 
though these are excellent 
products, TrueType has 
much to recommend it. 

First, it's free. It's part of Win- 
dows 3.1 and ready to run 
when Windows is. Second, be- 
cause of the way TrueType 
downloads characters, it's fast- 
er than ATM. Last, although all 
of these outline technologies 
give you WYSIWYG display, 
TrueType is more accurate. 

The big exception to this ad- 
vice that you use TrueType 
comes if you're doing desktop 
publishing and working with a 
service bureau that must 
have PostScript. If that's the 
case, then you'll need to use 
ATM, which supports Post- 
Script fonts. 

To run TrueType, the only 
thing you need besides Win- 
dows 3.1 is a dot-matrix, ink- 
jet, or laser printer. TrueType 
is built into Windov.'s, so to ac- 
cess TrueType fonts, you sim- 
ply need to turn TrueType on. 
To do that, run Control Panel 
and double-click on Fonts. 
Next, click on the TrueType but- 
ton and in the dialog box that 
follows, click on Enable True- 
Type Fonts. That's all there is 
to it. 

Now your TrueType fonts 
will be available in all your Win- 
dows applications that use 
fonts, so fire up Write and take 
TrueType for a test drive, □ 



58 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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HARDWARE CLINIC 



Mark Minasi 



Some 

tlioughts on 

the eve 

of DOS 6.0 



DOS NT: A PLEA 

By the time that you read this, 
either DOS 6.0 will be out, or 
it will be out soon. Of course, 
it's just one more step forward; 
DOS could use a lot more 
growth. 

As I see it, DOS needs to 
change in four ways: 

• DOS must provide rea- 
son and incentive for PC soft- 
ware developers to rriiove 
away from direct hardware ac- 
cess and move toward great- 
er use of the operating system 
as an operating system. Once 
that happens, DOS will have a 
clear pathway to growth and 
improvement that could make 
it the standard operating sys- 
tem of the desktop into the 
mid twenty-first century. 

• DOS must offer a com- 
mand line-based, protected- 
mode multitasking facility that 
doesn't rely on a graphical us- 
er interface (GUI). GUIs don't 
make sense for much of what 
PC users do, and they require 
advanced hardware to run 
properly. There must be a bet- 
ter way to offer secure multi- 
tasking than with an operating 
system that recommends 
16MB of RAM. a 33-MHz 486 
processor, and a CD-ROM to 
load the operating system, as 
Windows NT does. 

• DOS needs an optional 
new file system that supports 
long names, automatic file-sys- 
tem fix-ups, faster access, 
and more information about 
how files are being used. 

• DOS must provide better 
power-user tools. QBASIC 
can't interface with DOS or BI- 
OS functions directly, and 
there are none of the tools 
(such as awk. grep, and sed) 
that make working with UNIX a 
pleasure for toolmakers. 

Supercharging DOS 

PCs with 286-, 386-, and 486- 
level CPUs have a processor 
mode, called protected 
mode, that allows access to 



16MB or more of RAM. Protect- 
ed mode not only supports 
more memory, it also pro- 
vides much of the behind-the- 
scenes support for multi- 
tasking operating systems. 
Protected mode makes it pos- 
sible for an operating system 
to load multiple programs. 

Unfortunately. DOS and 
DOS programs don't use pro- 
tected mode, which is why 
they're generally trapped in 
the bottom 1088K of your PC's 
RAM. OS/2 and Windows NT 
are built in orotected mode 
and can access megabytes 
and megabytes of RAM. That 
points out a real problem with 
the Microsoft and IBM operat- 
ing system offerings since 
1986— that is. OS/2 and Win- 
dows NT In order to get to the 
indisputable benefits of protect- 
ed mode using OS/2 or Win- 
dows NT you must accept the 
intrusion of a GUI. 

Don't get me wrong — GUIs 
are good things. But they are 
processor hungry. Windows 
3,1. which is probably 'ess 
CPU intensive than either OS/ 
2 or Windows NT, really 
needs a 25-MHz 386DX with 
8MB of RAM to be usefui. But 
if all I want to do is run a big 
Spreadsheet program or sort 
a huge mailing list file, then I 
don't want a GUI. It slows me 
down and burns up precious 
RAM. 

Instead, why not offer a 
DOS NT? In Its simplest form, 
Microsoft could easily offer a 
text-based, command line-driv- 
en operating system that 
looks just like DOS and sup- 
ports old DOS programs but 
could also run new DOS pro- 
grams — programs written spe- 
cifically for DOS NT By its na- 
ture, DOS NT would live in pro- 
tected mode. But any time that 
it needed to shift back to real 
mode — the alternative to pro- 
tected mode — it could do that. 
There's no rocket science in- 
volved in doing that, as operat- 
ing systems such as OS/2, Win- 



dows, and Windows NT have 
been able to support real 
mode programs for years. Ex- 
isting DOS programs would 
continue to run whenever you 
started them up. 

New DOS programs would 
be built in protected mode, 
so they would have access to 
tremendous amounts of RAM. 

Other Benefits 

Additional RAM wouldn't be 
the only benefit of a protected- 
mode DOS NT: 

• It would bring about the 
timely death of memory man- 
agement. You'd never have to 
worry about extended, expand- 
ed, or conventional memory 
again. 

• It would provide an easy 
upgrade path to future operat- 
ing systems. Once a program 
is written to work under protect- 
ed mode, it's basically 
tamed. It no longer does 
things behind the operating 
system's back, mainly be- 
cause it no longer can. As a re- 
sult, making the program 
work under any new protect- 
ed-mode operating system, 
or even a completely different 
processor and operating sys- 
tem, is significantly easier 
than converting from a cur- 
rent DOS real mode to anoth- 
er operating system. - 

• It would be less expen- 
sive and have a broader ap- 
peal than Windows NT or 
even Windows. Windows NT 
is a monster operating system 
that loads only off a 300MB+ 
CD-ROM. Windows uses as 
many as eight installation 
disks. Many people don't 
want to deal with that much 
stuff. They just want to run the 
programs that they're already 
using; they don't want to 
iearn a pile of new stuff, par- 
ticularly when the new stuff is 
often a bad adaptation of the 
old stuff. 

One thing that Windows re- 
ally needed was a good im- 
plementation of each of the 



60 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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HARDWARE 



The next 

PC operating 

system 

will proHalily be 

the last. 



most popular DOS programs: 
1-2-3 in the spreadsheet cat- 
egory, WordPerfect in the 
word-processing category, 
and dBASE, Paradox, 
FoxPro, or Clipper in the data- 
base category Unfortunately, 
1-2-3 for Windows and 
WordPerfect for Windows suf- 
fer from serious problems, 
and, at this writing, there isn't 
a Windows version of dBASE, 
FoxPro, or Clipper, despite 
years of promises. 

Why has there been so 
much trouble converting major 
DOS applications to Windows? 
I think that it's largely because 
the most successful DOS appli- 
cations are often the fastest ap- 
plications in their categories; 
that's certainly the case with 1- 
2-3 and WordPerfect. The way 
to make a DOS application 
fast is to break all the rules 
about working within an operat- 
ing system and directly control 
the PC's hardware. That 
doesn't work in Windows. So 
software companies have to ei- 
ther retrain the lead program- 
mers on their products or 
bring in green programmers 
and direct them in building a 
Windows program that acts 
like the big-selling DOS ver- 
sion. And sadly, it hasn't 
worked. 

A conversion to DOS NT 
would certainty retain some of 
those problems, but not all of 
them. Conversion from a com- 
mand line, text output, real- 
mode operating system to a 
command line, text output, 
protected-mode operating sys- 
tem is much easier than con- 
version to a GUI-based, graph- 
ical, protected-mode operat- 
ing system such as Windows, 
Windows NT or OS/2. And 
that means there's a better 
chance that the DOS NT ver- 
sions of the major PC applica- 
tions would appear on time at 
a reasonable price and look 
perhaps exactly like the famil- 
iar, popular DOS versions — 
except without any of the mem- 



ory constraints and with multi- 
tasking possible. 

This is perhaps the most im- 
portant reason to create a 
new protected-mode version 
of DOS — because the soft- 
ware world can't move on un- 
til real-mode DOS fades 
away, and DOS ain't goin' no- 
where until there's a decent 
mass marl<et alternative. A 
DOS NT could run credibly 
on a 386SX computer with 
4MB of RAM, even on a pen- 
based computer; that can't 
be said of Windows, Windows 
NT or OS/2. 

• It would easily support 
multitasking. Most of the pain 
and suffering of supporting 
DOS in a multitasking frame- 
work comes from the problem 
of having to keep track of sev- 
eral programs that are all try- 
ing to control the PC hard- 
ware directly. 

• This could be the last 
new PC operating system, so 
it had better be good. Comput- 
ing platforms are born; then 
they go through a period of 
rapid growth and change. 
Problems turn up, and work- 
arounds appear shortly there- 
after. Then applications follow 
that are built upon those work- 
arounds. 

Each change in the operat- 
ing system brings with it costs 
and benefits. The benefits are 
the potential to create new ap- 
plications that can do things 
that the old applications can't. 
The costs, on the other hand, 
are incompatibility or reduced 
compatibility with the older ap- 
piications — the growing num- 
ber of applications that we've al- 
ready paid for. 

At some point in an operat- 
ing system's life, the sheer in- 
vestment in machines and ap- 
plications becomes so great 
that the potential benefits 
from any new operating sys- 
tem would have to be stupen- 
dous in order to justify a 
move to the operating sys- 
tem, whether it be OS/2, Win- 



dows NT UNIX. DOS NT or 
whatever. The designers of op- 
erating systems understand 
this, so they tend to overpro- 
mise features and underesti- 
mate development time. 

Eventually, the computing 
public sees thai the promises 
were unreasonably optimistic, 
and that, in turn, lowers user 
confidence and the per- 
ceived future value of the op- 
erating system. The public fig- 
ures that the hardware and 
software that are currently in 
place are solid enough and 
well understood, warts and 
all. "Better the devil you 
know . . . ," we'll ail say. 

• At some point, it will be 
economically unacceptable 
to use anything but the most 
incremental of changes from 
the current operating system. 

This isn't science fiction; it's 
already happened in the main- 
frame and minicomputer 
worlds. For all its power, the 
core of IBM's MVS/ESA oper- 
ating system looks an awful lot 
like OS/MVT, the mainframe op- 
erating system of over two dec- 
ades ago. IBM tried to over- 
haul the mainframe's operating 
system in the late seventies 
with the Future Systems pro- 
ject, but IBM's customer base 
said, "A new, better operating 
system that my existing pro- 
grams won't work with? 
Thanks, but no thanks." 

All of that is just a support- 
ing argument to one of my 
premises here — we'll have may- 
be one more major operating 
system changeover and then 
the microcomputer world will 
be encased in amber forever 
after. 

My nightmare is that the 
once-and -future operating sys- 
tem in the PC world will be a re- 
al-mode DOS. The jump to 
some kind of protected-mode 
DOS would be the last big 
jump necessary for DOS to con- 
tinue to grow and change. 
Let's make it soon before it be- 
comes impossible. □ 



62 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




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Vdu'II wind 

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studies the Talmud. 



BORLAND C++ 3.1: 
IS IT AN UPGRADE 
FOR YOU? 

Borland C++ 3.1 & Applica- 
tion Frameworks is a fabulous 
package, priced (street price, 
$500) and positioned for the 
professional developer. 1 use 
Borland C++ (BC++) to devel- 
op applications in C, C+ + . 
and assembler. This is a re- 
port from tfie front that should 
help you decide whether to up- 
grade or switch to Borland. 

If you've been developing 
C applications, you'll be 
pleased to know that the Win- 
dows environment now han- 
dles all the options — it's not 
the crippled Turbo C++ for Win- 
dows that came with 3.0 but a 
full BC++ implementation. 
You can create project files au- 
tomatically, but they're some- 
what limited. There's no long- 
er a transfer menu, and you 
can't run anything but the C/ 
C++ compilers and assembler 
from a project. Since 1 use oth- 
er program generators, I'm un- 
able to automate my program 
development completely. 
Many C programmers won't 
have this problem, but it 
didn't make me happy. 

One of the most widely pub- 
licized additions is a syntax- 
directed editor, which shows 
comments, keywords, identifi- 
ers, and so on in user-defina- 
ble text attributes. This isn't a 
gimmick — it really does make 
your code easier to follow, es- 
peciaily in the case of mis- 
matched comment braces. 

The Windows documenta- 
tion has been expanded and 
comes with a short, much- 
needed reference guide that 
documents, finally a number 
of heretofore mysterious as- 
pects of Windows program- 
ming. There's a chapter on the 
printing codes for the Es- 
capeO routine, which is 
necessary for using a printer 



from Windows. File formats for 
bitmaps, icons, the Clipboard, 
and Windows fvletafiles are de- 
scribed, And there are finally 
"see also" sections in the API 
docs. If you've been stum- 
bling through Windows pro- 
gramming and know only 
enough to be frustrated by the 
lack of cross references in 
Borland's API manuals, this 
subtle difference alone may 
be worth the upgrade. 

Lack of context is still the big- 
gest problem in Windows API 
manuals. Sadly, there are no 
example programs or even 
fragments in the API documen- 
tation. Save yourself months of 
heartbreak by purchasing the 
Waite Group's superb Win- 
dows API Bible, which has an 
example for every message 
and function call. 

Turbo Vision (TV) is a useful 
development tool that pro- 
vides a complete set of pro- 
gramming libraries and conven- 
tions, much lii<e Windows itself 
(hence the Application Frame- 
works moniker), fy/lake no mis- 
take: You can develop top- 
notch, commercial-quality 
DOS programs with TV, but 
you must use it to write your 
programs from scratch — and 
expect to spend plenty of 
time in the BCPPDOS forum 
on CompuServe. You'll also 
wind up hunched over print- 
outs of the example programs 
v/ith the same dedication with 
which a rabbi studies the Tal- 
mud, The libraries are com- 
plete but tough to follow. One 
of TV's advantages is that its 
high degree of modularity al- 
lows you safely to lift whole sec- 
tions of code out of the sam- 
ple apps and into yours, but 
only after you know the ropes. 
Thankfully, a lot of bugs have 
been eliminated, but code 
size is still a problem. 

Borland Pascal TV apps are 
often 100K smaller than their 
C++ counterparts because the 
C++ linker can't strip out un- 
used code as efficiently as Pas- 



cal's. TLINK is quicker than 
greased lightning but needs im- 
provement in smart linking and 
overlay management. 

Horrifyingly, Turbo Debug- 
ger for Windows is still charac- 
ter based. Although technical- 
ly a Windows program, it acts 
like a DOS app and suffers 
from the resultant graphics 
mode switching every time 
you step over a function call, 
Apart from that egregious 
flaw, TD remains one of the 
best debuggers known to hu- 
mankind, far surpassing Micro- 
soft's CodeView. 

Another surprising omission 
is that you can't create DPMI 
programs that use true 386 pro- 
tected mode without buying a 
third-party DPMI DOS exten- 
der, although you can do so 
with Borland Pascal 7.0. 1 Imag- 
ine it's jusi a matter of sched- 
uling and that BC++ 3.5 or 4.0 
or whatever will indeed in- 
clude the extender. 

Turbo Assembler was up- 
graded a couple of versions 
ago to create Turbo Pascal 
and C++ classes; TA, TLINK, 
and the TLIB librarian are as- 
toundingly fast. They don't 
seem to have changed since 
BC + + 3.0, however. Turbo 
Profiler is still the best profiler 
around and one of the least ex- 
pensive, fastest ways to im- 
prove your code. TPROF 
doesn't seem to have 
changed since 3.0. 

Should you upgrade from 
BC++ 3.0 to 3.1? Yes, if you 
need proper Windows 3.1 sup- 
port, the full integrated environ- 
ment running under Windows, 
or the incremental but signifi- 
cant improvements in docu- 
mentation. But if you're expect- 
ing improvements or better 
documentation for OWL, the 
BIDS class library, or TV. save 
your money. Likewise for Tur- 
bo Assembler, Turbo Profiler, 
and Turbo Debugger, which 
are already extraordinarily 
good products and already 
pretty well documented. D 



64 COMPUTE tvlAY 1993 



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n the'begihning, mb- . 
dems'wiere slow but 
steady-,. thp Volkswa- 
gens of the computer 
World. ■•■_ -Z '. . 
■ SimpTe devices that 
convetted th6 digital -sig- 
nals frorii your computer 
■to analog signals capa-; 
b|e of travecsing-thfe tele- 
phone net; early .nio- 
dems perlormed : the 
.basic tasks of transfer- 
ring' files", arid dialing- up- 
ohfine services in a. plod- 
ding but- workmanlike-' 
way. -if you wante'd.data- 
compression, error cpr- 
re'ctibri, flow control, or 
any other, belis and whis- 
tles -that' might.make your 
data go faster, you ;ha*d 
to look to ydurcommoni- 
ca'tions software. As a • 
res.'ujt^ most early mo- 
cfems.ehucjged along at . 



the snaillike pace of. 300 
bits per second. : ■ , . 
For a while, 1.200' bps 
was the standard. Ju^t a 
few years ago, 'modems 



HMOi 



BY ROSALIND TtlESNlCk* 

*' .* 

that trarisferred files at; 
24-00 bits per second 
became the mainstay of 
the_ personal tomputing 
world. ■ " . ' .. 

Not any.mcjre. Thanks 
tpdornputer users' clam- 
or for faster and less 
expensive dowrtloads 
and file transfers, mo- 



dem, manufacturers have 
'been' slashing th'eir 
priqes. While some high- 
speed (V.32bis) modems 
still cost $500 or more, 
you, can. now pick' up a 
reliable onewith all the 
desirable features fqr 
under $200. In fact, the 





price differential betweeri 
ay. 3ms (14,400 bps) 
modeni -and .a' y.32 
.(9600 _bps). modem has 
; shrunk to less' than $1Q0-.'. 
-.Datacjuest, t.hfe San 
Jose, 'California, marKet" 
research firm, -says it''s' 
only a matter qf time 
before high-speed mb-* 
dems take over the mar- 
ketplace, making today's 



2400.-"bps modems virtl)- ■ 
ally-obsolete. The rea-., 
sons: the need to trans.-' 
-fer large graphics and- 
database files, rremote 
file server or LAN-to-LAN 
connections, and general 

"sensitivity to .cprirleAt 
time charges.' ■'■',■'•• 

-' ..Here's how Dataquest 

, sees things shaping up. 
Back in 1987, 716,40'Q, 
of the modems on th'e' 
market were 2400-bps 
modems; only 20,000 
were capable o.f transmit- 
ting data at a rate as^ 
.high, as 9600 bps. B^t'', 

.the 24.00-bps standard 
cauldn't hold its ground ■ 
tor.'- long-. -■ Last yeaf 

•(1992), 240.0-bps mo-. 

-■ denis peaked, at 050, OOO' 

'-unit's,' whfle' sales of- 
9600-bps modems rose 
to 400,000-* units and 



•■■-It'Tiigsfi.wi-.,-.. -r -• 






ris^m 








sales of 14,40D-b"ps rno- 

.dems, Introduced in 1^91, 
more .than doubled to 
220,000.; 

. By i996, bataquest 
predicts, th.e \/.fas.t mo'- , 
dem^not.even on the 
market ioday — will ae-. 
,-c d.sj n t; ,f r 3 5 , 00 u n rts 

' sold; -fiiiilh 9600-bp^S and 
*r4,^Q0-6p£., -n^odems 
ck^lRihg- ypj a' total of ■ 

•^5Cf,Cia9;v.p.ir& gpld. By." 
.Qontras'tr^sales of -^400- 

■^bps modems are expect- 

'ed to sink to 48D,€00. 
■; . '.'The niarketplaice has 

• possessed a-voraciaus 
appetite for-_high,er-trans- 
mission-r^ife tnoderns," 
says analyst Joe Nbel,. 
"and D.ataquest does not 
anticipate this'.ehangtng." 
Today's- modems are 
iigW-years ahead dff their 

"predecessors of 'a de- 



cade ago. Swift, smart,. 

end. -powerful, ;the new-., 
breed of tarbocharged 
modem is" ]paded with 
'cutting-edge featyres 
c,apabte of ■ spe'edl n'g" you r 
data across the country'. 
ip the blink of an eye — as 
fast as 57,600 bps- sav-- 
ing you vast amounts of 
time and money. ■. 
; Consider: With- a 
Vf4,400Tbps moden>,,the 
■fastest one- on- the m'ar- 
■ ket today, it's now possi- 
ble to send a 1MB -file' 
from Los Angeles to^ 
Boston In 3.05 minutes 
for just SO. 73; sending 
the sarTi% file the same 
distance at 2400 bps 
would take 72.82 min.-- 
utes and cost S17'.48. At. 
9600 bps, the fastest 
speed avail^bJe 'oo. -a 
majo'r online service; ybu: 



can download a 1MB file • 
from .dompuSe.fve'''in 
only. 17 jninvtes-.for 
S6.46— lessthan half the. 

. Sl4-5p-yoVd pa^ fo 
download V?e..sam6 fije. 
at 2400 bps-anct.afrac- 

•tron of t*ie.68 minute's 
you'd .fiaVe:to ■tie up your 
computer.' ^ ■ . . '. ■ 

And there's a bonus: 
Virtually all of today's.- 
high-^peed mo.derhsrSre 
fax/data modems'. Ttiis 

• mearis there's no loi^i^'er 
any need to. pi'irrt Qut-ai. 
■hard copy o.f y0.ur.a6cu- 
meht-'atjd stiif'it-ihto your 
fax machirie— ;br drive., 
over-to your neighbor- 
hood copy shop and pay 
exorbitant prices. You 

•sifTiply press a hot key, 

■and' your fax transmis- 
-sion is on its way. ■ 
-• Best'Qf afl, .the.n.ew 



• modems ■afe' relatively- 
ih'expensive. .For lexam- 
ple, .U.3. Rototics offers- 
a .1.4.40o'-bps fax/dstai 
modem ■for as little as 
S49'9 and AT&T Para-' 

■ dyne's^ DataPort internal 
14,400-bps fax/data mo- 
dem -lists forSSOS (at.the- 
ti.me_ of this writing, tbe 
jnlei'rnal' 'and e'Xternal 

'.DataPorts .are pn^.ale.for -• 
S399 arrd S43'9, resp^d-"v 
tively).-.;Street prites'ftir .. 
Ihage products- are eveo •" 

. .fs.ss.-'an'd.co'mpetition is •' 
driving prices loWer.'yirtu- 

. ally\every' day.' Just, two, • 
years'- ago. rpodem&llke ■ 
th'ese coat. S 1,000 .ol" ■ 
more. Be sure to s'hop 
around for the bes! .price- , 
before you buy a higti- ' 
speed fax/data modem.'' ."-"' 
Ah, but just Jike.thosieV 
sexy little Ferraris thai" 



^ 





burn up the tracks on their good days 
but seem to spend most of their time in 
the shop, today's high-speed modems 
are riddled with technical glitches that 
can sap their power, at times forcing 
them down to a speed as slow as 1200 
bps, and at other times preventing 
them from functioning at all. 

The reasons are numerous: every- 
thing from the inevitable hardware and 
software incompatibilities to overtaxed 
communications ports and busy net- 
works. 

The glitches result in modems that 
can't talk to other modems, modems 
with fax capability that won't send 
faxes unless you reboot your comput- 
er, data modems that can't upload 
files to a bulletin board, and front-end 
programs that won't let you go online 
unless you first shut off all of your 
modem's special features. 

In short, these high-speed modems 
are creating a veritable Tower of 
Babel that leaves many home comput- 
er users, even those who are knowl- 
edgeable about computers, frustrated 
and confused. 

CompuServe member Steve 
Ringley, an electronics technician who 
works for the Ohio National Guard, 
bought a high-speed modem in 
October to help cut his long-distance 



phone bills. Because Fiingley lives in 
McConnelsville, a small town about 
100 miles southeast of Columbus, 
there aren't any local access numbers 
he can dial to log on to his favorite 
online services. 

The new modem managed a con- 
nection to CompuServe, Ringley 
recalls, but wouldn't connect with two 
other popular services, GEnie and 
America Online. Finally, after numer- 
ous calls to technical support staffers 
and hours of trial and error of his own, 
Ringley hit upon some modem initial- 
ization strings that worked. 

"The lack of standardization is the 
real culprit," Ringley says. "The 
modems need to figure out what lan- 
guage they're going to use to negoti- 
ate with one another." 

Asked about the problems, the 
modem manufacturers and the online 
services readily acknowledge the 
trouble but disagree on who's to 
blame. 

"It takes two to tango," says Paul 
Hansen, vice president of technology 
and marketing services at Practical 
Peripherals, a leading manufacturer of 
high-speed modems. "There is no 
possible way, with all of the backward 
compatibility that the marketplace 
demands, to cover every sort of thing. 



Why should we as a modem manufac- 
turer do what the software people 
should be doing?" 

The online services, for their part, 
say they'd like to see the manufactur- 
ers get their act together, Les Briney, 
Prodigy's director of development, 
says the service offers roughly 35 dif- 
ferent modem initialization strings in a 
downloadable text file and keeps 
adding new ones every day to keep 
up with the hundreds of different high- 
speed modems as they come into the 
marketplace. 

"The problem," Briney says, "is that 
no two modem vendors have identical 
modems. The standards are not as 
strong as they used to be." 

Making Peace 

If you can't get your modem up and 
running, it doesn't really make much 
difference who's to blame. Here's a 
quick guide to some of the common 
problems involving high-speed 
modems, along with some practical 
solutions suggested by computer 
users and modem experts. 

Problem: With my old 2400-bps 
modem, f had no problem dialing up 
my favorite online service. With my 
new high-speed modem, all I get are 
error messages. 



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Solution: If your online service is 
Prodigy or America Online, there's a 
reason for that. Both services use pro- 
prietary front-end programs devel- 
oped back in the days when modems 
were a lot less powerful than they are 
now. To speed data flow, the two 
companies built things like data com- 
pression and error correction into the 
software itself. Unfortunately, even 
when you dial up an online service 
with a smart modem that has all the 
latest features, the software still wants 
to take control. 

Change your modem initialization 
string (the set of commands that 
begins with AT) to turn off your 
modem's data compression, error cor- 
rection, flow control, and other special 
features. This way, your front-end soft- 
ware will be able to call the shots, let- 
ting you dial up and log on with no 
problem. 

Unless you enjoy reading modem 
manuals (and have the technical 
savvy to make sense of them), the 
fastest way to find an initialization 
string that works with your modem is 
to call the technical support depart- 
ment of the company that manufac- 
tured your modem or the online ser- 
vice you're trying to reach. 

Problem: I've changed my modem 

70 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



initialization string, but I keep getting 
error messages anyway. 

Solution: Maybe it's a hardware 
problem, Before two modems can 
talk, they must first shake hands, 
deciding which signaling, error-cor- 
rection, and data-compression proto- 
cols to use in their conversation. 
However, each modem manufacturer 
uses its own slightly different method 
for conducting the protocol hand- 
shake. Some even use proprietary 
protocols that aren't compatible with 
those of other modem vendors. 

To find out if you have a hardware 
compatibility problem, call the techni- 
cal support staff at your online service 
and explain exactly what kind of 
modem you have. Unfortunately, some 
of the earlier high-speed modems, 
such as the V.29 series, aren't sup- 
ported by online services such as 
Prodigy. If you have one of these earli- 
er models, you may have to make a 
choice between logging on to your 
favorite online service or scrapping 
your old modem and buying a new 
one. 

Problem: Most of the time, my high- 
speed modem lets me go online at 
9600 bps, but other times when I log 
on, communication is really slow. 

Solution: The problem may be the 
communications network. If lots of 
people log on at the same time, the 
network may slow to a crawl — the 
same way it takes twice as long to 
drive home from your office during 
rush hour. That's why it makes sense 
to log on early in the morning or late at 
night when CompuServe and the other 
services aren't so busy, 

Problem: When I try to use the 
modem, my computer locks up and I 
have to turn off the computer and 
reboot it. 

Solution: The problem may be an 
interrupt conflict on your serial port, 
especially if you've already installed a 
mouse, an optical scanner, a tape 
backup, or other serial devices in your 
PC. Because of the way IBM originally 
designed the PC way back in 1981, 
communications ports 1 and 3 use 
interrupt 4 and communications ports 
2 and 4 use interrupt 3, That's why, if 
you assign both a mouse and a 
modem to C0M1, you're going to 
have to open up your computer and 
reset the DIP switch on your modem. 
Check your modem manual for 
instructions. 

Problem: With my high-speed 
modem, I keep losing data v^hen I try 
to transfer files with my Windows- 
based communications program. 

Solution: Maybe it's your UART 
(Universal Asynchronous Receiver/- 



Transmitter) chips, the chips that con- 
trol the serial port of all personal com- 
puters. During modem communica- 
tions, your computer's UART and the 
CPU transfer large amounts of data. 
When you run your communications 
program through a multitasking environ- 
ment such as Windows. DESQview, or 
OS/2, especially at high speeds, the 
CPU can't juggle It all and bits of data 
start falling out along the way. 

To fix this problem, you may need 
to invest in a new piece of hardware. If 
your computer has an 8250 UART, try 
replacing it with a 16550A UART that 
creates a buffer stack that allows the 
UART to save any incoming data while 
waiting for the CPU to catch up. 
Another option is Hayes's ESP 
Communications Accelerator for 
Windows, an add-on serial card with a 
dedicated coprocessor capable of 
supporting data transfers as fast as 
57,600 bps. 

Problem: The communications pro- 
gram I've been using for years won't 
run my new modem at its highest 
speeds. 

Solution: Much of the communica- 
tions software that came out in the late 
1980s won't support modem speeds 
faster than 9600 bps. You'll need to 
buy a new program (or an upgrade to 
your old one) that lets you dial up at 
14,400 bps and higher. It's also 
important to get a program that can 
take advantage of the 16550A UART 
described above. 

Modem Wars 

Remember when Hayes-compatible 
sounded like modem's first name? 
Most modems continue to be Hayes 
compatible, but there's been trouble 
in modemland. The fallout is incom- 
patibility, consumer confusion, and 
bad blood by the gallon. 

Unless you are an industry insider, 
you probably are unaware that 
telecommunications has been mired 
in a legal morass over the past half 
decade. The morass was created by a 
battle that tested the rights of the cre- 
ators of intellectual property to protect 
that property even as the rest of the 
industry tried to make that property a 
standard. It was a situation simular to 
the one Lotus created when it sought 
to stop the publishers of 1-2-3 look- 
alikes by bringing lawsuits against 
them, but with important differences, 
Hayes, the creator of the industry- 
standard escape sequence used by 
most modems, was willing to share its 
property through licenses, and it 
found itself the target of lawsuits 
rather than the instigator. 

What exactly is an escape 





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Al Lowe, creator of Leisure Su it Larry, spi ns a yam of school- 
manns and chorus girls with hearts o'gold, cowboys and Indians, 
and varmints and heroes. If s the brand-new, age-old tale of 
Freddy Pharkas, a gunslinger who gave it all up for his love of 
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So don't just g roan at all those old horse-opera cliches. 
Be one. Strap on your spurs for a saga that skewers every 
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and ask for Freddy Pharkas, Frontier Fiiarmadst, 

And smile when you say that. 



SIERRA' 



See your local retailer or call 1-800-326-66S4. 

Circle Reader Service Number 306 



MODEM LINGO 

Back in the old days of low-speed 
communications, all you had to know 
about were the bauds and the bits. 
With today's high-speed modems, 
there's a whole new lingo to master — 
"V-dot-this." "MNP-that," "CCITT," 
"UARTs," and the like. Here's a pock- 
et dictionary of the latest modem 
terms to help you swim your way out 
of this alphabet soup. 

Bits per second. The rate at which 
units, or bits, of data are transmitted 
over a phone line or other communi- 
cations channel. 

Protocol. A set of rules that tells 
two modems how to communicate 
with each other. 

CCITT (Comlte Consultatif 
International Telegraphique et 
Telephonique). A European-based 
advisory committee established by 
the United Nations to recommend 
worldwide standards for modu- 



lation, data compression, and 
error checking. 

CCITT V.32. The international 
modulation standard for modem 
communications at 9600 bits per sec- 
ond, with fallback to 4800 bits per 
second when phone line quality is 
impaired. 

CCITT V.32bis. The international 
modulation standard for modem 
communications at 14,400 bits per 
second. (The bis doesn't stand for 
anything. It's a suffix used in French 
to designate an add-on.) 

CCITT V.42. An international error- 
correction protocol that ensures the 
integrity of data transmitted from one 
modem to another. 

CCITT V.42bis. An extension of 
the CCITT V.42 protocol that, togeth- 
er with CCITT V.32bis modulation, 
can boost throughput as high as 
57,600 bits per second. 

CCITT V.fast. The nickname 
for the generation of high-speed 



modems stili under development. 
Because of its more sophisticated 
preceding and signaling features, the 
V.fast modem would be able to deliv- 
er speeds of 19,200 bits per second 
on telephone lines that are currently 
capable of transmitting data at only 
14,400 bits per second. 

MNP. f\/licrocom Networking 
Protocol. An older proprietary stan- 
dard of error control and data com- 
pression. 

MNP 5. A Microcom data-com- 
pression protocol that lets a modem 
use fewer bits to transmit the same 
amount of information, dramatically 
increasing the speed at which a com- 
puter can send information to the 
modem. 

UART (Universal Asynchro- 
nous Receiver/Transmitter). 
UART chips control the serial ports 
of all personal computers. An 8250 
UART might need to be upgraded 
to a 16550AUART. 



sequence? The escape sequence 
tells the modem to switch from data 
mode to command mode. In data 
mode your modem is sending infor- 
mation to the receiving modem, and in 
command mode it's ready to receive 
AT commands, the commands that tell 
the modem what to do (such as the 
command ATH, which tells your 
modem to hang up) or configure the 



modem. The guard time mechanism 
prevents the modem from going into 
command mode unless there's a peri- 
od of silence before and after the 
escape sequence. The escape 
sequence consists of a period of 
silence, three plus signs (+), and then 
another period of silence. The pur- 
pose of the guard time mechanism is 
to ensure that if you're sending a file 



that happens to contain a series of 
three plus signs in a row, your modem 
won't accidentally go into command 
mode and wait for further instructions. 
To make sense of the conflict, here 
is the recent history of telecommuni- 
cations in brief. In June 1981, Hayes 
fvlicrocomputer Products filed for a 
patent for its escape sequence and 
guard time mechanism. This patent 



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72 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



was granted in October 1985. A year 
later, Hayes offered to license the 
technology to other makers of 
modems. Within a month a consortium 
of modem manufacturers was formed 
(called the Modem Patent Defense 
Group), and two of the members (U.S. 
Robotics and Prometheus Products) 
brought suit against Hayes, challeng- 
ing its patent. Hayes countersued. 
Microcom, Multi-Tech, and Ven-Tel 
sued Hayes. Hayes sued Everex and 
OmniTel for paten! infringement. 
Microcom and U.S. Robotics settled 
out of court and agreed to license the 
patent. Three of those companies — 
Everex, Ven-Tel. and OmniTel — ended 
up in court, where the Hayes patent 
was upheld. All of the remaining law- 
suits were either settled out of court or 
adjudicated in Hayes's favor. 

Where does that leave us? Hayes 
has licensed its escape sequence 
and guard time mechanism to two 
chipmakers, Rockwell and Silicon 
Systems. If you purchase a modem 
with one of these chip sets, you are 
legally allowed to use Hayes's patent- 
ed technology. However, a competing 
standard called TIES (Time-Indepen- 
dent Escape Sequence) has 
emerged. TIES is not patented and is 
free for use by anyone who wishes to 



adopt it. The TIES sequence differs 
from the Hayes sequence only slight- 
ly. It consists of three plus signs, then 
the letters AT. and then a carriage 
return. Some argue that this sequence 
might be more prone to cause a shift 
into command mode in the middle of a 
file. The odds are still very slight that it 
will happen on any particular trans- 
mission, A Hayes white paper on the 
subject estimates that an individual 
computer user who transmits files for 
about an hour a day will encounter 
about six files per year that cannot be 
transmitted in full. Companies that 
send thousands of files a month might 
discover large numbers of files that 
can't be sent using TIES, and for rea- 
sons that would be a complete mys- 
tery to most computer users. 

The international standard-setting 
organization CCITT is not likely to set 
a standard that incorporates the 
Hayes escape sequence. However, 
Hayes has established a de facto 
standard that has become so wide- 
spread that any competing standard 
will have difficulty prevailing over it. 

The Future's Here to Stay 

Despite the many problems that cur- 
rently plague high-speed modeming, 
one thing is clear: There's no going 



back to the days of 2400-bps commu- 
nications. Modems are going in only 
one direction, and that's toward faster 
speeds. So, while fine-tuning your 
modem may not be anybody's idea of 
a fun time, it may be worth your while 
to invest a couple of hours learning a 
little about modem technology to save 
a lot of time and money later on. 

The good news is that some day 
soon the nation's homes and busi- 
nesses will be rewired with digital 
phone lines, making modems — and 
modem problems — obsolete. Unfor- 
tunately, it may be a long time before 
PC communications will be as easy as 
plugging a phone line into the back of 
your computer and dialing up your 
favorite online service. You'll still need 
to buy a terminal adapter and navi- 
gate your way through another host of 
technological issues. 

"Hopefully, in another year or two, 
there wii! be a standard switch inter- 
face for the terminal adapter to talk to." 
says John Copeland, vice president of 
technology for Hayes. As for the 
adapter manufacturers themselves, 
"People are always going to want to 
differentiate their products and include 
some feature or enhancement that the 
rest of the crowd doesn't have," 

That's just modem nature, □ 




MAY 1993 COMPUTE 73 





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Cifcle Reader Service Number 267 



PRODUCTIVITY CHOICE 



With Ascend, you'll remember 
appointments, get things done, and 
maybe even find inner peace. 

Clifton Karnes 



ASCEND 4.0 

I can't imagine life without 
Ascend. Tliere are very few 
programs I can say tliat 
about, but Ascend is definite- 
ly one. In fact, it's probably 
my most important tool. 

Ascend is a Windows- 
based personal information 
manager, or PIM. And like 
most PIMs, it manages di- 
verse types of information, 
including a prioritized daily 
task list, an appointment 
schedule, calendars, a mas- 
ter task list, a telepfione and 
address book, a journal, a 
database, and muchi more. 
The program's newest ver- 
sion, 4.0, adds many state-of- 
the-art enhancements — like 
drag and drop and OLE — that 
quickly become addictive. 

Before discussing Ascend's 
specifics, I want to talk about 
its background — there's more 
to Ascend than might be appar- 
ent immediately. It's based on 
a philosophy and every mod- 
ule in the program relates to 
this philosophy. 

Ascend was developed by 
Franklin Quest, a time manage- 
ment consulting company 
that has been teaching time 
management techniques and 
selling paper-based Franklin 
Planners for years. The Frank- 
lin method is based on a top- 
down approach to time and 
task management with the fi- 
nal goal being inner peace, 
something most of us feel is 
not only worthy and desirable, 
but seemingly unattainable. 

In the Franklin system, you 
begin not with figuring out 
how to arrange tasks for the 
day or manage contacts, but 
by defining your most impor- 
tant lifetime goals. From 
these long-term goals, you 
construct midrange goals, 
and from these you begin to 




plan your daily tasks. Obvious- 
ly, every task can't relate spe- 
cifically to your long-term, 
goals, but many can. And if 
they do, not only will you be 
more productive, but you'll al- 
so be at peace with yourself. 
This is the Franklin philoso- 
phy. Ascend's modules are 
well designed and general, 
so you can use them without 
buying into this philosophy. 
But then you'll lose some of 
the program's power. Now, 
on to the details. 

Ascend sports a colorful 
multiple document interface 
(MDI). fvlDI applications, like 
Windows' own Program Man- 
ager and File Manager, let 
you have any number of mod- 
ules open at a time, and you 
can size, maximize, and mini- 
mize each to get just the or- 
ganization you want. 

To make navigating these 
modules easy there's a but- 
ton bar with one button for 
each module. You can custom- 
ize this button bar and deter- 
mine which buttons go on the 
bar and in what order. You 
can place the button bar at 
the top, bottom, or side of 
your display; or you can let it 



float. If you'd prefer to use the 
shortcut keys instead, you 
can even hide the bar. 

The first module we should 
discuss is the Productivity Pyr- 
amid. This nnodule helps you 
build your long- and midterm 
goals and apply them to your 
daily tasks. You don't have to 
use the pyramid, but if you 
do, you'll keep focused on 
your most important goals. 

Ascend's centerpiece is its 
Prioritized Daily Task List. 
Note that this isn't called a to- 
do list, and with reason. As- 
cend wants to emphasize 
that this is a prioritized list. 

Ascend's task list uses a sys- 
tem, recommended by several 
time management experts, of 
grouping tasks into three cate- 
gories: vital, important, and triv- 
ial. Then the tasks in each 
group are ordered by priority 
This is clearly the way to con- 
struct a task list, but it's amaz- 
ing how many Pltvls fail to fol- 
low this recognized formula. 

All this ordehng and reor- 
ganizing is a snap with As- 
cend. There are special dia- 
log boxes that make sorting 
as easy as double-clicking. 
And Ascend 4.0 lets you sim- 



76 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



ply drag and drop tasks to 
change their order. If you fol- 
low your carefully prioritized 
list, you may not get to every 
task, but you'li always get the 
most important ones done. 

In version 4.0, all of the 
modules have similar button 
bars. If you dislike them, you 
just double-click on the band 
that the button bar rests on, 
and the bar disappears. To 
get it back, double-click on 
the area where the button bar 
would rest. It's hard to imag- 
ine a slicker system. 

One of the most useful new 
features is the ability to link 
tasks to contacts. You simply 
click on the Link button, and a 
list of your contacts appears. 
Select one, and the link is 
made. You can then view all 
the tasks and appointments 
associated with an individual. 

To support the Prioritized 
Daily Task List, there's a Mas- 
ter Task List module, which ac- 
tually holds several lists; one 
for work, one for home, and 
two for miscellaneous lists. 
You can move tasks between 
your daily lists and the master 
list. The Master Task List also 
displays the age of each task 
in days. This is a useful form 
of passive nagging. 

Ascend boasts several cal- 
endars. You can display a 
weekly or a monthly view, com- 
plete with the amount of free 
time available each day. As- 
cend lets you place informa- 
tive icons on special days (suit- 
cases for travel days, palm 
trees for vacation days, and 
closed signs for days your 
business isn't open, to name 
a few), and these are visible 
in the calendar. 

There's also a small month- 
ly calendar that you can 
leave on your desktop all the 
time if you like. It's useful for 
quickly changing the date. 



and you can reschedule 
tasks and appointments by 
dragging them from their re- 
spective lists to the days on 
this little calendar. This is the 
easiest rescheduling system 
I've ever seen. 

Ascend's Address Book 
was completely rewritten for 
version 4.0, and it's a terrific 
tool. It has fields for almost 
every imaginable aspect of a 
person, and you can link ap- 
pointments and tasks to indi- 
viduals in your Address 
Book. 

Ascend 4.0 supports DDE 
and OLE, and it comes with 
Word for Windows macros 
that let you search your As- 
cend Address Book and in- 
sert names — all while you're 
in a Word document. 

If you're looking for informa- 
tion that you know is hidden 
somewhere in Ascend, you 
can use the improved global 
search, which lets you select 
which modules to search in. 
And for taking notes, there's a 
journal, a record of daily 
events, and Red Tabs, which 
are special areas for storing in- 
formation grouped by topic. 

If you want to print your 
tasks and appointments and 
take them on the road with 
you, Ascend makes superb 
printouts on two sizes of Fran- 
klin Planner forms and on stan- 
dard 8y2- X 11 -inch paper. 

You probably realize that 
I'm enthusiastic about As- 
cend, and I am. I've found 
very little to complain about, 
but here are a couple of 
gripes. The program doesn't 
seem to respond to the stan- 
dard Windows exit protocol, 
so if Ascend is open on your 
desktop and you exit Win- 
dows from Program Manager, 
the next time you run Ascend, 
it will tell you that its index is 
corrupt and it needs to rein- 




dex. I've never lost any data 
from this, but it's annoying. 

Ascend 4,0 supports drag 
and drop all over the place 
(you can even drag and drop 
between appointments and 
tasks, which is pretty neat), 
but you can't drag a task 
from your Master Task List to 
your Prioritized Daily Task 
List, which is something most 
people would want to do eve- 
ry day. (You can drag tasks in 
the other direction, however.) 

Both of these complaints 
are minor. And Franklin 
Quest has a history of quickly 
fixing bugs and relentlessly im- 
proving Ascend. 

Should you buy Ascend 
4.0? Yes. It won't solve all 
your problems, but if used con- 
scientiously, it'll help you solve 
the most important ones. 

circle Reader Service Number 391 d 



IBM PC or compatible 
(80286 compatible); 2MB 
RAM; Hercules, EGA, or 
VGA; hard drive with 2MB 
tree; high-density floppy 
drive; Windows- 
compatible printer; 
Windows 3.0 or fiigher; 
Hayes-compatible 
modem (for use with 
AutoDial); mouse 
recommended— $1 99.95 
(Ascend software only), 
$299.00 (Ascend 
software, Franklin 
Planner, and seminar 
tapes) 

FRANKLIN QUEST 

2550 s. Decker Lake 

BN, 

Salt Lake City, UT 84119 

(801) 975-9992 



MAY 1993 COMPUTE 77 



PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY 



Lynn Walford 



Few tilings are as 

fleeting as an 

idea. Now software 

can help you 

caoture itieas and 

put Hiem to 

wort( for you. 



WHY DIDN'T I 
THINK OF THAT? 

What can you do when you're 
stuck for ideas? Before the ad- 
vent of idea generation soft- 
ware, you were left to your 
own means, but not anynnore. 

"You don't have to wait for 
a bolt out of [he blue: there are 
processes that will help you 
gather more ideas. And the 
more ideas you gather, the 
more likely you are to get a 
great idea," says Roy Nierem- 
berg, creator of Idea Genera- 
tor Pius (Experience in Soft- 
ware, 2000 Hearst Avenue, 
Suite 202, Berkeley, California 
94709-2176; 800-678-7008 Of 
510-644-0694 [voice], 510- 
644-3823 [fax]. Si 95), 

The Reverend Bernard J. 
Joy, of fvlemorial Baptist 
Church in Savannah. Georgia, 
needed help devising a pro- 
gram to help the {amilies of sol- 
diers overseas during the on- 
set of Desert Shield. Mr, Joy 
and the program chairman 
brainstormed with Idea Gener- 
ator Plus and developedaworka- 
ble strategy in just over an 
hour. The plan enabled them to 
give assistance outside normal 
channels to families that might 
have been forgotten. 

"American business is at a 
point where it needs new ide- 
as, not the rehashing of old ide- 
as," says Jan Saltzman, gener- 
al manager of IVIindLink. "fvlind- 
Link uses playful wishful think- 
ing in a systematic way and 
helps make connections from 
dissimilar things ... to create 
new innovative ideas." 

MindLink Problem Solver 
(iVlindLink, Box 247, North 
Pomfret. Vermont 05053; 800- 
253-1844 or 802-457-2025; 
$299) IS based on over 30 
years of research. It has four 
independent parts: The Gym, 
for warming up and playing: 
Idea Generation, which helps 
define the problem; Guided 
Problem Solving; and Problem 



Solving. fvlindLink comes with 
a little bag of toys and some- 
times asks you to do unusual 
things, like getting up and go- 
ing for a walk or pretending an 
Indian leader is talking to you. 

Kathleen Vick of TBA Archi- 
tects in Waltham, Massachu- 
setts, has used MindLink 
when teaching design stu- 
dents and in her own interior 
designs because it "takes 
away the obvious and cata- 
pults you deeper into an intel- 
lectual approach to design." 

In a recent design for a con- 
sulting firm, where most of the 
consultants preferred to work 
at home, Vick used MindLink, 
which led her to the question, 
How do you make an office 
and not have it look like an of- 
fice? MindLink helped her 
write down lists of associa- 
tions and make parallel lists of 
associations about the quali- 
ties of a home. 

Now that the design is com- 
plete, "everyone is showing 
up . . . people are more re- 
laxed and speaking softly. The 
nature of colors, textures, light- 
ing, and patterns creates a 
womblike feeling." 

"IdeaFisher is a memory jog- 
ger," says Jess Fisher, project 
director for Fisher Idea Sys- 
tems. "It's the only program 
with a database of over 
705,000 idea associations 
and is useful for anyone who 
communicates." 

Based on the concept that 
the mind works through asso- 
ciation, IdeaFisher (Fisher Idea 
Systems, 2222 Martin Street, 
Suite 101, Irvine, California 
92715: 800-289-4332 or 714- 
474-8111 [voice], 714-757- 
2896 [fax]; $495) uses the 
IdeaBank, a super thesaurus of 
ideas, to freely associate con- 
cepts. It also has a compare 
function to compare concepts 
and the QBank, which contains 
questions for planning, 

"When I have to define a 
problem, the first thing I do is 
crank up IdeaFisher," says 



David Sonnel of Integrated Spa- 
tial Solutions, a Blaine, Wash- 
ington, firm that creates market- 
ing programs and is also re- 
sponsible for global position- 
ing of 25 satellites. 

Sonnel uses both the 
IdeaBank and QBank when de- 
veloping marketing plans, 
while interviewing clients, and 
especially for creating crucial 
business proposals. He re- 
marks, "IdeaFisher structures 
the process and makes it hard- 
er to leave the important 
things out." 

Other software available to 
help with ideas includes The 
Idea Savings Bank (Micro Com- 
puter Resources, Division of 
MCR Agency, 6116 Merced Av- 
enue, Suite 81, Oakland, Cali- 
fornia 94611; 800-767-6797 
[voice], 510-444-6561 [fax]; 
SI 29.00), a ready-made data- 
base for storing and publish- 
ing ideas: Wisdom of the Ag- 
es (Micro Computer Resourc- 
es, S79.00), a collection of 
6500 quotations from the great- 
est thinkers of all time; and 
Idea Tree (Mountain House 
Publishing, Route 100, Waits- 
field, Vermont 05673; 800-639- 
5044 or 802-496-5000 [voice], 
802-496-4320 [fax]: S69.99), 
which helps chart and outline 
ideas. 

All the people interviewed 
for this article adopted the tech- 
niques from the programs and 
used them even when not us- 
ing the software. The software 
programs and methods don't 
create the ideas themselves 
and aren't the only ways to stim- 
ulate creativity. Beethoven stim- 
ulated ideas by pouring ice wa- 
ter over his head. Any method 
may be worth trying if it works. 
(Be careful not to spill the wa- 
ter on your keyboard!) 



Lynn Walford, a computer con- 
sultant and author in Los An- 
geles, is the author of Make 
Money with Your PC!, pub- 
lished by Aproprose. □ 



78 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



cannpuTE's 

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ARTWORKS 



Robert Bixby 



Scenario comes 

with simplilied tools 

an^ a collection 

of the clip art tiiat 

made Computer 

Support famous. And 

best of all, 

It's the first sten on 

an upgrade 

path that includes 

Graphics Editor. 



PRESENTATION 
AND PROJECTION 

Last month, 1 opened with a 
brief discussion of presenta- 
tion software. This month, I'd 
like to cover a little bit of pres- 
entation hardware before turn- 
ing to a look an an interesting 
entry-level graphics program. 
WatchiTljy has received 
some attention over the past 
couple of issues. I've had the 
opportunity to use it, and my 
observation is that it might be 
a good product for entertain- 
ment, particularly if you have 




cable service or rooftop anten- 
na access in your computer 
room, but that for presenta- 
tions and desktop publishing, 
it's not very useful. The quality 
of a broadcast television pic- 
ture is poor when compared to 
VGA graphics. And pictures 
captured electronically from a 
videotape or oft the air will not 
be of a high enough quality for 
publishing use {images from 
these sources have to be fed 
to the board in RF mode — 
there's no composite input). 
For the same price as the 
WatchlT!^ unit ($299), Circuit 
City has been advertising a 25- 
inch color television. What 
would you pay for a 25-inch 
VGA monitor? I liked the idea 
of WatchlTlyv, but while it 
might serve for pure entertain- 
ment, it won't be of much use 
in desktop publishing. 



Recently, I've been hearing 
from several companies that 
make translucent LCDs for 
use in conjunction with over- 
head projectors for presenta- 
tions. The idea isn't new, but 
there's a lot of competition in 
the area, and some of the hard- 
ware is exciting, though it's all 
fairly pricey. For picture quali- 
ty, I still think a VGA projection 
monitor would be preferable 
for a large group and an over- 
size monitor would be prefer- 
able for a small group. 

A VGA projection monitor 
can provide a display about 
as good as a slide projector's. 

A translucent 

LCD screen 
with an over- 
head projector 
delivers an im- 
age about as 
good as the 
overhead pro- 
jectors you re- 
member from 
school — grainy 
and washed 
out. I suspect 
that the differ- 
ence is that a 
VGA projec- 
tion monitor has three light 
sources converging on a sin- 
gle screen while an overhead 
projector has just one light 
source. In many presentation 
situations with a captive audi- 
ence (school classrooms, for 
example), a grainy picture is 
not a drawback. 

One translucent LCD mak- 
er is nVIEW (860 Omni Boule- 
vard, Newport News, Virginia 
23606; 800-736-8439). Its 
SpectraMini screen costs a 
mere $2,795. It's passive ma- 
trix and displays only 512 true 
colors. Also offered by nVIEW 
are the nSiGHT and Luminator 
self-contained projectors. The 
nSIGHT provides passive ma- 
trix LCD projection in 16 
shades of gray for $2,495, 
and the Luminator offers an ac- 
tive matrix LCD with 262,000 
true colors, multiple input, and 



audio for S9,995. 

If you're into software pub- 
lishing, you might be interest- 
ed to know that CD-ROM pub- 
lishing has jumped onto the 
desktop. Philips offers the 
CDD521 CD-ROM recorder 
for a list price of $5,995 
($7,995 with required soft- 
ware). Recordable CD-ROMs 
cost $40 each (with a mini- 
mum of ten per order). That 
may seem like a lot of money, 
but it's in line with the cost of 
a f^acintosh and LaserWriter 
in the mid 1980s, when desk- 
top publishing fell within the 
reach of the individual comput- 
er user. While the machine is 
designed for archiving and pre- 
mastering work and takes at 
least four hours to fill up a 
690MB CD, the capability is 
there for anyone to use. Ac- 
cording to Philips, most custom- 
ers are lawyers, doctors, and 
accountants, who use the ma- 
chine to make copies of legal 
and financial records. Unlike 
disk files, documents stored 
on a CD-ROM can't be altered 
or overwritten, which makes a 
CD-ROM a compact yet se- 
cure storage medium. To find 
out more about the CDD521, 
call Philips at (800) 722-6224. 

Arts & Letters Graphics Edi- 
tor has a new little brother; Sce- 
nario. It's the perfect way to 
get started in computer graph- 
ics. All of the tools are highly 
simplified and highly intuitive. 
For example, there's a grid 
that can be displayed on the 
screen, but the program lacks 
snap. The menus are simpli- 
fied versions of the Arts & Let- 
ters interface. The program 
comes with a small collection 
of the clip art that made Com- 
puter Support (Scenario's mak- 
er) famous, including land- 
scapes, animals, and air- 
planes. And best of all. It's the 
first step on an upgrade path 
that includes Graphics Editor. 
But most people (and kids in 
particular) will find everything 
they need in Scenaho. o 



80 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



COMPUTE Bookshelf 

Official Guides For Your PC 



Pro Links: 

The Official Guide to Links and 

Microsoft Golf 

For all versions of Links and Microsoft Golf. Includes 

hole-by-hole lips for oil nine courses. 

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TKe Official Book of King's Quest, 
Third Edition 

Covers King's Quest I to VI. Hints, tips, and maps. 

$16.95/C274S 

The Official Book of Ultima, 
Second Edition 

Covers Ultima t through VI, Sovage Empire, Martian 

Dreams, and the 

Nintendo versions. Hints, tips, mops, and solutions. 

$18.9S/C2648 

The Official Guide to Sid Meier's 
Civilization 

Includes insider hints, tips, and sirolegies. 
$14.95/C2591 

The Official Guide to Sid Meier's 
Railroad Tycoon 

'If you love Railroad Tycoon ... gel 

Russel Sipe's Book.' 

Jerry Povrnelle, Byte magazine 

$12.9S/C2443 

The Official Book of Leisure Suit Larry, 
Second Edition 

Written with the help of Al bwe. Covers all of 
Larry's adventures. 

$14.95/C2567 

The Official Book of Police Quest 

Covers Police Quest I through III. 
Includes [ust the right hints and tips. Complete maps. 

$14.95/C2605 



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The Official Guide to 

Roger Wilco's Space Adventures 

Covers Spce Quest 1 through IV. 

Hundreds of hints and clues. Complete maps. 

$14.95/C2370 

Spelicasting 101: The Official 
Hint Book 

Written by the staff at legend Entertainment Com- 
pany, publishers of Spellcasting 101 . 
$9.95/C2583 

Other Books from COMPUTE for Your PC 
A-Train Railroading 

The connprehensive guide. 
$16.95/C2737 

COMPUTE Magazine's Power Tips 

Our readers favorite hints and 

tips for getting more from your PC. Compiled by 

the editors al COMPUTE 

magazine. 

$16.95/C2761 

The Big Book of PC Sports 

A must for ever/ computer s{X)rts fan. 
$14.95/C2400 

Desktop Publishing with GeoWorks 

From GeoWorks Press. 

The comprehensive guide to DTP with GeoWorks. 

$18.95/C2532 

101 Essential Word for Windows Tips 

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101 Essential Windows Tips 
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101 Essenh'al Excel for Windows Tips 

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DYES! 



Please send me the books listed below 



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StfilA 


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Mail to: COMPUTE Books, c/o CCC, 
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PATHWAYS 



Steven Anzovin 



LIVE LONG 
AND PROSPER 

On a cool September night in 
1966, 1 curled up in front of the 
tube to watch the first episode 
of a new show that promised 
to be like no other ever seen 
on network TV. 

As the now-famous saucer 
section appeared on the TV 
screen, i was immediately and 
permanently hooked. The 
show was, of course, the orig- 
inal "Star Trek." 

Not only did I wait impatient- 
ly for each new adventure of 




The key to star 

Trek's longevity is 

not in the 

hardware or in the 

writing but in 

tiow fans feel about 

the characters. 



the Enterprise and its intrepid 
crew, but I also built Star Trek 
model kits, read Star Trek 
books (even one on how to sub- 
mit a script to the producers, 
which I dreamed of doing 
right up until the show went off 
the air three years later), and 
argued over the deeper mean- 
ing of each episode with a 
small circle of like-minded, star- 
ry-eyed friends. 

Almost twenty-seven years 
later, the longevity and popu- 
larity of Star Trek is something 
of a mystery to me. Older and 
not so starry-eyed, I find that 
the old "Star Trek" is painfully, 
predictably, laughably bad. 
Sure, the old series now quali- 
fies as vintage cheese, but 
there's only so much cheese 
most people can take. 



Nor is Star Trek's popularity 
a matter of great art triumph- 
ing over the marketplace, 
since nobody (except maybe 
the late, great Gene Rodden- 
berry and a few truly intense 
fans) could claim that the hilar- 
ious old "Star Trek," the wildly 
uneven Star Trek movies, the 
deadly dull "Star Trek — The 
Next Generation," or "Deep 
Space Nine" are anything like 
masterpieces. 

Maybe the key can be 
found in how Star Trek fans 
fee! about the characters. 
Kirk, Spook, Bones, Picard, Da- 
ta, Worf, and the rest are like 
family members whose every 
action is now familiar — and per- 
haps laughable — but no less 
loved for all that. 

Guiltily, I have to admit that 
I still enjoy the hammy histrion- 
ics, the sophomoric bridge ban- 
ter, the wonderfully tacky 
sets, and the thhilingly melodra- 
matic score of the old "Star 
Trek." My brother and I, not 
close in other ways, can tune 
in to a "Star Trek" rerun, recite 
each line of awful dialogue, 
and feel closer than we do at 
any other time. I even watch 
"Star Trek — The Next Genera- 
tion," maybe because I feel 
that I owe it to the Federation. 
Compared to the perilous, un- 
predictable real world, the uni- 
verse of Star Trek, with its sim- 
ple heroic values, consistent 
characters, and happy end- 
ings, is, well, comforting. 

Whatever the reason for 
Star Trek's success, market- 
eers have jumped on the band- 
wagon. Today, there are 
scads more Star Trek goodies 
available than there were 
when I was a kid. And. as be- 
fits a show that inspired many 
viewers to get into computing, 
several Star Trek-themed prod- 
ucts are nov/ offered on disk. 

There've been computer 
games based on Star Trek con- 
cepts since the dawn of per- 
sonal computing. 

One recent authorized en- 



try is the Star Trek: 25th Anni- 
versary game, from Interplay 
Productions (17922 Fitch Av- 
enue, Irvine, California 92714; 
714-553-6655). This RPG lets 
you maneuver Kirk, Spock, 
and Bones (rendered in the 
hobbit-proportioned bodies 
apparently required in such 
games) around the Enterprise 
and on a variety of alien 
worlds. 

Digitized scenes and 
sounds from the original series 
add the necessary authentici- 
ty, and you can even kill off a 
nameless ensign on every mis- 
sion, just as happens in each 
episode. 

Star Trek-flavored utilities 
are a new development. Berke- 
ley Systems (2095 Rose 
Street, Berkeley, California 
94709; 510-770-8787) has re- 
leased Star Trek: The Screen 
Saver, a collection of modules 
for the company's popular Af- 
ter Dark Windows screen sav- 
er. Sound Source's Logical Col- 
lection is a set of audio clips 
from the original series for use 
with Windows. (Contact Sound 
Source at 2985 East Hillcrest 
Drive. Suite A, Westlake Vil- 
lage, California 91362; 805- 
494-9996.) 

The final frontier of Star 
Trek fandom may be coming 
soon to your local mall. The 
people who brought you Virtu- 
ality the virtual reality (VR) ar- 
cade game, are developing a 
new role-playing VR game 
based on "Star Trek — The 
Next Generation." 

Up to 50 players at a time 
will supposedly be able to play 
various roles on each installa- 
tion, manning (or womanning) 
the bridge, holodeck, and oth- 
er stations while fighting off the 
Borg and repainng the hull in- 
tegrity latching system. 

Do we want to live Star 
Trek, not just watch it? Will over- 
exposure finally kill our love for 
the Enterprise and its crew? 
Those are questions that even 
Spock couldn't answer. o 



82 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



ALL FLIGHT SIMS 
ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL 

Some Are More Real Than Others 




Real- 
world 
graphics. 



Jncredibly 
detailed 
mission 
planning. 



You've pl;i}ed the latest fliglit s\m games, now brace yourself 
for the real tiling. When it comes to (irst-class auilienticit}', 
dowii-and-dirty realism, and a target-rich environment, nobody 
comes close to Tornado. 

Pilot the Gulf War's most gutsy strike aircr;ift al breakneck 
si)eeds over three explosive combat areas loaded with real- 
world details deUvered at a high frame rate - buildings, 
structures, roads, power lines, trees imd much, much more. 
Prom tanks to TV' tow^ers to riv^ers ;md r;iilwuys, Tornado's 
unsiH'passed 3-D world is so authentic, you can see the mesh 
offence surrounding a communication tower 

At sea level, there is no faster figliter jet than a Tornado. 

Hugging the earth at a heart-stopping 
s])eed, tlie Tornado is ;ui extremely 
tlifl'icult target. Meanwiiile, it c;m 
deliver nearly 10 Ions of the latest 



Tornado, from the 
a)in[>aiiy that brought 
yon Ibeaward-iviniiing 
' Man f 3.0. 




Fly missions 
with up 
to five other 
Tornados. 



"smart" and submunition weaponry 

with pinpoint accuracy in any weather, day or night 

And it's not just you against the enem\'. Up 10 Rve other 
Tornados help you corner your adversary in liiah-speed 
synchronized attacks that cielermine the outcnnif of your 
missions and the success or failure of the campaign. 

Tornado even delivers the most sopliisticafed mission 
planning ever seen on a home computer A satellite overview 
of the airfield and the surrounding areas lets you spi and 
amdyze \our flight plan and profile And the mo-i! intricate 
fighter mission planning system e\'er devised lets you set 

Dl the autopilot parameters and check 
your wavpoint flight !imes -md fuel 
consumption 
Tornado 
Realisin that'll blow you away. 



Digital Integration 



Distributed by Spectrum HoloByte 

Spectrum HoloByte, inc. 2490 Ivlariner Square In-jp, 'MmiS.ia, "A 94'501 

For Visa/MasterCard orders call 24 houfs a -lay, 7 d""' a • eek: 

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For (ectinical questions call: 1-510-522-1 164 fM-i=: gan- 5nrr PST) 



Digital Integration is a trademarlc of Digital Integration Ltd. Spectrum HoloByte is a registered tradernar1< of Spectrum Hc'oBytr. Inr 

Circle Reader Service Number 2BB 



DISCOVERY CHOICE 



imm 



You'll find yourself peeking over your 
children's shoulders as they explore this 
powerfully entertaining story. 

Clayton Walnum 



JUST GRANDMA 
AND ME 

If you've been looking for an 
entertaining way to lielp your 
children learn to read, Brgder- 
bund has the program for 
you. Just Grandma and fvle, 
the first title in the company's 
new Living Books series, will 
captivate your child. It's an in- 
teractive storybook that fully us- 
es the multimedia capability 
of your computer. 

Children's software and 
Braderbund go hand in 
hand. Over the past several 
years, the company has creat- 
ed perhaps the best chil- 
dren's software library in the 
business. Programs like Kid 
Pix, The Treehouse, and The 
Playroom, all of which provide 
an interactive learning environ- 
ment, are adored by kids — 
and, of course, by their par- 
ents. Now, with the introduc- 
tion of the Living Books se- 
ries, Br0derbund is adding 
yet more extraordinary titles to 
an already superior product 
line. 

Just Grandma and Me. 
based on a book by Mercer 
Mayer, is a delightful romp 
through a storybook come to 
life. From the first page to the 
last, readers will be enthralled 
with this new style of story- 
telling that is just a hop away 
from a fully interactive car- 
toon. 

When the program begins, 
the story's main character, Lit- 
tle Critter, guides children 
through the process of select- 
ing options and getting the sto- 
ry going. For example, using 
full animation and digitized 
sound. Little Critter tells your 
child, "To have the story read 
to you, press this button. To 
play inside the story, press 
this button." As he speaks, he 




points to the appropriate but- 
ton onscreen. It's a cinch for 
even very young children to 
run the program without adult 
assistance. 

The first option. Read to 
Me, lets children sit back and 
enjoy a fully animated reading 
of the booi< without having to 
interact further with the pro- 
gram. One after another, the 
program displays and reads 
each page of the story, high- 
lighting the words as they are 
read — an invaluable learning 
aid for early readers. After the 
program reads each page, a 
minicartoon takes over, filling 
out the current scene. For ex- 
ample, on the first page. 
Grandma and Little Critter 
hold a short conversation 
about their upcoming trip; 
then a bus trundles down the 
road, stops before them, and 
allows them to climb aboard. 

Although Just Grandma 
and Me is targeted at chil- 
dren, you'd have to be a cold 
adult indeed not to be affect- 
ed by its delightful story and 
sharp sense of wit. The car- 
toon sequences range from 
charming to hilarious. In fact, 
adults, just like children, will 



find it difficult to quit before 
the entire story has run its 
course. Also like the kids, 
most parents will enjoy seeing 
the story again and again. So 
although the program re- 
quires little or no adult assis- 
tance, it's likely that the "big 
people" will linger once the 
program has started, looking 
over their offspring's shoul- 
ders as the story unfolds. 

In typical Broderbund fash- 
ion. Just Grandma and Me 
goes way beyond being a sim- 
ple storytelling program. 
When children choose the Let 
Me Play button, they can inter- 
act with virtually any element 
of any page in the book. 
Such interaction leads them in- 
to a wonderful, witty world of 
zaniness that is not only fun 
but also — dare I say it? — ed- 
ucational. And while children 
can choose the Let Me Play 
option to play in the story start- 
ing from page 1 , a separate 
option screen allows them to 
choose, by picture, the page 
to which they'd like to go, im- 
mediately jumping them to fa- 
vorite scenes and eliminating 



84 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



any need to wait for preced- 
ing pages to flip past. 

Some examples of the silli- 
ness to be found in the Play 
mode include beach umbrel- 
las that snap shut and rocket 
into the sky; clams that sing 
in perfect three-part harmony; 
a dog that scratches furiously 
as fleas leap from his fur and 
escape into the ocean; a star- 
fish that dons a top hat and 
cane and performs the old 
soft-shoe; a raccoon that 
steps off her beach blanket 
and jumps around, yelping, 
on the hot sand; fish that 
spray unsuspecting charac- 
ters with sea water; a fence 
that can be played like a xy- 
lophone; and crabs that both- 
er nearby fish. Children can 
easily activate dozens and 
dozens of other similar ob- 
jects with single mouse 
clicks. 

On the educational side, 
each page's text is also inter- 
active. When a child clicks on 
a word, the word is highlight- 
ed and pronounced. This is a 
perfect way for children not on- 
ly to learn to read new words 
but also to discover the way 
in which sentences are con- 
structed from the words. 

Just Grandma and Me's 
graphics, which are dis- 
played in 256-color, 640 x 
480 Super VGA, are colorful 
and detailed, drawing read- 
ers irresistibly into the cartoon 
fantasy. As already men- 
tioned, every scene features 
topnotch animation sequenc- 
es, scenes so good that they 
approach cartoon quality. 
And the careful attention the 
designers paid to facial ex- 
pressions adds much to the 
characterization. Hundreds of 
digital voices and sound ef- 
fects further enhance the sto- 
ry: Waves splash, breezes 
blow, birds chirp, cows moo, 



helicopters clatter overhead, 
telephones ring, chimneys 
chuff, dogs bark, radios play 
music, and on and on. 

As if this weren't enough. 
Just Grandma and Me can 
read the story to your child in 
three languages: English, 
Spanish, and Japanese. 
While the main goal of devel- 
oping a multilingual program 
was more than likely an effort 
to increase its market share, 
doing so also enhances the 
story's educational value. Not 
only is it fascinating to see 
and hear the story in another 
language (especially in an ex- 
otic language like Japanese), 
but older children can also 
get some valuable lessons in 
what it's like to speak a differ- 
ent language. Unfortunately, 
the package doesn't include 
a multilingual dictionary that 
cross-references the words 
used in the book, an option 
that would've been helpful to 
parents and older children. 

For those who savor tradi- 
tional storytelling, Just Grand- 
ma and Me includes the orig- 
inal book by Mercer Mayer. 
Children can follow along in 
the book as the program 
reads the story And. more im- 
portant, parents can sit with 
their children and read the sto- 
ry the old-fashioned way. 
There's probably not a better 
way for parents to share qual- 
ity time with their children 
than sitting close, reading a 
book together. In fact, many 
child experts say that young 
children should be read to sev- 
eral times a day 

Just Grandma and Me is su- 
perb, but it's a rare piece of 
software that doesn't suffer at 
least a minor flaw or two. How- 
ever, if you try to find a fly in 
this ointment, you'll have to 
dig deep indeed. In fact, if 
Just Grandma and Me has a 




negative side, it's only that it 
has high hardware 

expectations: an 80386SX or 
compatible with Windows 3. 1 , 
a CD-ROM drive, a sound 
card, a Super VGA monitor, 
and four megabytes of RAM. 
Still, it's programs like Just 
Grandma and Me that encour- 
age people to upgrade their 
machines, and Broderbund is 
to be applauded for taking 
the lead in advancing the 
state of the art of educational 
multimedia software. 

In short, this Is a virtuoso 
performance from a company 
dedicated to excellence in 
educational software. An elec- 
tronic storybook overflowing 
with one enchanting discov- 
ery after another, Just Grand- 
ma and Me truly demon- 
strates the power of multime- 
dia computing. It's also the 
perfect babysitter. 

circle Reader Service Number 392 Ci 



ison'i^'titible 
(80386SX 
compatible), 4MB 
RAM, Super VGA. 
CD-ROM drive, any 
major sound card, 
Windows 3.1 (or 
3.0 wilti 
Muititnedia 
Extensions)— 
$49.95 plus S4.00 
sliipping and 
handling and state 
sales tax (direct 
from Braterbund), 
$69.95 (suggesled 
retail) 

BRBDERBUND 

SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 6125 

Novalo, CA 94948- 

6125 

{800] 521-6263 



MAY 1993 COMPUTE 85 



MULTIMEDIA PC 



David English 



User-rrlendly 

synttiestzed sound 

lias finally 

arrived for tiie PC. 



MUSIC FOR 
THE MASSES 

Even if you're not a musician, 
you'll soon hear a lot about 
General MIDI Not only is Gen- 
eral MIDI making it easier for 
nonmusicians to control elec- 
tronic keyboards and key- 
boardless MIDI modules, it 
may also dramatically improve 
the sound quality of the 
games we play on our PCs. 

First, a little background. 
MIDI (Musical Instrument Dig- 
ital Interface) is a communica- 
tions standard that allows elec- 
tronic musical instruments to 
talk to computers and to each 
other. Mostly, it communicates 
which note is being played, 
how long the note is being 
played, and which instrument 
sound is playing it. When you 



MIDI is the industry's attempt to 
set the order of the first 128 
sounds so that you can count 
on a grand piano being in po- 
sition 1, a choir pad being in 
position 92, and MIDI note 54 
always calling up a tambourine. 
The first General MIDI de- 
vice was the Roland SC-55 
Sound Canvas. Because of its 
excellent sound and great 
price ($795), many profession- 
als use it to supplement their 
professional MIDI equipment. 
The Sound Canvas has also 
proved to be popular with mul- 
timedia developers whocansim- 
ply plug it into a MIDI-compat- 
ible sound card and drive it 
with any MIDI-based music pro- 
gram. Other General MIDI de- 
vices that have entered the mar- 
ket over the last 18 months 




record a musical performance 
with MIDI, you're not recording 
the music itself. You're record- 
ing the least amount of informa- 
tion that will enable a synthesiz- 
er or MIDI module to re-create 
the original performance. 

Unfortunately a MIDI record- 
ing made on one synthesizer 
usually doesn't sound very 
good on another synthesizer. 
The note on/off and duration da- 
ta usually matches, but the or- 
der of the instrument sounds is 
different. Because a Korg 01/ 
W might have a steel guitar in 
the same position that a Roland 
D-50 has a church organ, that 
Bach fugue you recorded on 
your 0-50 might come out 
sounding like a Willie Nelson 
tune on your 01/W. General 



include Roland's SCC-1 (a PC- 
card version of the Sound Can- 
vas), Turtle Beach's MultiSound 
(a sound card that includes the 
chip set to the popular E-mu Pro- 
teus/1 synthesizer), and Crea- 
tive Labs' Sound Blaster 16 
ASP {a sound card that offers 
anoptional General MIDI daugh- 
ter board). 

One by one, the major key- 
board manufacturers are tak- 
ing their high-end synthesizer 
technology and creating low- 
end General MIDI boxes. 
These keyboardless MIDI box- 
es contain the kinds of sounds 
that would've cost thousands of 
dollars just four or five years 
ago. A good case in point is 
Yamaha's new TGI 00 (Yama- 
ha, P.O. Box 6600, Buena 
Park, California 90622-6600; 
714-522-9011; $449). It 
weighs about two pounds, has 



192 instrument sounds and ten 
drum kits, lets you play as 
many as 15 instrument sounds 
and one drum kit simultaneous- 
ly, and contains its own digital 
reverb and delay effects. It al- 
so includes a special port — in 
addition to the standard MIDI 
connectors — that connects it to 
the serial port of a PC or Mac. 
This lets you use the unit with 
a laptop or other computer that 
lacks a MIDI interface. Best of 
all, the TGI 00 sounds great. It 
has a hch, full sound with es- 
pecially strong strings and pi- 
anos. It uses the same AWM 
(Advanced Wave Memory) tech- 
nology that's used in Yamaha's 
professional-quality SY99 and 
SY85 synthesizers. 

Speaking of Yamaha's pro- 
fessional-quality synthesizers, i 
was also able to try out the new 
SY85 ($1 ,995). If you want to 
go beyond General MIDI and 
design your own complex 
sounds, this is one killer ma- 
chine. It includes 6MB of ROM- 
based sounds that sound as 
good as anything you'll hear on 
a record or movie soundtrack. 
In addition to the usual array of 
buttons and knobs for editing 
and storing your sounds, the 
SY85 includes eight slider con- 
trols that let you quickly alter 
your sounds in realtime. The 
SY85 also includes a 61 -key, 
30-note polyphonic keyboard; 
512K RAM (expandable to 
3.5MB); its own disk drive; 
great-sounding programmable 
effects; and an on-board se- 
quencer. (For even more terri- 
fic sounds for the SY85, 
TG100, Sound Canvas, and oth- 
er MIDI synthesizers, contact 
Sound Source at 800-877-4778 
and Pro-Rec at 212-675-5606.) 

As for the game connection 
I mentioned earlier, there's a 
movement to establish Gener- 
al MIDI as a replacement for 
the tinny FM technology on the 
sound cards. Imagine hearing 
a real trumpet or organ when 
your hero enters the villain's cas- 
tle for the first time, O 



86 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



Hottest Siharewate Game 
". ..more like an interactive movi 
Shareware Update 

"Almost single-handedly justifyi' 
shareware..." jl, . 

VideoGames & Computer Entertainment 

"The first game technologically capable of. . .immersing 
the player in a threatening environment." 
Covtputer Gaming World 



%1W^"^ 



VtJUJ^* 



Imprisoned in a Nazi Fortress 
In an act of desperation you 
overpower your cell guard. 
Standing over his fallen body, 
you frantically grab for his 
gun. Deep in the beUy of a 
Nazi dungeon, y( 
escape — or die Ir 

■ Experience a 25^olor, smooth 
scrolling virtual reality 

■ Hear professionally < 
music with an AdLib^, ' 
Blaster™, or compatible : :, 

■ Four levels of game play maKe* 
it enjoyable for the novice to gf^ 
the experienced player '^ 

H Battle with knives, pistols, and 
machine guns |j 

■ Easy to start piayingjand _ m 
instantly absorbing^<l| 



Call Toll Free 1-800-GAME123 

For the cost of shipping and handling, only $4.00, you'll receive 
Episode One, Escape from Wolfeustein. Or download Episode One 
and pay no shipping and handling. Call the Software Creations BBS 
and check out our FREE Apogee file section. BBS Phone Lines are: 

• (508) 365-2359:2400 BAUD ■ 

• (508) 368-7036:2400-9600 / ll ' ' ' ^ ' 

• (508) 368-4137;2400-24.4K L 

Episodes tioo through six are sold separately and can be purchased by P.O. Box 476389 

calling Apogee's toll-free number, shown above. Garland, TX 75047 ^-^ 

circle Header Service Number 300 — ^^— 

Not Recommended for Younger Viewers Due to Realistic Depictions of Violence 

Wolfenstein 3-D requires an IBM or 100% compatible computer with 640K RAM, a VGA graphics card, and a hard disk drive. Extended memory (XMS), expanded 
memory (EMS), joystick, and mouse are optional. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. Sound Blaster is a registered trademark of 

Crealive Labs, inc. AdLib is a registered trademark of AdLib, Inc. 







ENTERTAINMENT CHOICE 



Get lost In this 
romantic, action-packed 
adventure. 

Scott A. May 



KING'S QUEST Vf: 
HEIR TODAX GONE 
TOMORROW 

Sparked by love and guided 
by an enigmatic sense of des- 
tiny, King's Quest VI: Heir To- 
day, Gone Tomorrow beck- 
ons all to join its noble adven- 
ture. Bigger and bolder than 
ever, this is an adventure 
few can resist. 

The sixth installment 
in Roberta Williams's 
award-winning graphics ad- 
venture leads the series 
down a familiar path, but one 
emblazoned with story ele- 
ments far richer than its 
predecessors. Aided by 
some of the most creative 
minds in the business — writer 
Jane Jensen, art director Wil- 
liam Skirvin. and composer 
Chris Braymen — Williams has 
assembled her most ambi- 
tious work to date. 

Fans of the series wiil sink 
comfortably into the continu- 
ing saga of the adventure- 
prone first family of Daventry: 
King Graham, Queen Valan- 
ice, and children Alexander 
and Rosella. Newcomers 
needn't feel left out: As in ear- 
lier games, the story is com- 
pletely self-contained, A mar- 
velous introductory sequence 
sets the stage while establish- 
ing a link to the previous epi- 
sode, Absence Makes the 
Heart Go Yonder. In that sto- 
ry, Daventry's royal family is 
kidnapped by the evil wizard 
Mordack. King Graham jour- 
neys to the warlock's island 
stronghold and rescues his 
family along with a beautiful 
girl, who turns out to be Prin- 
cess Cassima. She takes a fan- 
cy to Alexander, and he, deep- 
ly smitten, wonders if he'll 
ever hear from her again. 




At long last, he's given a 
sign. He sees the image of 
Cassima in his father's magic 
mirror. Seeing her cry out in 
sorrow, Alexander sets sail for 
her home. Sadly, his journey 
ends in disaster when his 
ship breaks apart in a violent 
storm. He awakes on the Isle 
of the Crown, home to his be- 
loved Cassima. 

Assuming the role of Alexan- 
der, you now begin your ad- 
venture. Among your first 
tasks: Seek out the royal pal- 
ace, where you'll meet the sus- 
piciously belligerent vizier, Al- 
hazred. He claims the prin- 
cess is in seclusion, mourning 
the recent deaths of her par- 
ents, and has requested not 
to be disturbed. You also 
learn that Alhazred and Cas- 
sima are soon to be wed. The 
vizier gives you a stern warn- 
ing to leave the Land of 
Green Isles. Saddened and 
confused, you begin to doubt 
the image cast in the magic 
mirror. Still, you can't shake 
the ominous feeling that some- 
thing is terribly wrong. 

Although the game's cen- 
tral theme is readily apparent, 



your direction and goal are 
purposely vague. Through hun- 
dreds of locations in the 
Land of Green Isles, Williams 
has cut many paths, each 
crisscrossing to one of sever- 
al different endings. Ultimate- 
ly, the course you follow deter- 
mines your difficulty level, 
opening the game to newcom- 
ers and seasoned veterans 
alike. This flexible, open-end- 
ed design also means that 
you can reach the end and 
yet still experience only a 
small portion of everything the 
game has to offer. Replay val- 
ue in a graphic adventure? 
What a concept! 

The game unfolds in a 
world significantly larger than 
those of its predecessors. Ini- 
tial investigation reveals four 
main regions, each with 
unique geography, inhabi- 
tants, and puzzles- 

One of the game's main as- 
sets is Sierra's evolving play- 
er interface. Gone is the tradi- 
tional text parser: it's been 
replaced with a more intuitive 
graphical cursor, By simply 
clicking the right mouse but- 
ton, you cycle through four ali- 



as COr^PUTE MAY 1993 



purpose actions: Walk. Talk, 
Look, and Touch. Select the 
object to be acted upon and 
then press the left mouse but- 
ton. Manipulating the hun- 
dreds of interactive screen el- 
ements quickly becomes sec- 
ond nature. A hidden top- 
down menu offers additional 
control of inventory items and 
game mechanics such as 
Save, Restore, Speed, and 
Graphic Detail. 

How grand is your cru- 
sade? To put it in rather outra- 
geous historical perspective, 
the first King's Quest, re- 
leased in 1985, weighed in at 
a mere 128K. By contrast, 
this truly king-sized adventure 
tips the scales at 18MB. Noth- 
ing goes to waste, however, 
as Sierra pushes the enve- 
lope of disk-based program- 
ming. The package contains 
both 256-color VGA and 16- 
color EGA versions, although 
viewing the game's exquisite 
scanned artwork at anything 
less than its full-color palette 
w/ould be a waste. 

Typical of Sierra's commit- 
ment to cutting-edge graphic 
quality is the introduction, 
based on a 1.2-gigabyte ani- 
mation by Kronos, the Holly- 
wood special effects wizards 
known for their work in Bat- 
man Returns and Lawnmower 
Man. Like all of the game's 
minicartoons, the introduction 
showcases extraordinary cin- 
ematic finesse with its unique 
camera angles, 3-D panning, 
long tracking shots, and vid- 
eo-quality animation. Al- 
though the sampled speech 
is clear, it's rather stilted. Sier- 
ra would do well to hire profes- 
sional actors for its next en- 
deavor. For those who are con- 
cerned with hard drive space, 
this space-hogging introduc- 
tion can be easily deleted. 

Other graphic innovations in- 



clude use of "pather" technol- 
ogy, a type of collision-detec- 
tion system that ensures more 
realistic movement of on- 
screen characters. Instead of 
getting stuck or walking 
through props, your character 
automatically chooses the 
most intelligent path when 
moving from point A to point 
B. The game also boasts im- 
proved depth of field, accom- 
plished by scaling animated 
characters as they move 
from foreground to back- 
ground and vice versa. Final- 
ly subtle use of spot anima- 
tion and peripheral sound ef- 
fects greatly enriches the sto- 
ry's ambiance. On the beach, 
waves lap the shoreline while 
gulis squawk overhead. As 
you move slowly through a 
cave, shadows cast by the 
flickering light of your candle 
dance on Jagged walls. All of 
these techniques help sus- 
pend disbelief — one of the 
most important requirements 
in any fantasy — and further 
the illusion of reality. 

The bulk of the game's puz- 
zles merely require knowing 
which items to use when. 
Along the tenderfoot trail, 
most puzzles are painfully ob- 
vious. Players are helped 
along with telltale hints from 
not-so-subtle character dia- 
logue and glaring onscreen 
clues. The further you stray 
from the beaten path, the 
more intricate and challeng- 
ing the puzzles become, in- 
cluding spell casting, arcade- 
style interaction, and occasion- 
al timed events. Particularly in- 
teresting are the Logic Cliffs 
and deadly catacomb floor 
traps, although solutions to 
both are spelled out in the 50- 
page guidebook. 

One of the game's few short- 
comings is common to the 
genre: Many solutions require 




tedious backtracking to pick 
up and deliver items, making 
you feel less like a brave ad- 
venturer than an overworked 
courier. 

Williams and Jensen careful- 
ly balance the story line to at- 
tract players of every age. gen- 
der, and skill level. Those who 
love action will find plenty to 
pump their adrenaline, yet 
they won't be put off by the 
game's gentle, romantic side. 
Likewise, this tale of unrequit- 
ed love will inspire the usual- 
ly timid to complete its chal- 
lenging quests. 

Sierra describes King's 
Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone To- 
morrow as an adventure so 
vast you may never experi- 
ence it all. You'll have the 
time of your life trying to 
prove this claim wrong. 

circle Reader Service Number 393 f^ 



IBM PC or compatiDie 
(80286 compalible); 
e^OK RAM; 16-COlor 
EGA or 256-colar VGA 
(only VGA tor Tandy); 
hard drive (20.2MB 
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(800) 326-6654 



MAY 1993 COMPUTE 89 



GAMEPLAY 



Paul C. Schuytema 



SPAGHETTI 
POLITICS 




Now there are tools for those 
of us who want to test the wa- 
ters of superpower govern- 
ance, to dabble in despotism 
or delve into democracy. D. C. 
True has developed Shadow 
President, a simulation of pres- 
idential foreign policy. Spec- 
trum HoloByte offers Crisis in 
the Kremlin, a simulation of do- 
mestic policy in the former So- 
viet Union. 

Shadow President places 
you in the Oval Office and 




Power— getting it 
antf keeping 

it— drives political 
simulations. 



hurls the world in your face. 
You're presented with a map 
of the world, and selecting 
countries allows you to exam- 
ine the influence, ambition, 
and ethical levels of their gov- 
ernments. You also have ac- 
cess to a wide range of advis- 
ers, from the chief of staff to 
the director of the CIA. 

Shadow President is a flexi- 
ble simulation that allows you 
to set your own agenda: world 
peace, ending hunger, or to- 
tal world domination. You 
start out on June 1, 1990. 

This game made me appre- 
ciate how complex and convo- 
luted the world order is. Even 
my best intentions were sty- 
mied by opposing ideologies. 
When I took office, 1 wanted to 



do right by the world, and I 
thought I would start with the 
war between Ethiopia and 
Somalia. But neither side want- 
ed my help— no troops, no 
peace envoys, no money, 
nothing. I was Don Quixote 
with no windmills to battle. 

Beyond being a fascinating 
game. Shadow President is 
quite an education in interna- 
tional politics. 

When Robin Antonick and 
Brad Stock were tossing 
around their ideas for a presi- 
dential simulation back in 
1984, they had no idea what 
an effort it would be. After do- 
ing some research. Stock 
came to the conclusion that 
some research just wasn't 
enough. 

He enrolled in the doctoral 
program in political science at 
Tufts University and spent sev- 
en years studying international 
politics. 

After years of study, he had 
learned enough about interna- 
tional relations to be asked to 
brief the State Department be- 
fore a NATO meeting. 

By converting Stock's stud- 
ies into a complex array of al- 
gorithms, the programmers at 
D. C, True were able to blend 
the formulas with the compre- 
hensive world data from CIA 
World Factbook to create a dy- 
namic, living world. 

And they expect me to be 
able to run the thing? 

Shadow President is great 
for kids. It will provide them 
with a window on the mysteri- 
ous connections and relations 
they hear about on the news. 

Beyond the borders of the 
United States, the Soviet Un- 
ion was once the most power- 
ful nation on earth, and Crisis 
in the Kremlin by Spectrum 
HoloByte puts you at the helm 
of that late, great superpower. 
In the early summer of 1985, 
you, as president, can elect to 
govern as a Hard-liner, a Re- 
formist, or a Nationalist. 

The objective is simple: 



stay in power. But the means 
are much more difficult. Histor- 
ical events unfold in much the 
same way they did in those 
years: Republics attempt to se- 
cede, Chernobyl nearly melts 
down, and the U.S. urges 
weapon reductions. 

Larry Barbu, the designer 
of Crisis, not only wanted to 
make the simulation real but al- 
so wanted an end product 
that didn't look like a model. 
As you attempt to find a safe 
path through the domestic 
and international crises, infor- 
mation comes at you in a myr- 
iad of ways: jokes, phone 
calls from foreign ministers, 
and television broadcasts. 

What I learned in Crisis was 
that compromise is the only 
tool that allows any progress 
but that sometimes it isn't 
enough. 

I held the Soviet Union to- 
gether for 12 years (actually, 
a handful of republics had 
seceded), and all of the indi- 
cators showed that things 
were improving: health, educa- 
tion, food, exports, and for- 
eign relations. I was even able 
to survive a popular election, 
but I made one fatal mistake: 
I cut the military budget too 
deeply, and there was a back- 
ash. Even popular support is 
useless against an assassin 
(but the state news reports 
fabricated a natural demise). 

So after 12 years of hard 
work, 1 was out of the picture. 

I learned something from 
these games. The political 
world is much murkier than I 
had ever imagined, and ration- 
al thought is not the panacea 
I once believed it was. Maybe 
if political malcontents the 
world over could cut their 
teeth on these simulations, 
they could get a good feel of 
this global spaghetti bowl we 
live in. As for me, I'm going to 
dole out another packet of hu- 
manitarian aid before I get re- 
ally mad and throw some mis- 
siles at the problem. o 



90 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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Circle Reader Service Number 156 



By Paul C. Schuytema 



/m deck of cards is untmposing all by itself, 
v^^j^^but put those cards in the hands of a deal- 
f_/ \_/ er, and they seem to come alive. Fifty-two 
cards. That's all there are. And yet that finite number 
yields an almost infinite array of games. One of the 
most popular of these permutations is poker, a game of 
posturing and anticipating, all to create a hand of cards 
numerically superior to the others. 

Poker has been with us for centuries, evolving from 
the French game of Gilet in the sixteenth century. During 
the French Revolution, the first serious betting tech- 
niques were applied to the game, and later, the English 
added the skill of bluffing. Poker, almost more than any 
other card game, is focused on a system of wagering 
which adds interest and financial reward to the game. 
Close on the heels of poker in terms of sheer popularity 
is the game of blackjack, or twenty-one, a fast and sim- 
ple game that draws crowds at nearly any casino. 

Since the very earliest days of 
computers, the electronic world has 
been simulating the world of the 
52-card deck. Now, these 
games have advanced far 



beyond just a good play, providing instruction, statis- 
tics, and advanced theoretical problem solving. 

Video Poker 

Because of the universal popularity of games like 
poker, casinos have recognized a huge potential in 
their slot halls, and slot manufacturing companies such 
as Sigma and International Gaming Technology (IGT) 
have answered the call by marrying the game of poker 
to the traditional slot machine to produce the most pop- 
ular casino game machine to date: video poker. 

Video poker is basically a five-card draw hand (with 
many house variations) which is piayed on a betting 
machine in a casino (or in a pub or tavern). The player 
drops in quarters to place a bet, five cards are present- 
ed on the color monitor, and the player decides which 
cards to hold and which to throw. Then the draw is 
made, and if the hand comes up a winner, coins fall into 
the lucky patron's lap. Othenwise (and 
most often), the video poker machine 
deals a losing hand and prompts 
. T the player to drop in more 

'^"^ quarters to bet again. 





Video poker is an entirely different 
animal from real face-to-face poker, 
full of its own frustrations and enjoy- 
ments. While real poker is an interper- 
sonal game, video poker is a statisti- 
cal game, pure and simple, and ttiere 
is no posturing or bluffing. The best 
payoff is the royal flush, which is des- 
tined to occur about once in every 2^^? 
million hands. The trick is to be ready 
for it. 

The popularity of this game has 
spawned an entire industry of help 
products, and the video poker games 
available for the PC are the most 
exciting of the lot. Video poker games 
on the PC serve two purposes: enter- 
tainment and training. Video poker is 
fast paced and exciting, and nearly 
every package allows a different array 
of games to be played. The video 
poker games also act as training 
grounds for the Las Vegas-style coin 
eaters, and careful attention to the PC 
tactics can mean a payoff in real casi- 
no play. Many claim that with solid 
practice, 100-percent payback rates 
are possible. 

Here is a selection of major players 



in the video poker game. 

Video Poker for Windows. 

Masque Video Poker for Windows is 
as much a tutorial as a game. The first 
48 pages of the manual take you 
through the ins and outs of the main 
video poker machines in the casinos, 
teaching you which machines to look 
for and what sort of payback you can 
anticipate. Full of stats, the manual 
teaches you what to expect from any 
given hand (there are roughly 2''? mil- 
lion possible hands in video poker). 

The game itself is extremely intu- 
itive, keeping all of the statistics in the 
background until you really need 
them. The look of the game is similar 
to the look of the casino games, com- 
plete with payback tables and the 
large square buttons. 

Masque Video Poker provides a 
comprehensive array of statistical 
tools. At any moment, the player can 
pull up a chart showing the results of 
play, including payback rate, the per- 
cent of expert plays, and the number 
of hands dealt. You can also run com- 
puter simulations (in which the com- 
puter plays the hands) to quickly eval- 



•:^Ooff ^o ^a'j/ytf< &/fe/^(i/o/'-^ ^/e/r 



S f^rf-i/xff •^f/^/f/'-jP 



With all the assurances of computer 
gambling simulations that, if you 
learn the games, you can break 
even, how do casino managers feel 
about customers training on PC 
games? They're all for it. An educat- 
ed player will not get frustrated as 
easily and will become a repeat 
customer. Besides, an uneducated 
player is dangerous to a casino's 
profits (someone blindly putting a 
pile of money down on 30-to-1 odds 
and hitting costs a casino far more 
than an educated player who plays 
the statistics and wins steadily), 

Ron Moore, computer manager 
of The Par-A-Dice, a riverboat casi- 
no home-ported in Peoria, Illinois, 
says that he plays PC blackjack to 
get himself ready for a trip to Reno 
or Las Vegas. According to Moore, 
an uneducated player will ruin the 
piay on a blackjack table. Players 
need to realize that whether or not 
they hit will affect everyone else's 
play (everyone to the left, that is). 
The Par-A-Dice even uses PC 
blackjack programs to train its deal- 
ers for handling the tables. 

Here is some gambling advice 
from the pros, 

• If you're piaying a slot game, like 
video poker or video blackjack. 



always make the maximum bet 
(generally five slugs, or $1.25). The 
payoffs are higher, and you'll kick 
yourself if you get a flush with only a 
one-token bet. 

• In video poker, the big jackpot is 
in the royal flush, which generally 
pays 4000 coins for a 5-coin bet. 
Keep that goal in mind when you're 
playing a hand. 

• Make three maximum bets on 
every machine, and no more. If a 
machine is close to hitting in its 
cycle, then it will. Otherwise, you 
could be there all day with nothing 
but an empty coin bucket to show 
for your time. 

• Pick a machine with some con- 
trol, like video poker, and play 
smart and long on the same 
machine for the big hands. Moving 
from machine to machine only 
decreases the odds of a win. 

So which is it? Stick with a 
machine or move on? Another 
expert, one who has the privileged 
knowledge of the slot machine's 
weights and cycles, told me that it's 
all luck. You can twist the odds in 
your favor in games like video poker 
and win back nearly everything that 
you put in, but as far as winning the 
big one goes, that's just luck. 



uate a certain game's characteristics. 
For example, using this tool will give 
you an idea of how many coins you 
will need to have in your bankroll to sit 
down at a particular casino machine 
and have a chance at winning. 

The tutor will recommend expert 
plays on each hand. However, if you 
remove the tutor window from view, the 
tutor will only alert you when you're mak- 
ing a play which it considers wrong. 

The basic strategy inherent in 
Masque Video Poker is to get your 
payback level as close to 100 percent 
as possible. If you can play expertly, 
you can keep your losses and gains 
nearly equal and hope that luck will 
send a jackpot your way. 

Stanford Wong Video Poiter. 
Villa Crespo's video poker is a DOS 
product based on the statistical work 
of Stanford Wong. Wong is a mathe- 
matician who has spent countless 
hours working through the myriad of 
permutations of video poker. Villa 
Crespo's video poker is a slick front 
end for Wong's original BASIC lan- 
guage program (the program has 
been completely rewritten in C), which 
allows on-the-fly computation so you 
can adjust the various payback levels 
to make the program play like any 
machine you find in a casino. 

Like Masque's Video Poker, Villa 
Crespo's game can run simulations that 
will give the long-term payback of any 
machine. There is also a tutor that can 
be set either to recommend the correct 
play for every hand or to warn of a bad 
play. Each hand can be analyzed 
according to value and possible pay- 
back. Gaming sessions can be saved 
to disk and resumed at any time. 

Stanford Wong Video Poker differs 
in strategy from Masque's Video 
Poker in that it targets its advice at the 
higher payoffs, favoring the potential 
for a straight rather than merely hold- 
ing any high cards. 

The manual is clear and concise, 
but it offers very little in the way of a 
tutorial. The game assumes a player 
will know video poker games. 

Strategic Video Polcer. If 
you're looking for a very fast and flexi- 
ble package, Strategic Video Poker is 
for you. While you can't completely 
custom-configure a game, all of the 
games I've encountered are support- 
ed in this product, and payoff sched- 
ules can be easily modified. 

Like the other two, Strategic Video 
Poker attempts to teach expert strate- 
gy for playing the video poker slot 
machines, and it offers many options, 
from a tutor to a simulator. It can even 
generate printed reports. 

While the game doesn't have quite 



94 



COMPUTE MAY 1993 



the look of a casino poker machine, 
the mouse-based left- and right-but- 
ton commands make playing and 
spending artificial cash as fast and as 
intuitive as possible. 

The manual provides a solid tutori- 
al, mixing the statistics with examples 
from the program and providing a 
welt-rounded experience that is fun 
and educational. 

Blackfack 

One of the fastest and most popular 
casino games is blackjack, or tvtfenty- 
one. The tables are small, the rules 
are simple, and there are no convolut- 
ed codes of etiquette to follow. 
Another feature of blackjack that 
makes it so popular is that an educat- 
ed player stands a good chance of 
having a winning edge over the 
house. Forget breaking even. If you 
know how, you can make money at 
the blackjack table. 

But blackjack can be just as 
arcane as the other casino games if 
you want; from elaborate hand signals 
to scraping your cards on the felt, you 
can indicate your plays to the dealer 
in many ways. Also, making a small 
bet for the dealer, known as tipping, 
can possibly convince the dealer to 
hold off on a reshuffle if you tip at just 
the right time. 

Here are two of the best computer 
blackjack games. 

Blackjack for Windows. 
Masque Blackjack for Windows is an 
elaborate blackjack game that allows 
the player the options of recreational 
play, strategy training, or a by-the- 
hand tutorial. 

Like the manual that comes with 
Masque Video Poker, the Masque 
Blackjack for Windows manual goes 
to great lengths to explain the game 
of blackjack before it addresses the 
program itself. Nearly 40 pages cover 
basic strategies, as well as an 
overview of counting strategies, 
including an exploration of Dr. 
Edward Thorp's ten-count system. 

Masque Blackjack for Windows 
plays very well, The game allows you 
to point and click your hit and stand 
options, or you can use the hand- 
shaped cursor to practice the standard 
hand signals to indicate your choices. 

The program keeps extensive sta- 
tistics to help you keep track of your 
progress, and you can even run com- 
puter simulations, in which the com- 
puter plays the hands at expert levels, 
allowing you to explore various house 
rules and betting strategies. 

Dr. Thorp's Mini Blackjack. In 
Villa Crespo's blackjack simulator. Dr. 
Thorp's Mini Blackjack, play is 



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Masque Video Poker for 

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Masque Blackjack for 

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(708) 433-0500 



emphasized over computer simula- 
tion. It offers the interesting option of 
playing as many as six hands at once, 
allowing the player to simulate an 
entire table and try out different strate- 
gies in different simulations on the fly. 

Dr. Thorp's also provides a tutor 
based on the counting tables created 
by Dr. Edward Thorp in the 19605. 
You can even access the actual 
counting tables during play, to study 
the probabilities without the interven- 
tion of a tutor. 

The game plays very well, and the 
speed of play is user-selectable. Even 
a six-player-plus-dealer game can 
move along at quite a clip. Of course, 
you can access a statistics table at 
any time to gauge progress. 

Dr. Thorp's Mini Blackjack is a 
complete but abridged version of Dr. 
Thorp's Blackjack; it's a part of Villa 
Crespo's Coffee Break series. 



Poker 

Played around a smoky table in a 
dark basement, poker is a mysterious 
game that has become entrenched in 
our culture. The game is a true social 
event, and the social nature of the 
game has evolved because of the 
systematic way wagers are made. 
Because of this, many a paycheck 
has been lost in friendly play. 

Poker can be most easily learned 
when played with seven players, 
since a great majority of the cards are 
drawn and dealt, and the odds can 
then be calculated. But what if there 
aren't seven players around? A poker 
simulator can give the needed prac- 
tice, as well as coaching. 

Amarillo Slim Dealer's 
Choice. This game simulates play 
around a table. You can select from 
one to six opponents at three skiti lev- 
els, and the games vary each hand as 
the computer players select the 
game, from seven-card stud to some 
of the n:iore eclectic games. 

The program is extraordinarily sim- 
ple to set up and play, but the games 
are strong, and the expert players 
truly play at expert levels. I showed 
the software to a local poker expert. 
Against a table of expert players in 
Amarillo Slim, it didn't take long for his 
pot to empty. He was stunned at the 
skill of the computer players. 

Daniel Sejzer, president of Villa 
Crespo, says that the players were 
programmed with a little bit of random 
play so that a player couldn't just find 
out their computer preferences and 
beat them consistently. 

In Amarillo Slim, you can call up 
the tutor to ask for advice at any time. 
You can also see a selection of statis- 
tics and odds. The game is fast 
paced and enjoyable, and it can 
teach you to read the table, from the 
bets laid out by the other players to 
the cards on the table. 

Multipte Games 

In the spirit of casino gambling, some 
programs give you a choice of games. 
Beat the House. Spirit of 
Discovery offers Beat the House, a 
game package that includes an entire 
casino, from slot machines to roulette. 
The graphics in Beat the House set 
this package apart; crisp Super VGA 
screens filled with dartc greens and 
rich colors contribute to the feel of 
casino play, and the main menu level 
is a bird's-eye view of the casino floor. 
Beat the House simulates the whole 
casino experience. When you check 
in at the front desk, your name will be 
registered and you'll be issued chips 
(and a line of credit); the chips and 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE 95 



winnings can then be taken from 
game to game. The attention to detail 
Is Impressive: When you're playing 
blackjack, the hands are dealt in 
three-dimensional views, and w/hen 
you're playing craps, a digitized stick- 
man calls the dice. 

Beat the House doesn't offer the 
statistical depth of the games dis- 
cussed In the preceding sections, but 
every game in this package offers 
some sort of tutor that w\\\ recommend 
an expert play. Calling up the tutor for 
a recommendation is an extra step 
which involves bringing up two levels 
of screens, but for the serious player, 
this Infringement will seem negligible. 
Also available Is a coaching option, 
which alerts you with a digitized voice 
when it detects a poor play decision. 

Beat the House Includes the most 
complete manual I've seen. It's more 
like an In-depth tutorial for casino play 
than a software manual. I think Spirit 
of Discovery knows this, because It 
offers the customer a chance to pur- 
chase an additional manual as well. 

The manual takes you through 
each game, providing clear and 
accurate rules and offering counting 
tables and suggestions for expert 
plays. This package alms to bring you 
a complete casino experience. 



You can't run simulations or mas- 
sive computer projections with Beat 
the House, but this solid package 
would make a good addition to some 
of the more specialized packages dis- 
cussed above. Use the statistic-inten- 
sive products to hone your game, and 
use Beat the House to test your skills 
In some of the most beautiful, 
playable renditions of casino games 
anywhere. 

Beat the House offers blackjack, 
craps, slot machines, video poker, 
and roulette, with several rule vaha- 
tions for blackjack and a number of 
video poker and slot machines to 
choose from. 

Trump Castle 3. Capstone's 
Trump Castle 3 is a multigame casino 
package based on Donald Trump's 
Atlantic City casino. Trump Castle 3 
offers baccarat, blackjack, craps, 
poker, video poker, roulette, slots, 
and even a wandering keno girl. The 
graphics are Super VGA, and while 
not quite as slick and photorealistic as 
the graphics in Beat the House, they 
are far and above those of many of 
the other casino games. 

You command an onscreen char- 
acter to any of the gaming rooms. You 
initiate a game by stepping up to the 
table or machine you'd like to play. 




You can then customize your poker 
face (right down to facial hair and 
sunglasses) and save the attributes 
(and the cash) for later gaming ses- 
sions. Trump Castle 3 is unique In that 
It supports network and modem play, 
allowing several players to sit at a 
table together and play against the 
house dealer, while viewing the other 
players' faces and engaging In cross- 
table chatter. 

The games play very well, and the 
graphics fill the screen, The play op- 
tions pop up as small buttons near the 
bottom of the display. There Is no 
tutor of any kind, and the game offers 
no statistics. The Instruction manual Is 
geared more toward the program than 
toward providing detailed rules for the 
many house games. Trump Castle 3 
does offer online help with rules of the 
game, but you're on your ov^n when It 
comes to making play decisions. 

Like Beat the fHouse, Trump Castle 
3 allows you to carry a bankroll from 
table to table, and the Castle even of- 
fers an ATM for those necessary cash 
Infusions. 

While offering the least depth of all 
of the packages mentioned, Trump 
Castle 3 comes as close as possible 
to simulating a real casino on the PC 
screen. If you want to learn a game, 
I'd suggest looking Into one of the 
more specialized packages men- 
tioned above; but If you want to test 
your skills or merely play for fun 
(alone or with fhends), then you'll find 
that Trump Castle 3 has the odds 
stacked In its favor. 

Laying Your Cards on the Table 

Advanced statistics and training 
options are available In nearly every 
product currently on the market, tak- 
ing advantage of a computer's Inher- 
ent number-crunching ability and giv- 
ing the player the tools to plumb the 
mathematical depths of nearly any 
card game. 

Casinos are becoming more and 
more popular, with states recognizing 
the advantage, In both tourism and 
tax dollars, that a casino can bring. 
By experimenting and practicing with 
gambling simulators, you can learn 
and explore the games being played 
In the casinos even before setting foot 
In those carpeted and mirrored mec- 
cas of cash flow. Having that expeh- 
ence will give even the novice casino- 
goer a more enjoyable (and possibly 
more prosperous) night at the slot 
machines and tables. 

Now, all we have to do Is to get 
these PCs to pay out the money we 
rightly win. After all, our house rules 
are the ones that count. □ 



96 COt*/PUTE MAY 1993 



64/128 VIEW 



Guess what, GEOS fans! 

You've got your 

own magazine — again! 

Tom Netsel 



Computer publications 
have a way of appear- 
ing and disappearing 
faster than a magician's 
rabbit. But when one pops 
up for 64 and 128 users, I 
have this reaction to wish it 
well — despite the fact that 
it's a potential competitor, Af- 
ter all, it's nice to see some- 
one else taking a serious in- 
terest in our machines. 

Rather than trying to cov- 
er the whole Commodore 8- 
bit spectrum, publisher and 
managing editor Grady 
Brown is focusing his atten- 
tion on GEOS with his new 
journal, geoVISION Interna- 
tional. The premier issue 
has just arrived, and it looks 
impressive — and the type- 
face is clear and legible. 
Too many GEOS publica- 
tions are tough to read. 

A bimonthly publication 
of 28-32 laser-printed pag- 
es, geoVISION International 
plans to print columns once 
found in other Commodore 
and GEOS magazines in ad- 
dition to new articles. Brown 
states in his editorial that the 
philosophy behind his new 
publication "is to bring ail 
GEOS users and program- 
mers together, spreading 
the knowledge, experienc- 
es, and information of 
GEOS users worldwide, and 
to give you the best GEOS 
support possible." 

That's quite a goal for any 
publication, but Brov^n of- 
fers a good selection of arti- 
cles and information. Arti- 
cles in the first issue include 
what's hot and what's not on 
the big telecommunication 
networks, a tutorial on ge- 
oPaint by Australian artist 
Jane Voskamp-Jones, a 
geoWrite tutorial, and a 
roundup of the four GEOS 
programming languages. 



There are reviews of sev- 
eral GEOS products, includ- 
ing geoCanvas, Perfect 
Print LQ, Dual Top, and Col- 
lete Utilities. (For more infor- 
mation about Collete Utili- 
ties, see Steve Vander Ark's 
"GEOS" column in this Is- 
sue.) There's a list of bulletin 
boards, publications, and us- 
er groups that offer GEOS 
support. There are even sev- 
eral Australian newsletters 
and groups mentioned. 

In his editorial. Brown ad- 
dresses questions that are 
bound to be asked by peo- 
ple who have subscribed to 
magazines only to have 
them cease publication with- 
out honoring their obliga- 
tions. "We cannot guarantee 
we'll be around forever. No 
orie can. But we do promise 
to follow through with all our 
commitments to each and 
every subscriber." 

In addition to the maga- 
zine. Brown offers six GEOS 
disks per year, They include 
programs and utilities cover- 
ing fonts, desk accessories, 
applications, drivers, geo- 
Calc and geoFile templates, 
and clip art. 

To give geoVISION Inter- 
national a try, U.S. subscrip- 
tion rates are $21 for six is- 
sues or $4 for a single is- 
sue. Washington residents 
must add local sales tax. Ca- 
nadian and Mexican sub- 
schptions are $27 per year, 
S5 for a single issue. Interna- 
tional subscriptions (via air 
mail) are $33 per year, $6 
for a single issue. 

Disk subscriptions are 
S30 for six issues in the 
U.S.. S39 in Canada and 
fvlexico, and $45 elsewhere. 
Order by writing to geo- 
VISION International, 816 
Southeast Polk Street, Cam- 
as, Washington 98607. 3 



GAZETTE 



G-l 



64/128 VIEW 

Announcing a new magazine for GEOS fans. 
By Tom Netsel. 

SCREEN GEMS G-2 

Try these nine programs on your 128 to see what 
BASIC 7.0 can do to brighten up a screen. 
By Henning Vahlenkamp. 



REVIEWS 

The Lost World and Video Digitizer. 



G-8 



FEEDBACK G-12 

Questions, answers, and comments. 

BEGINNER BASIC G-16 

Readers reply with random-number generators. 
By Larry Cotton. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE G-18 

Create an array with BASIC, and then use machine 
language to modify it. 
By Jim Butterfield. 

PROGRAMMER'S PAGE G-20 

The 64 has a number of interesting quirks. 
By Randy Thompson. 

GEOS G-22 

Additional sources of great GEOS programs. 
By Steve Vander Ark. 

DIVERSIONS G-24 

Imagine flipping through 1500 television channels. 
By Fred D'Ignazio. 



PROGRAMS 

Mailing List (64) 

Utility Plus (64) 

Director-Ease (64) 

Cross Ref 128 

Your Own Database (64/128) 

ML Macros (64) 

The Automatic Proofreader (64/128) 



4M§» 

G-2»5 

G-31 

G-33 

G-35 

G-36 

G-39 

G-40 



MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-1 



TRY THESE NINE PROGRAMMING GEMS TO 




lie of the biggest 

advantages ihe 128 
has over its little 
brother, Itie 64, is its power- 
ful built-in BASIC 7,0 lan- 
guage. This language's rich 
array of 165 different com- 
mands (not counting OFF 
and QUIT which were 
planned but never imple- 
mented) allows you to do 
many things more easily 
than you can on the 64, not 



the least of which is graph- 
ics. Consequently, you can 
create interesting graphic 
displays on your 128 with a 
minimum of effort and with- 
out using complex machine 
language. 

That leads me to the 
subject of this article. Fol- 
lowing are nine concise pro- 
grams that show off some 
of BASIC 7.0's graphical tal- 
ents. These hacks, or 
screen gems, do a variety 
of fascinating things on both 
40- and 80-column screens. 
I did my best to write them 
in clear, straightforward 
code so you can modify or 
incorporate them easily into 
your own programs. Exper- 
imenting with programs is 
one of the best ways to 
learn to harness BASIC 
7.0's power for yourself. 

Now on to the gems. 
Let's first look at some col- 



orful sparklers that work on 
40-column screens. 

Sprite Chaos 

Sprite Chaos is a short 
sprite demonstration pro- 
gram. First, all eight sprites, 
depicted as colored 
spheres, are set in motion 
at random angles and 
speeds. Here's the twist. 
Once they're moving, the 
process is repeated, but 
with new random angles 



and different speeds. This 
occurs continuously, result- 
ing in sprites that fly around 
the screen in unpredictable 
and interesting ways. You 
might want to use the effect 
as an eye-catching back- 
drop for a title screen in 
your own programs. 

1 REM SPRITE CHAOS 
10 COLOR 0,1 :COLOR 

4,1: COLOR 5,13: 

GRAPHIC 0,1 





-#^# 




iiViJpi; ■! 



i:f^& 



^'^" 



•.--iii 



ii*'i2^#Snj?frL'*'f 



;-^^^s&si; 



»a 



tw^r*&v 






5^*:v»'>t,v»- 






■ i -v-^ii..5yiv!a;5©,Wi''-'"^-'.- -* 



A'iU?r.- ^J!C:.^^.-.,.p i 



?^l^ 



'::\^rj0^£^^!f?M 



.VWi'ii^t'-'i^ '. 



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!^-v 



^^■:a;' 



^-Je^^l^Vl^ 






WRITTEN BY 



HENNING 



VAHLENKAMP 



EE JUST WHAT BASIC 7.0 CAN DO IN A 128. 



20CHAR,13,10,"SPRITE 

CHAOS!" 
30 FOR D=0 TO 63:READ 

V:POKE3584+D,V; 

NEXT 
40 FOR 1=2 TO 8:SPRSAV 

IJ.NEXT 
50SPRCOLOR 16,16 
60 FOR S=1 TO 8:M0VSPR 

S,0,0:NEXT 
70 FOR S=1T08:SPRITES, 

1,S+1,1,1,1,1:NEXT 
80 D0:F0R 1=1 TO 8 
90A=INT(RND(1)*360+.5) 



\\yW\ 



100S=INT(RND(1)*15+1) 

:IFS<5THEN 100 
110MOVSPRI,A#S 
120NEXT;LOOP 
130 DATA 0,170,0,2,90, 

128,9,106 
140 DATA 160,9,170,160, 

37,170,168,38 
150 DATA 170,168,38,170, 

168,150,17 0,170 
160 DATA 154,170,170, 

170,170,170,170,170 
170DATA170,170,170,170, 

170,170,170,170 
180 DATA 170,170,42,170, 

168,42,170,168 
190 DATA 42,170,168,10, 

170,160,10,170 
200 DATA 160,2,170,128,0, 

170,0,0 

Curve Explosion 

Picture an infinite number of 
different parabolic curves 
streaming out like a fountain 
from a central point on the 
screen. That's what Curve 



Explosion does with its 
short plotting routine. The 
program works lil<e a circle 
algorithm, but it draws only 
half a circle. Each curve has 
a common starting point. 
Run this one on your 128 to 
see the intriguing display. 

1 REM CURVE EXPLSION 
10 COLOR 1.2:COLOR 

0,1:COLOR1,4 
20 GRAPHIC 1,1 
30 DRAW ,0,199 TO 319, 

199 
40DO:A=INT(RND(1) 

•70+10) 
50B=INT(RND(iri50+10) 
60C=INT{RND(1)*2+1) 
70IFC=1 THEN BEGIN 
80D=3.14:E=-.1:F=-.2: 

G=A:BEND:ELSE 

BEGIN 
90 D=0:E=3.3:F=.2:G=- 

A:BEND 
100 LOCATE 160.199 
110 FOR R=D TOE STEP F 



Wf 



120X=INT(A*COS{R)): 
Y=INT(B*S[N(R)) 

130DRAWTO160+G+X. 
199-Y 

140 NEXT R:LOOP 

String Bounce 

Are you looking for a new 
way to display a message 
on your 128? If so, try 
String Bounce. Just put any 
message into A$, and this 
program will move it around 













the screen. If the message hits a bor- 
der, it bounces off and continues in 
the opposite direction, Your message 
will leave a trail as it moves il you 
change the color in line 90. Change 
the 39 in lines 30 and 120 to 79 to 
make the program work on the 80-col- 
umn screen. Keep the message rea- 
sonably short, or it will move down 
excessively. 

1 REfv! STRING BOUNCE 

10 SCNCLR:AS="C0rv1M0D0RE!" 

20 COLOR 5,2:COLOR 0,1 :COLOR 

4,1 
30 X=INT(RND(1 r39-LEN(A$}+.5) 
40 IF X<0 THEN 30 
50Y=INT(RND(1)'23-i-1) 
60 CHAR ,X.Y,A$:DX=1:DY=1 
70V=INT(RND(ir3-1) 
80 IF V=0 THEN 70 
90 D0:X0=X:YO=Y:C0LOR 5,1 
100 CHAR ,X0,Y0,AS:X=X+V' 

DX:Y=Y-i-V*DY 
110 IFX<1 THEN DX=-DX:X=XO 
120 IF X>39-LEN(AS) THEN DX=- 

DX:X=XO 
130 IF Y<1 THEN DY=-DY:Y=YO 
140 IF Y>23 THEN DY=-DY:Y=YO 
150 COLOR 5,2:CHAR ,X,Y,AS 
160 LOOP 

Star Shapes 

Star Shapes puts simple trigonome- 
try to use so you can create an infi- 
nite variety of star-like designs. 
When you run the program, it asks 
you for an x and y radius. These are 
the radii of two circles. Lines are 
drawn from each of ten points 
arranged in a circle to each of ten 
points around your circle. The results 
produce elaborate symmetrical star 
shapes. Run it to see what I mean. 
These programs have few frills, so 
you'll have to hit Run/Stop-Restore 
and type RUN again to get this one 
to repeat. 

1 REM STAR SHAPES 

1 COLOR 1 ,2:C0L0R 0. 1 :COLOR 

4,1 
20 INPUT"[SHFT CLR][GRSR DN] 

ENTER X RADIUS: ";X1 
30 INPUT'ENTER Y RADIUS: ";Y1 
40 FOR D=1 TO 10:READ A{D),B(D} 

:NEXT 
50 GRAPHIC 1,1 
60FORL=1 TO 10 
70 FOR R=0 TO 6.28 STEP .628 
80 LOCATE A(L),B(L) 
90 X=INT(X1-C0S(R}):Y=INT (Yl* SIN 

(R)) 
1 00 DRAW TO X-i- 1 60.Y+ 1 00 
110 NEXT R,L 

120 DATA 249.100,232,147,187,176 
130 DATA 132,176,87,146.70,99 
140 DATA 87,52,132,23,188,24,233,53 



Brownian Symmetry 

This little hack differs from typical 
kaleidoscope-type programs by simu- 
lating Brownian motion, the random 
movement of microscopic particles in 
a fluid. I won't attempt an explanation 
of this phenomenon here, but it can 
produce eye-catching designs. 

The program works by displaying a 
pixel influenced by Brownian motion 
and copying it across four lines of sym- 
metry, resulting in eight reflections. You 
can choose hi-res or multicolor mode 
for the display as well as whether to 
erase the points after they're plotted. I 
think you'll find that Brownian Symme- 
try shows that there can be beauty in 
scientific phenomena. 




1 REfVl BROWNIAN SYMfVlETRY 
10V=1:COLOR0.1:COLOR4,1 
20 INPUT"[SHFT CLR][CRSR DN](H)I- 

RES OR (M)ULTI ";GR$ 
30 IF GRS="H" THEN SC=1 :ELSE SO 

=3:V=2 
40 INPUr[CRSR DN]ERASE POINTS 

(Y/N)";ERS 
50 X=G:Y=0:P=2:GRAPHIC SC,1 
60 IF SC=3 THEN P=INT(RND(ir 15 

+2) 
70 COLOR 1,P 
80D=INT(RND(1)*15+1) 
90 fyiX=INT(RND(1)*(D*2-H.5)-D) 
100 MY=INT(RND(ir(D"2-H.5)-D) 
110X=X+MX:Y=Y+fvlY 
120IFX<-100THEN80 
130IFY<-100THEN80 
140IFX> 100 THEN 80 
150IFY< 100 THEN 80 
160FORL=1 TO 2 
170 DRAW .(leO-XjA/.IOO+Y 



180 DRAW ,(160-Y)A/,100-hX 
190 DRAW ,(160-X)A/,100-Y 
200DRAW,(160-Y)/V,iaO-X 
210 DRAW ,(160+X)A/,1004-Y 
220 DRAW ,(160+Y)A/,100-hX 
230 DRAW ,(160+Y)A/.100-Y 
240 DRAW ,(1604-Y)A/,100.X 
230 IF ERS="N" THEN 60 
240 COLOR 1 , 1 : NEXT L: GOTO 60 

Star Bursts 

Your monitor screen goes black and 
then slowly fills with an infinite variety 
of distinct, colorful explosions or star 
bursts. That's what the following pro- 
gram will do on your 128. Each star 
burst consists of 25 randomly select- 
ed and colored rays emanating from a 
central point. Try it; I think you'll find 
this one is a real eye-catcher! 

1 REfVI STAR BURSTS 
10 COLOR 0,1 :COLOR 4,1 
20 GRAPHIC 3,1 :D0 
30X1=INT(RND(1)-159) 

40Y1=INT(RND(lh99) 
50FORRP=1 TO 25 
60CS=1NT(RND(1)"3+1) 
70CO=INT(RND(1)'7+2) 
80X2=1NT(RND(1)'24-11.5) 
90Y2=INT(RND(1)''40-19.5) 
100 COLOR CS,CO 
110 DRAW CS,X1,Y1 TO 

ABS(X1+X2),ABS(Y1-t-Y2) 
120NEXT:LOOP 

Trig Show 

Beginning math students often have 
trouble remembering the six basic 
trigonometric curves: sine, cosine, 
tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotan- 
gent. Trig Show helps by drawing 
each curve one at a time from -2 times 
pi to 2 times pi along the x-axis. It also 
shows each curve's relationship to 
another curve since all of them appear 
and overlap on the same screen. 
When one curve finishes its plot, press 
Return to see the next one. Try this 
useful visual aid to increase your 
understanding of these trigonometric 
fundamentals. When typing this one 
in, remember that to enter pi in line 
250, hold down the Shift key while 
simultaneously pressing the up-arrow 
(t)key. 

1 REfvl TRIG SHOW 

1 COLOR 0, 1 :COLOR 4,1 :COLOR 

1.2 
20 GRAPHIC 1.1 
30 CHAR ,0,19, "TRIG" 
40 CHAR .0.20, 'SHOW" 
50 DRAW ,0,100 TO 319,100 
60 DRAW, 159.0 TO 159,199 
70 FOR X=0 TO 319 STEP 39.75 
80 DRAW ,X,95 TO X,105:NEXT 
90 DRAW ,155,70 TO 165.70 



G-4 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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Tony LaRussn Baseball S9.97 

Bard's Tale 3 $12.97 

Airborne Ranger S9.97 

Land, Sea, & Air S19.97 

Test Drive 2 $12.97 

California Challenge $8.97 

European Challenge $8.97 

Muscle Cars $8.97 

Super Cars $8.97 

Jack Nicklaus Golf $12.97 

J.N. Courses 2, 3 or 4 $6.97 

TV Sports Football $9.97 

Batman(Arcade Ver) $9.97 

Dragons of Flame $9.97 

Marvel Comics Trilogy $12.97 

Operation Wolf $9.97 

Shoot'Em Up Const $9.97 

EDUCATIONAL 

Color Me $9.97 

Keyboard Cadet $6.97 

Carmen Time $26.97 

Ideas for C-64 Book $8.97 

TriMath $9.97 

Donald's Alphabet $9.97 

Sky Travel $19.97 

Perfect Score SAT $9.97 

Songwriter $9.97 

PRODUCTIVITY 

Super 1750 Clone $99.95 

Dome Accounting $37.97 

Big Blue Reader 64/128 $29.97 

Maverick 64 $39.97 

Graphic Label Wizard S14.97 

Home Designer 128 $24.97 

Sylvia Porter 128 $19.97 

Mastertype/ Writer $12.97 

Printshop $29.97 

Word Writer 6 $29.97 

Paperclip Publisher $29.97 



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100 DRAW, 155.130 TO 165,130 
110 CHAR .39,12,"X":CHAR ,19,0,"Y" 
120 BB=0:DEF FNY(X)=S1N{X) 
130 CHAR ,7,10,"SIN":GOSUB25G 
140 BB=0:DEF FNY(X)=COS(X) 
150 CHAR ,15,10,"COS":GOSUB250 
160 BB=1 :DEF FNY(X)=TAN{X) 
170 CHAR ,12,2,"TAN":GOSUB250 
180 BB=1:DEF FNY(X)=1/SIN(X) 
190 CHAR ,30,22, ■'CSC":GOSUB250 
200 BB=1:DEF FNY{X)=1/C0S(X) 
210 CHAR ,12,22,"SEC":GOSUB250 
220 BB=1:DEF FNY(X)=1/TAN{X) 
230 CHAR ,30,2,"COT":GOSUB250 
240 END 

250 FOR X=.05 TO 4-(jt) STEP .05 
260 IF BB=1 THEN IF FNY(X)*30>=- 

100 AND FNY(X)*30<=100 THEN 

DRAW ,X*25,5,100-FNY(X)*3G 
270 IF BB=0: THEN DRAW ,X'25.5, 

100- FNY{X)-30 280 NEXT:WAIT 

212,1:RETURN 

Now let's shift our attention to some 
SO-column gems. 

Close and Open 

Over the years, many routines have 
been written to clear the 40-column 
text screen in different ways. The 
following short routine demonstrates 
an interesting screen clear for the 
128's often neglected 80-column text 



screen. First, text is displayed, and 
the program waits for a keypress. 
Then the left and right sides of the 
screen come together, squeezing out 
the text. The screen is cleared, new 
text is printed, and the screen 
expands again to reveal it. Try this 
one in your own programs instead of a 
boring SCNCLR command. 

1 REM CLOSE & OPEN 

10 SCNCLR:PRINTCHR$(27)CHR$ 

(82) 
20CHAR,26,10,"HEREISTHE 

[CTRL 9] F I R S T[CTRL 0] 

SCREEN" 
30 GETKEY K$:IF K$=" " THEN 30 
40R=86:L=6:DO 

50 SYS 52684,R,35:SYS 52684,L,34 
60R=R-1:L=L+1 

70 LOOP UNTIL R<L:SCNCLR:SLEEP1 
80 CHAR ,25,10,"HERE IS THE [CTRL 

9] S E C O N D[CTRL 0] SCREEN" 
90DO;R=R+1:L=L-1 
100 SYS 52684, R,35:SYS 526B4,L,34 
110 LOOP UNTIL L<6 

Shaker 

Shaker does for the 128's 80-column 
screen what many routines have done 
for the 40-column screen: It shakes it 
back and forth. This hack takes 
advantage of the VDC chip's little- 



known smooth-scrolling feature. By 
repeatedly moving the screen eight 
pixels to the left then eight to the right 
in increments of one, it produces this 
smooth effect. Try it and liven up dul 
text displays. 

1 REM SHAKER 

10 GRAPHIC 5, 1:C0L0R 5,5 

20 FOR 1=15 TO 64:CHAR ,1,6,"*": 

CHAR,I,16,"*":NEXT 
30 CHAR ,36,8,"SHAKER" 
40 CHAR ,31,10,"COfv1PUTE'S 

GAZETTE" 
50 CHAR ,30, 12, "324 WEST WEN 

DOVER AVENUE" 
60 CHAR ,29, 14, "GREENSBORO, NC 

27408" 
70 FOR L=7 TOO STEP -1 
80 SYS 52698, ,25:RREG AC 
90 SYS 52684, (AC AND 248)+L,25 
100 NEXT L 
110FORR=0TO7 
120 SYS 52698,, 25:RREG AC 
130 SYS 52684,(AC AND 248)-hR,25 
140 NEXT R:GOTO 70 

I hope you take a few minutes to 
type in these little gems and see what 
a 128 can do. Feel free to modify and 
embellish these programs and use 
them as a basis for your own pro- 
gramming ideas. □ 




G-6 COMPUTE MAY 1993 







'JiFfilSL fti^ 



m 



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Fbasc call if you don't sgg what you want. 



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Champions of Krynn 16.00 

CurseoflheAjure Bonds 14.00 

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Dr, Doom's Revenge 12.00 

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Duck Tales 22,00 

Gateway to the Savage Fronlier 1 4.00 

Gettysburg, The Turning Point 42.00 

Goofy's Railway Express 13.00 

Linkword (Specify) 20.00 

Mickey's Runaway Zoo 13.00 

Microleague Baseball 2 28.00 

Microleague Football 29.00 

Neuromancer 17.00 

Payday 7.00 

Pirates 35.00 

Pool of Radiance 14.00 

Scrabble or fiflonopoly or Risk 17.00 

Secrets of the Silver Blades 1 4.00 

Sira City 22,00 

Simpsons Arcade 29.00 

Skate Wars 10.00 

Star Control 29.00 

Sticky Bear (Specify) 18,00 

Strip Poker 22.00 

Teenage Turtles Arcade 29.00 

Test Drive 2 ■ The Duel 28.00 

Tetris 13,00 

Tony LaRussa Baseball 12,00 

Typhoon of Steel 19.00 

Ultima 6 48.00 

Weird Dreams 11.00 
Where (Specify) is Carmen S. Diego 27.00 

Win, Lose or Draw 10.00 

Xenophobe 10.00 



t28D REFURBS 



Just In! These 128Ds have 

been completely refurbished 

by Commodore, and come 

with a full 90 Day Warranty. 

$274.95 



1541-2 DRIVE 



Refurbished $79.00 

Cabling & Power Supply 

Add S20.00 

Individually tested by CBM, 

each drive is of consistent 

high quality! 



Ml N DSCAPE 

POWERPLAYERS 

t JOYSTICK 
• Microswltches 
• Steel shaft 
• Ball-bearing pivot 
• Pistol grip 
• Large trigger 
• Originally $34.95 
One for $8.95 - Two for $8.50 eact) 



1802M0NiTORS 



These BRAND NEW composWe 
Monitors are Boxed with 
Complete Cabling & Warranted 
by Cofnmodore for 1 year. 

$145.00 



Hardware 

5 or 8 pin Composite Cable S8.95 

15'l1-2 Disk Drive NEW 164. SS 

C128 lo fVlagnavos/1084 (Specify) 14,95 

Computer/Disk Drive Cable - 6 ft. 12.95 

Disk Notcher 4.95 

Ergo Joystick 18-00 

G Wiz Printer Interlace 40,00 

IconTroller 15,95 

JVC Disks 3,5' -10 Pack B.DO 

JVC Disks S.25'- 10 Pack 7.00 

Kraft Triple Trackball 40.00 

SpeedKing Joystick 15.00 

Super Snapshot ver 5 58.00 

Super Graphix Jr 36.95 

Surge Protector w/Efil I (6 Outlet ) 14.D0 

We carry a complete line of printer ribbons 
(or Commodore 501, 602, S03, 1525, 1526 
and (or Panasonic 9 and 24 pin printers, 
$7.00 

Productivity 

1541/1571 Drive Align by Free Spirit 529,00 
1541/1571 Physical Exam by Cardinal 29.00 

1581 ToolKil 22.00 

Algeblasler 22.00 

Big Glue Reader 4 35.00 

CAD 3D 29.00 

Data (Manager 2 (64) 16.00 

Dome Home Accounting 44.00 

Elementary Grade Builder 22.00 

Family Tree 2. x 42.00 

Fast Load 28.00 

GE03'(64) 39.00 

GE0S128V2 45.00 

GEOS International Fonts 25.00 

Jr. High Grade Builder 22.00 

(ulaverlck V5 29.00 

f^alh Blaster or Spell It 22.00 

Pocket Writer 22,00 

Pocket Writer 2 42.00 

Pocket Wilier 3 49,00 

Pocket Wfiter Dictionary 17,00 

Pocket Filer 2 22.00 

Pocket Planner 2 22.00 

PrintShop 30.00 

Print Shop Companion 27.00 

Speed Reader 22,00 

SwiftCalc (64) 16.00 

Super 81 Utilities 64-128 (Specify) 14.00 

WordWriterS 29.95 



UPGRADING? 



AMIGA 

As the LARGEST Amiga Dealer in 

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A BRAND NEW production run of 1581s, by Commodore, has been 
made available to Software Hut EXCLUSIVELY! These drives come 

vtrith Commodore's full 90 Day 
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w/ith all Cabling & Software. Call for 
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We offer these drives at a 
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1571 



1571 Drives have just arrived. These 
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CBM unit w/disk, Manual, 90D Wty 

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Chip Level Design Unit 
$115.00 



PARTS 



Many ot the following CBM parts 

are in SHORT SUPPLY. 

Except as noted, all are NEW 

& w/QO Day Warranty. 

• 154t/154lC Internal Drive - $85.00 
•1571 Interanal Drive • $85.00 

•6'! P. Supply -5/3. 
•CI 28 Keyboard -36.00 
•CI 280 Keyboard -$22. 
•C1280Int. P. Supply - S5S. 

• C1 28 Ext. P. Supply Refurb - $34. 
•P. S.for1541-2 1571-2 1581-S2ft 



CHIPS CHIPS CHIPS 


IC 6526A 


S9.O0 


IC 6567 AO COL IC VIC 


14.00 


IC65S1 R4 


14,00 


iC 7700-00 PLA 828100 


14.00 


IC 8701 Clock Gen 


5.00 


IC 8701 FG 


5.00 


IC LSI 8564 VIC Rev 5CA 


22.00 


IC PLA 8721 R3 


14.00 


IC ROM 2332 Character 


9.00 


IC ROM 2364 Basic or Kernel 


9.00 



MICE & MODEIVIS 



1351 Mouse UBN S32.0D 

CBM 1670 -1200 Baud J29.0(? 

Aprotek 2400 w/sottware SB9.95 

Supra 24D0 - $79.00 

Peak Modem Interface for 

non-CBM units -^?S.flO 



OUR POLICIES 



rio waiting lor your onxrs to ship. Orders 
In by 2PM go out tha same day. Second 
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REVIEWS 



THE LOST WORLD 

Does this sound familiar? 
You're tired of shoot-'em-up 
computer games that do 
nothing for a child's mind, 
but your child shuns educa- 
tional games in favor of ac- 
tion and adventure. If that's 
the case, then Free Spirit 
Software has the answer for 
both of you in an adventure 
program it has just imported 
from the land down under. 

Based on a Sir Arthur Con- 
an Doyle novel published at 
the turn of the century, The 
Lost World is an offering 
from Satchel Software, a 
company that promotes the 
use of computers and com- 
puter text games in the 
school systems throughout 
South Australia. This partic- 
ular program, geared to- 
ward junior high students, 
ties in nicely with the study 
of fossils, dinosaurs, and nat- 
ural history. The game also 
helps students by encourag- 
ing reading, increasing vo- 
cabulary, widening thought 
processes, developing con- 
centration, and developing 
problem-solving strategies. 

With these goals in mind, 
you would probably expect 
The Lost World to be bor- 
ing. It's not! The game is 
great fun! It combines text 
commands with colorful 
graphics in a rollicking ad- 
venture that can be played 
alone or solved as part of a 
group effort. You'll find your- 
self facing quite an array of 
obstacles and many unique 
elements. In fact, if you 
don't use your head, you 
might end up as a tasty tid- 
bit for a hungry dinosaur, 

The game's text com- 
mands are relatively simple. 
Directions (north, west, up, 
down, and so on) can be ab- 
breviated by typing the first 
letter of the word. Young- 
sters who aren't familiar 
with a keyboard won't be 

G-8 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



put off by having to type in 
a lot of text. Action com- 
mands are kept simple, too, 
using verbs such as take, 
cut. drop, make, and so on. 
This lets children with vary- 
ing reading levels play and 
enjoy the game. You can al- 
so save your adventure — a 
nice feature if you've just 



KiJv.V.' 



want to do some reports for 
extra credit, too. 

The Lost World is far 
more than a text game and 
activity book. In fact, this 
three-disk package outdis- 
tances any game program 
I've ever seen. Satchel actu- 
ally gives you an incredible 
resource disk in this pro- 



YBur Ml en is north. 
Hzrti is a frnpiral forest, ft bvttak 
gurgles to a siiat I pnn! Hhere 
traut-like f ir.h shih. Vdu can nauB 
norths SDutii iinil west. 



Players will have fun finding treasure, discovering fossils, and 
meeting dinosaurs in The Lost World, but they'll also be learning. 



had an unfortunate encoun- 
ter with an Allosaur. 

Satchel wants its software 
to be challenging but not 
frustrating. The program- 
mers have found that a little 
help goes a long way, so 
they've included a 176- 
page manual that is divided 
into two parts, The first 67 
pages are for the teacher, 
and they offer suggestions 
and possible solutions for 
the game. This section 
should be used sparingly. 
Children in the appropriate 
age range should be able to 
solve the game with just a 
few hints to steer them in 
the right direction. The re- 
maining 109 pages of the 
manual are a bonus. They 
are crammed with games, 
crossword puzzles, and 
short articles that will pique 
a chiid's curiosity and offer 
hours of related activities. 
There's lots of good informa- 
tion here for students who 



gram that includes a basic 
database, a simple-to-use 
word processor called Easy 
Word, and several disk utili- 
ties — all designed for junior 
high students. 

The database is already 
set up with five files that per- 
tain to dinosaurs, explorers, 
and imaginary lands. Users 
can choose to view, edit, 
search, or sort the files. 
They can also add, delete, 
and print records. While the 
users can't create their own 
files, this program helps famil- 
iarize them with ways to 
wori-i within databases and 
access information. 

The people at Satchel Soft- 
ware realize that novices of- 
ten inadvertently erase por- 
tions of their projects while 
learning to use a new pro- 
gram. To reduce this frustrat- 
ing possibility, some com- 
mands, such as DELETE, 
have safeguards built into 
them that prevent a user 



from erasing the entire data- 
base, Speaking from person- 
al experience, there've 
been many times when I've 
wished for this feature on 
my own database. 

The word processor includ- 
ed in The Lost World is 
called Easy Word, and it 
lives up to its name. It's a 
practical, 40-column word 
processor that is so simple 
to use that kids will enjoy us- 
ing it for reports and other 
writing tasks. Satchel has 
built several safeguards into 
the word processor pro- 
gram, too. For example, func- 
tion keys handle most com- 
mands within the program 
(LOAD, CLEAR, SAVE, 
ERASE, CENTER, PRINT), 
and these commands stay 
onscreen throughout the pro- 
gram. That way users won't 
lose any work trying to re- 
member the right command. 

Another safeguard built in- 
to the program restricts ac- 
cess to the Erase option. 
When you press f8 to erase 
files, you get a message in- 
forming you that Erase is a re- 
stricted option. You then 
have to go through several 
more steps. Including enter- 
ing the full name of the file 
you want to erase. After all 
these steps, it's rather unlike- 
ly that you'll accidentally de- 
lete an important file. 

I think you're going to be 
very surprised when you 
check out The Lost World. 
This package delivers every- 
thing that its developers 
promise and more. I for one 
am going to be watching for 
more programs bearing the 
Satchel Software name. 

MARTI PAULIN 

Commodore 64 or 128— $39.95 

SATCHEL SOFTWARE 

Distributed by Free Spirit Software 

720 Sycamore St, 

CoiunbLS, IN 47201 

(812) 376-9964 

Circte Reader ServEce Number 414 



WESTERN 

Graphics (or 
Commodore 64 
Sc Side A or B 
Print Shop, and 

compatible 
proeranvs Dke 

Fun Graphics 
Machine. 

064 WESTERN 

HERrTAGE 

$24.95 

509-276-6928 

-« « < V 

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HERITAGE 
Graphics 
for IBM 
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UKJUi. $12.00 
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Create a Total Western Environment with 143 designs 
90 Graphics, 42 Borders and 11 Fonts for the Print Shop. 

* An New Weslem Designs by Professiooal Artists. 

* Inslfuclions lo make 10 Gunfighlers of the Old West, Wanted Posters. 

* Authentic Indian Symlxsls Font, designed (ly secret messages. 

* Matching Fonts, Borders, and Graphics, for a Profassion^ leolt. 

* ComcE n a Beautiful Coltedots Netelxiok, lo Orgarvze your Creaticrie. 
« Old Ranch Brands, Wagons, Horse Shoes, Cattle, Engish Riders, Gunfightei?, Indans, 

Cowboys, Ropes, Hals, Boots, Saddtes, and more. 





GRAPHICS 

Hors« Feathers Graptucs, N. 27310 Short Road, DeerPait,WA. 99006-9712 



(BiS[e Searcfi 3.2 

1. The entire Old & New Testament text on 4-1541/71 disks. 

2. An Exhaustive English Concordance on 2-1541/71 disks. 

Indexes every word in the entire Bible; 700,000+ references. 

3. Incredible five (5) second look-up time, per/word, per/disk. 

4. Instant, automatic spell checking of more than 12,800 words. 

5. Wildcard and boolean AND, OR & NOT search options. 

6. Search the entire Bible in 5 seconds with 1581 orHD (v 3.52). 

7. Money back guaranteed! 

KJV $49.95 I NIV $59.95 | KJV & NIV $90 

Inciudes: C64 & CI 28 programs; screen, printer and disk output; 
users guide, disk case. Available on 7-1541/71, or 4-1581 disks. 
a" Any questions? Call or write for more information. 
y4/so avaitab\e! Amiga, Bible Search 



^^^ Big Blue Reader 128/64 - 4.0 

Transfers word processing, text, ASCII, and binary files between 
C64/128 and IBM PC compatible 360K 5.25' and 720K 3.5" disks. 
New Version 4.0 features: Transfers ASCII, PET ASCII and Screen 
Code files including: WordWriter, PocketWritet, SpeedSaipt, PaperClip, 
WriteSlufI, GEOS, EasyScript, Fleet System and most others. 
Supports drives # 8-30. New Backup _(C128) and Format (1571/1581) 
programs. Reads MS-DOS sub-diredories, uses joystick, and more. 
Includes C128 & C64 programs. Requires 1571 or 1581 Disk Drive. 

Big Blue Reader 128/64 - 4.0 only $44.95 

Version 4.0 upgrade, send original BBR disk plus $18. 



Order by check, money order, or COD. US funds only. 

13- FREE book rale shipping in US . No Credit Card orders. 

Canada & Mexico add $4 S/H, Overseas add $10 S/H ($5 BBR) 

SOGWAP Software ^ (219)724-3900 

115 Bellmont Road; Decatur, Indiana 46733 



Circle Reader Service Number 234 



^HS AND 

^ MONEY 



"Gazette Gallery," where each month we present the 
very best in original 64 and 128 artwork. 

So don't waste another moment. Subscribe to- 
day to COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk and get 12 issues 
for only $49.95. You save almost 60% off the single- 
issue price. Clip or photocopy and mail completed 
coupon today. 

Individual issues of the disk are available for 
$9.95 (plus $2.00 shipping and handling) by writing 
to COMPUTE, 324 West Wendover Avenue, Suite 
200, Greensboro, North Carolina 27408. 



Yes, save time and money! Subscribe to the Gazette 
Disk and get all the exciting, fun-filled Gazette pro- 
grams for your Commodore 64 or 128— already on 
disk! 

Subscribe today, and month after month you'll 
get ail the latest, most challenging, and fascinating 
programs published in the corresponding issue of 
COMPUTE. 

New on the Gazette Disk! In addition to the 
programs that appear in the magazine, you'll also 
get outstanding bonus programs. These programs, 
which are often too large to offer as type-ins, are 
available only on disk— they appear nowhere else. 

As another Gazette Disk extra, check out 



YES 



» 



Start my one-year subscription 
to COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk right away 
for only $49.95.* 

Q Payment enclosed (check or money order) 
D Charge D MasterCard D Visa 



Acct. f^o. . 
Signature . 
Name 



Exp. Date . 



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City 

State/ ZIP/ 

Province Postal Code 

Mail 10 COfvlPUTEs Gazette Disk. P.O. Box 3860. Harlan. I A 51593-2430 

■ Residents ol NO and NY, please add apprapiiale sales tax for your area. Canadian 

orders, add 7% goods and services lax. 




C0(nn»da« 64 and 64C pwsonol computanH 
irs^uOAg □ campt«t« macnorv loop of Q]^ 



MAPPING 

THE 

Commodore 

64&64C 



The classic best-selling 
Commodore 64 reference 
guide. Mapping the Com- 
modore 64 and 64 C is a 
comprehensive memory 
guide for beginning and advanced programmers. 

To order your copy send SI 8.95 plus S2.50 for shipping and handling 
(U.S., 54 to Canada and S6 other] to COMPUTE Books, c/o CCC, 2500 
McClellan Ave. Pennsauken, NJ 08109. (Residents of NC, NJ, and NY 
please add appropriate tax; Canadian orders add 7% Goods and Servic- 
es Tax.) All orders must be paid in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. bank. 
Orders will be shipped via UPS Ground Service. Offer good while 
supplies last. 



OMNI 
TIME CAPSULES 




Now the mcsgazine of the future can be 

kept for the future. Store your issues of 

OMNI in o new Custom Bound Library Case 

made of blacl< simuloted leather. It's built to 

last, and it will l<eep 12 issues In mint 

condition indefinitely The spine is embossed 

with the gold OMNI logo, and in eoch case 

there is a gold transfer for 

recording the date. 

Send your check or money order 

($8.95 each; 3 for $24.95; 6 for $45.95) 

postpaid USA orders only. Foreign 

orders odd $) .50 odditionol for 

poslogeond handling per cose. 

To: OMNI MAGAZINE 

Jesse Jones Industries, 499 E, Erie Ave. 

Phlla., PA 19134 

CREDIT CARD HOLDERS (Orders over SI 5) 

CALL TOLL FREE l-800-825Hi690 

Or moil your order, cleoriy showing your 

account number and signature. 

Pa. residents odd 7% sales tax. 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 




PHOTO: TOM & PAT LEESON 



Life in the wild can be pretty tough these 
days. Without the necessary ancient-forest 
habitat to live in, sonne species like the 
northern spotted owl of the Pacific North- 
west are severely threatened. 

At the Sierra Club, we believe that these 
owls and the ancient forest ecosystems they 
depend on need our help, 
To learn more about our work protecting the 
forest habitats of endangered species such 
as the northern spotted owl, write or call: 

Sierra Club, Dspt. PB 

730 Polk Street, San Francisco, CA 94109 

(415) 776-Z211 




VIDEO DIGITIZER 

There's a new digitizer on the market. 
This German import, called simply Vid- 
eo Digitizer, is distributed in the U.S. 
by RIO Computers. Video Digitizer 
does far more than simply replace Com- 
puterEyes, whictr has been discontin- 
ued — it leaves it in the dust! 

The screen image is limited to stan- 
dard Commodore high-resolution, and 
you need a decent image and a stable 
source signal if you hope to accom- 
plish anything. But this iittle gem man- 
ages to find a clean image where Com- 
puterEyes could see only black-and- 
white streaks, I ran the cable from my 
new VCR (which I bought only after 
making sure It could produce a nearly 
perfect freeze-frame) to my Commo- 
dore 128 (in 64 mode) and compared 
Video Digitizer with ComputerEyes on 
the same video image. Video Digitizer 
created a perfectly presentable picture 
of Captain Kirk, while ComputerEyes 
covered the poor captain with streaks. 
I was impressed! 

Of course, any digitized image 
needs at least a little touching up. 
With ComputerEyes this alw,ays meant 
loading a third-party conversion pro- 
gram such as Icon Factory and porting 
the image over to Doodle or geoPaint 
for touch-ups. Video Digitizer, on the 
other hand, has a drawing program 
called Eddison that's built right in! As 
a matter of fact, Eddison is a full-fea- 
tured, sophisticated graphics tool in its 
own right. In a sense, Video Digitizer is 
an add-on accessory to Eddison, not 
the other way around. After all, the dig- 
itizer is controlled from an icon that's a 
selection on Eddison's menu, just like 
the pencil or brush choices. 

Video Digitizer scans an image in 
black-and-white or gray scale. The for- 
mer requires less time to scan and is 
considerably more forgiving about the 
picture you choose. It creates a very 
recognizable scan of a person's face, 
for example, even if it's not a close- 
up. The downside is that the image is 
comprised of areas that are strictly 
black or white. There are no shades of 
gray between the two. You can manu- 
ally set the threshold level (the dark- 
ness level at which the software choos- 
es to make a pixel black instead of 
white), which greatly alters the look of 
the scan. This high-contrast image is 
great for many things. If you plan to re- 
size the image later in a program like 
geoPublish, it's the only way to go. 

Gray-scale scans are created with a 
myriad of dots in patterns to create lev- 
els of gray. This sounds great in theo- 
ry, but wlren it comes down to prac- 
tice, there usually isn't sufficient con- 
trast in the source image to give you a 



well-defined image. This isn't a flaw in 
the Video Digitizer, however; Comput- 
erEyes does the same thing. A live vid- 
eo image from a video camera with 
good lighting to create sharp contrast 
can be scanned successfully this way 
A video tape image, on the other 
hand, will usually wash out, Fortunate- 
ly, it's a simple matter in Eddison to 
scan and rescan using various meth- 
ods until you come up with an image 
you like. This is perhaps the single 
most impressive feature of the Video 
Digitizer system. You not only have the 
choice of repeating your scan quickly 
and easily, but you can also immediate- 
ly use Eddison to alter each image to 
see if it fits the bill. This little unit, bare- 
ly the size of a standard cartridge, is a 
joy to work with. 

This is not to say that everything is 
perfect, Probably the biggest draw- 
back to Video Digitizer is its price. The 
competition {now limited to VideoByte 
and its companion cartridge, Video- 
Mate) retails for less than half Video Dig- 
itizer's price. Granted, Video Digitizer 
runs circles around VideoByte's convert- 
ed multicolor images if you want a high- 
resolution scan and can justify the 
price. 

Another major disappointment is Vid- 
eo Digitizer's documentation. Like Vid- 
eoFox and other products in this line, 
the manuals for Digitizer and Eddison 
are poor translations of the original Ger- 
man, with sentences running from com- 
ical to unintelligible. A number of fea- 
tures are so poorly described that I 
was forced to give up when I couldn't 
figure them out by trial and error. Rich- 
ard Ollins, president of RIO Comput- 
ers, assures me that a new comprehen- 
sive set of manuals are available. With 
the new documentation, ail the prod- 
ucts in this line, including VideoFox, Pa- 
geFox, and the new genlock that RIO 
plans to release, will be integrated in- 
to an impressive set of graphics and vid- 
eo tools for the 64. 

If you're a "Star Trek" and a graph- 
ics fan like me and dream of using 
great pictures on your computer of 
Spook, the Enterprise, and maybe 
your brother, then Video Digitizer is 
worth the cost. ! know I'll gladly ear- 
mark S250 for one when my strained 
budget allows, I've never been so sad 
as when I had to pack up this review 
unit of Video Digitizer and ship it back 
to the company 

STEVE VANDER ARK 

Commodore 64 or 128— S249 

RIO COMPUTERS 

3430 E. Tfopicana Ave., Ste. 65 

Las Vegas, NV 89121 

(702) 454-0335 

Circle Reader Service Number 415 O 



C64/128 PUBLIC DOMAIN SOFTWARE 

fJEQUEST FREE CATALOG or send S2 for sample disk and catalog (tJE- 
FUNDABLE) Categories Include education, ulllltles. games, business, 
PRINT SHOP graphics, pre-tested programs and more. Reni for 75= or 
buy as lovi/ as S1.ro per disk side or for 80< for 70 or more. S20 order 
gets 6 free disks of vour chiolce. 
NEXT DAY SHIPPINGI SINCE 1986 

\Mmk. CALOKE INDUSTRfES (Dept. GK) 

PC BOX ]?,A77. RAYTOWN, MO 64133 



VISA 



circle Reader Service Number 181 



DEPEHDABLE SERVICE FOR YOUR COMMODORE'. 



C-64, 1541, C-128, or ^57^ .j^FAST TURNAROUND! 

S25.00, 



PLUS PARTS 

Send computer' or drive wilh name, ad- 
dress, phone, & describe problem. Well 
call with parts estimate, then repair and 
relurn to yoj insured by UPS Payment 
can be COD or VISA, M/C Minimum 
charge, eslimate only is S20 ' include power suppiy. 



AUTHORIZED COMMODORE 
SERVICE CENTER 



90 CAY WARRANTY 
ON ALL REFAfRS 



TYCOM Inc. 



503EastSt. Depl-C 
PrtlsfiBid, MA 01201 



Circle Reader Service Number 242 



(413)442-9771 



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DIKIUES OfliiiU 

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(VIAY1993 COMPUTE G-11 



FEEDBACK 



The 64's 

missing memoiv, 

loading the first 

file in a directoiv, 

and more 



Why Only 39K? 

If the 64 has 64K of memory. 
how come only 39K is availa- 
ble to BASIC programming? 

A. MARIE 

SAN ANTONIO. TX 

At the heart of all personal 
computers is the microproces- 
sor. In the 64, this processor 
is the 6510, a variation of the 
6502 used in the Apple. One 
characteristic of this chip is 
that it can access only 64K of 
memory at a time. 

If the designers of the 64 
simply filled the computer 
with 64K of empty memory, 
the machine would be help- 
less. Computers need certain 
built-in programs to function. 
Don 't confuse these built-in 
programs with the programs 
you write yourself or load 
from disk. The built-in pro- 
grams are stored in special 
memory chips called ROIvl 
(Read Only Memory). Unlike 
other programs, they remain 
safe in their ROM memory 
chips even when power is 
turned off. The BASIC lan- 
guage itself is one of these 
programs. Another program 
is the computer's operating 
system/, which performs house- 
keeping duties. 

These internal programs 
need some of the 64K of 
space that the 6510 micropro- 
cessor chip can address. To 
make room for them, the 64 
designers used some of the 
RAM area. That's why. when 
programming in BASIC, you 
have only 38,911 bytes of 
memory. The 25K of RAM 
that appear to be missing are 
taken up by the BASIC inter- 
preter program, the operating 
system, and other things. The 
designers did make it possi- 
ble, however, to switch off the 
64's ROM. thus freeing the 
full 64K of RAM underneath. 

Unfortunately, when you 
switch off BASIC and the op- 
erating system, you are left 
with what amounts to an un- 



conscious computer You 
must replace the operating 
system software with some of 
your own that takes care of 
the necessary housekeeping 
tasks. Since BASIC is gone, 
this replacement must be ma- 
chine language. Therefore, 
the full 64K of RAM is availa- 
ble, but only to advanced pro- 
grammers fluent in machine 
language. 

Load Me First 

I have a question about mak- 
ing a menu program the first 
one on a directory. I have a 
disk of files, and no matter 
how often I save the menu pro- 
gram, it doesn't come first in 
the listing. I want to be able to 
load the menu by simply typ- 
ing LOAD""'.8 and RUN. 
How do I do that? 

T AIGHT 
BOSTON. MA 

You can load the first pro- 
gram on a directory listing 
with L0AD""',8 only if you're 
loading a program for the 
first time. After that, that com- 
mand will load the last pro- 
gram loaded. To load the first 
program any time, use LOAD 
"0:"',8. Now let's address the 
real question. 

To make any program the 
first program on the disk re- 
quires that the program that 
is currently first be replaced. 
Here's how to do it. 

Place the disk you want to 
rearrange into tlie disk drive. 
Load and list the directory 
Note the program at the top 
of the directory list. (Press 
Run/Stop if necessary to 
keep the list from scrolling off 
the screen.) This first program 
on the disk is the one you'll 
have to move to make room 
for your menu program. 

Use the COPY command 
to duplicate the first program 
with another name, for exam- 
ple. OPEN 15,8, 15, "COPYO: 
newname=oidname".' CLOSE 
15. Newname is the name of 



the copy, and oldname is the 
name of the original. 

Once you've copied the pro- 
gram elsewhere on the disk, 
you can safely delete the orig- 
inal with the SCRATCH com- 
mand: OPEN 15.8.15. "SO: 
oldname"; CLOSE 15. As be- 
fore, oldname is the name of 
the original. Now you can use 
the RENAME command to 
change the new name back 
to the original. Its format is 
OPEN 15,8. 15. "RO: oldname 
^newname".- CLOSE 15. Now 
you have two possibilities. If 
your menu program is already 
on the disk, you can use the 
COPY command, which will 
move the menu to the front of 
the disk. If the menu program 
isn't already on the disk, in- 
sert a disk that contains the 
program and load it in. Re- 
place that disk with the one 
you've been working with and 
save the menu program to it. 

If you've done everything 
right, your menu program 
should now be the first pro- 
gram on the disk. Test it by 
by entering LOAD"0:"\8. 

Underlining 

I have a 64, Cardco + G inter- 
face, Star SGIO printer, and 
WordPro 3 Plus word proces- 
sor. I can't get my system to 
underline anything. All four 
products claim to support un- 
derlining, so please tell me 
what to do in this regard. I'm 
not that knowledgeable 
about BASIC programming or 
the equipment, My main de- 
sire is to use the equipment 
for word processing. 

PENNY CAESAR 
FORT WAYNE. IN 

One of the most common 
questions we receive is how 
to get a certain printer to 
work with a certain interface 
and a certain software pack- 
age. Although the questions 
are similar, there are literally 
hundreds of answers, depend- 
ing on what hardware and soft- 



G-12 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




Gazette 
Index 



Everything's included! 

Features, games, reviews, 
education/home applications, 
programming, bugswatter, 
feedback, and columns! 

A superb interface includes pull- 
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searching and sorting capabilities. 
An options screen allows you to 
choose text colors, drive number, 
and input device. And there's full 
documentation on disk. 

Choose from three modes of opera- 
tion — browse for quick scanning, 
view for detailed information and 
descriptions, and edit for adding 
items from upcoming issues — and 
print to any printer. There's even a 
turbo-load option for maximum 
disk-access speed. 




To order, send $7.95 per disk, the 
quantity of disks ordered, check 
or money order,* your name and 
complete 'Street address: 

Gazette Index 

324 West Wendover Avenue 

Suite 200 

Greensboro, NC 27408 

■ Please add %2 shipping & handling ($5 loreign) for 
each disk (residents of NC. NJ, NY please add appli- 
cable sales rax, Canadian orders, add 7% goods 
and services tax). 

All payments tnusi be in U.S. funds. Please allow 4 
weeks for delivery. 



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An S70.10 value lor only $29.95 



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Circle Reader Service Number 145 



FEEDBACK 



Uniierlining from 

wiUiin a 

word processor, and 

making files 

impossible to load 



ware are being used. Given 
tl^ree interfaces, five printers, 
and seven word processors, 
you could find 105 different 
ways to fiook ttiem up and 
possibly 105 different an- 
swers to ttie question of under- 
lining. Unfortunately, we don't 
liave access to mucli of tfie 
equipment or software men- 
tioned, so it's difficult for us to 
find the specific answer. 

There are three routes you 
could take: First, write or call 
the manufacturers of your print- 
er, interface, and software. 
The worst that could happen 
is that you'd get no reply. If 
you bought your printer at a lo- 
cal Commodore dealer (very 
few of those, these days), 
someone at the store may be 
able to help. 

Second, try contacting a lo- 
cal user group. You may find 
someone there who has simi- 
lar equipment. Or perhaps 
someone with printer experi- 
ence can help you find the an- 
swer through experimenting. 

Third, check your printer 
manual for the codes that 
turn underlining on and off. In 
your case, the way to enable 
underlining should be ESC - 
1, which means send an es- 
cape (ESC) ctiaracter, a mi- 
nus sign, and a CHR$(1). To 
disable underlining, you'd 
send ESC - 0. This is often 
called an escape sequence 
because you use the ESC 
character followed by a se- 
quence of one or more other 
characters. The ASCII value 
of ESC is 27. and the ASCII 
value of the minus sign is 45. 
To test this, enter and run the 
following BASIC program. 

10 OPEN 4.4 

20 PRINT#4,CHR$(27); CHR$(45); 

CHRS(1); 
30 PR1NT$4,"THIS SHOULD BE 

UNDERLINED."; 
40 PRINT#4,CHR$(27); CHR$(45); 

CHR${0); 
50 PRINTS4," AND THIS IS NOT." 
60 PRINT#4:CL0SE 4 



If the printer underlined the 
first sentence, but not the sec- 
ond, you have the proper 
codes. 

If it didn't work, there 
could be several things 
wrong. Here's where it be- 
comes a little complicated. 
You may have mistyped the 
program; check the spelling 
and punctuation. The inter- 
face may have intercepted 
the codes before they 
reached the printer Escape 
sequences can sometimes 
be used to program interfac- 
es as well as to set printer op- 
tions. If you have such an in- 
terface, it may have seen the 
ESC and thought that it was in- 
tended to be an Interface 
code and not a printer code. 
If that's the case, you'll have 
to send ESC twice. Usually, 
when a programmable inter- 
face receives two ESC 
codes, it sends the second 
one to the printer 

Another potential problem 
is that the DIP switches on 
the printer or interface might 
be in the wrong position. DIP 
switches control the way your 
interface or printer acts. 
These vary widely from brand 
to brand, so check the printer 
manual and the interface man- 
ual for guidance on the prop- 
er settings. 

Finally, it may be that your 
printer needs a different es- 
cape sequence for underlin- 
ing; again, it's necessary to 
check your manual. 

Before you start experiment- 
ing with the word processor, 
try to underline from a BASIC 
program. When you know the 
proper escape sequence 
from BASIC, you'll be pre- 
pared to try it from the word 
processor 

Some word processors use 
printer files to keep track of 
various printer settings. 
When you place a generic un- 
derline command in the doc- 
ument, the proper escape se- 
quence is sent when you print 



the document, providing 
you've previously loaded the 
correct printer file. 

Other word processors re- 
quire you to know the com- 
mands to enable or disable un- 
derlining and other features. 
You'll have to check the doc- 
umentation for your word proc- 
essor If you need to use the 
commands, you'll have to de- 
fine three format keys for 
CHRS(27). CHRS(O), and 
CHR$(1). Then, whenever 
you wan! to underline, place 
the defined key for 27, -, and 
the key for 1 in the text of 
your document 

Unloadable Files 

1 remember seeing a program- 
ming tip somewhere that pro- 
tected files from being loaded 
by unauthorized people, it re- 
quired a code to load. Do you 
know of suchi a way that I can 
protect my programs? 

RAY FISHER 
PALATKA. FL 

There are a number of ways a 
programmer can "lock" his or 
her BASIC programs from pry- 
ing eyes, but here's a simple 
way that won't force you to re- 
member any exotic codes. 
Just remember the character 
string (CHR$) for a comma, 
which is CHRS(34). 

When you are ready to 
save your program, use this 
format: SAVE 'tilename "+ 
CHR$(34),8, Use your own pro- 
gram name for filename. 
When you list the disk's direc- 
tory, this program will appear 
normal. Try to load it, howev- 
er, and you'll get a FILE NOT 
FOUND error To load the pro- 
gram, you'll have to enter 
LOAD"filename"+CHR${34),8. 



Send your questions and com- 
ments to Gazette Feedback, 
COMPUTE Publications, 324 
West Wendover Avenue, 
Suite 200, Greensboro, North 
Carolina 27408. □ 



6-14 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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BEGINNER BASIC 



Larry Cotton 



Readers respond 

with their own 

programs to generate 

52 nonrepeating 

random numliers. 



NONREPEATING 
NUMBERS RETURN 

Last November, I challenged 
you to submit programs that 
would generate nonrepeating 
random numbers in either BA- 
SIC or machine language. 
Thank you for your responses. 
Appropriately, all of the re- 
sponses were in BASIC. (I'd 
hoped for a few fvlL versions, 
but I suppose mine couldn't 
be improved. In my dreams!) 

The object was to compare 
BASIC and ML speed by gen- 
erating 52 nonrepeating num- 
bers, such as you get when 
shuffling a deck of cards. 

And the winner is Howard 
Monroe. (I'm sorry, Howard. I 
misplaced your envelope, so 
I don't know where you live.) 
Here's Howard's program, 

5 PRINT"(CLR)(DOWN)PRESS 
ANY KEY TO RANDOMIZE 52 
NUMBERS" 

6 PRINT"WITHOUT 
REPEATS. ":PRINT 

7 GETAS:IFAS="'THEN7 
10 C=52:Q=RND(-TI/101) 
20 DIM R(C).X(C) 

25 REM INITIALIZE THE DECK 
30 F0RI=1T0C:X(I)=I:NEXT1 
35 REM GENERATE 52 RANDOM 

NUMBERS BETWEEN 1 AND 52 

INCLUSIVE 
40 FORI=1TOC:R(I)=INT(C*RND(1)) 

+1:NEXTI 
45 REM GENERATE THE RANDOM 

PERMUTATION 
50 FGRI=1T0C:A=R(I):B=X(1): 

X(I)=X(A):X(A)=B:NEXTI 
60 F0RI=1T0C 
70 PRINT X(l}, 
80 NEXTI 
90 PRINT:PRINT:PRINr'AGAIN? 

(Y=YES, N=NO)":PRINT 
100 GETAS:IFAS<>"Y"THENIF 

ASo'N'THENlOO 
110 IFAS= "N"THENEND 
120 GOT040 

Howard points out that the im- 
portant lines are 10-50 and 
that in reshuffling the "deck," 
it's important to branch back 



to line 40. not line 30. 

His program is unique in 
that the time it takes to gener- 
ate the 52 numbers is virtual- 
ly the same each time the pro- 
gram runs, This is not so of 
my primitive version or of any 
of the other submissions that 
rely on IF-THEN statements to 
test the random numbers. 

Howard's program requires 
only 118 jiffies (I'll explain this 
term in a moment) to gener- 
ate the 52 numbers. To time 
how long a routine takes, add 
a line like this where you 
want the timer to start. 

1 TI$="00D0OO" 

A cloct<, based on the 64'$ 
CPU clock, measures time in 
jiffies (about Veo second). The 
jiffy clock can be set to with 
a line like that above. From 
then on, that clock runs fran- 
tically until it's reset. 

If you'd like to see the jiffy 
clock in action, just type 
PRINT Tl in immediate (nonpro- 
gram) mode and press Re- 
turn. Do this a few times and 
watch as the jiffies fly by. In 
program mode, you would 
add a line number to the com- 
mand, such as 55 PRINT TL 

The clock is set to in line 
1, and line 55 prints the num- 
ber of jiffies that have elapsed 
since then. Everything that 
happens between line 1 and 
line 55 is timed in jiffies. 

But I digress. My Novem- 
ber program often took 4700 
or more jiffies to generate the 
52 numbers, Howard's speed- 
enhanced version blew mine 
away by a factor of almost 40. 
All other programs submitted 
beat mine by factors of 2-15. 
My next challenge was to see 
if I could squeeze any more 
speed out of Howard's pro- 
gram. Yes, I could — but not 
much. First, I changed his ran- 
dom statement in line 40. 

4D F0RI=1T0C:R(I)=INT 
(C*RND(.))+1: NEXT 



The number inside the paren- 
theses that follows RND can 
be anything, so I made it 0. Ac- 
tually, by substituting a period 
for the numeral 0, it works 
even faster. This shaved 18 jif- 
fies off Howard's time. Then I 
combined the last two FOR- 
NEXT loops into one and 
dropped the I variable. This 
eliminated a calculation and 
shaved another 14 jiffies. 

I tried using DEE EN to de- 
fine the RND function, but 
that actually stowed down the 
program. I also tried making 
the 1 In line 40 a constant; 
that didn't help either, So 
here's the speed-enhanced 
version. It times everything up 
to the actual printing of the 
numbers and also rudely 
strips away the program's us- 
er-friendliness. 

1QTIS="00GDDD" 

20 PRINTCHRS(147) 

30 C=52:Q=RND(-TI/101) 

40 DIMR{C),X(C) 

50 FORI=1TOC:X(I)=I:NEXT 

60 F0RI=1T0C:A=INT(C* 

RND(.))+1:B=X(I):X{I)=X(A); 

X{A)=B:NEXT 
70 PRINniiPRINT 
80 F0RI=1TDC 
90 PRINTX(!), 
100 NEXT 

An elegant (albeit slower) 
version by David Zammat of 
Summit, New Jersey, tests 
whether each new integer gen- 
erated has been used previ- 
ously If it hasn't, the program 
prints it and generates anoth- 
er one, I received several var- 
iants of this program 

10 D=5Z:DIIVI U(D) 

20 F1}R C=1 TO D 

3D N=INT(D'RND(1))+1 

40IFU(N)=0THENU(N)=1:PRINTN;: 

NEXTiEND 
50 GOTO 30 

Again, thanks, Howard, 
David, and all the others for 
your input- I'll try to offer anoth- 
er challenge before long, D 



G-16 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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G-17 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



Jim Butterfield 



ARRAYS 



Create an 

array in BASIC 

and modify 

it widi machine 

language. 



If you create an array in BA- 
SIC, that array can be used or 
modified by machine lan- 
guage programs. The start-of- 
arrays pointer tails where to 
find the first array. Using the 
pointer, the ML program looks 
for the array it wants and then 
goes for the data. 

The first two bytes of an ar- 
ray give its name. The next 
two bytes give the array's 
size, which enables a pro- 
gram to leap ahead to the 
next array if desired. The fifth 
byte contains the number of di- 
mensions. Following that, 
each dimension has a two- 
byte number that shows its 
size (including the element). 
Thus, a one-dimensional array 
has seven bytes of header ma- 
terial, after which the data is 
stored. Integer arrays — which 
we'll use in our sample pro- 
gram — store each value in two 
bytes. 

The start-of-arrays pointer 
may be found at addresses 
$2F and S30 on the VIC-20, 
Plus-4, and 64. The 128 sites 
the pointer at S31 and S32— 
but be careful, the values them- 
selves are stored in bank 1. 

Let's take a look at a sam- 
ple program that uses BASIC 
to set up an integer array. 
We'll then ask a machine lan- 
guage program to calculate a 
Fibonacci series and place it 
in that array. A Fibonacci se- 
ries starts with values 1 and 1 
(or and 1, if you like). Each 
new value is the sum of the 
two previous values. The se- 
ries goes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 
and so on. 

Our BASIC program cre- 
ates only one array To keep 
our program small, we won't 
check the array name, but we 
will check its size, since the cal- 
culated values should not over- 
run the array area. 

The code starts by copying 
the start-of-arrays pointer into 
a work pointer at S22 and S23. 



033C: LDA S2F: STA S22: LDA $30 
:STA S23 

Next, we extract the size of 
the array and add it to the ar- 
ray address. That gives us 
the address of the next array, 
the end of this one. We'll 
store it at S03C0/1 . 

LDY #$02: CLC: LDA ($2Z),Y: ADC 

$22: STA S03C0 

INY: LDA (S22),Y: ADC $23: STA 

$03C1 

Skip seven bytes to get 
past the header data. 

LDA S22: ADC #$07: STA $22: BCC 
$0360: INC $23 

The array initially contains all 
Os. Reaching beyond element 
0, we'll change element 1 to a 
value of 1. 

03BD: LDY #$03: LDA #$01; STA 
($22),Y 

Now the program proceeds 
to set up a second pointer, 
with a value of the first point- 
er plus 2. These two pointers 
will reference adjacent values 
in the array. 

CLC: LOA $22: LDY $23 

ADC #$02: STA $24: BCC $0372: 

IMY 

0372: Snr $25 

Here comes our main loop 
in the program. We add togeth- 
er the two pointed-at values 
and put the result temporarily 
on the stack. 

0374: LDY #$01: CLC: LDA 
($22),Y: ADC($24),Y: PHA 
DEY: LDA ($22),Y: ADC ($24), Y: 
PHA 

Now we bump the pointers to 
the next set of values, 

CLC: LDA $24: LDY $25: STA $22: 
STY $23 

ADC #$02: BCC $0390: INY 
0390: STA $24: STY $25 



If we have moved beyond 
the array's end, we'll exit. 

CMP $03C0: TYA: SBC $D3C1: BCS 
$03A9 

Otherwise, we bring back the 
value from the stack and 
store it in the new array loca- 
tion. Then we loop back. 

LDY #$00: PLA: STA (S24).Y 
INY: PLA: STA (S24),Y 
CLC: BCC $0374 

If it's time to exit, we must re- 
member to remove the two un- 
wanted bytes from the stack. 

03A9: PLA: PLA: RTS 

You may change the size 
of the array as defined by the 
DIM statement in the BASIC 
program, but integer arrays 
can't hold a value greater 
than 32,767. 

Don't forget that BASIC 
can move arrays to a new lo- 
cation to make room for new 
variables. Always work from 
the start-of-arrays pointer: its 
value may have changed 
since you last used it. 



XK 50 



DK 160 



MJ 170 

PH 20e 

BP 229 

AE 233 

PC 240 

GF 313 

SB 310 

MS 320 

PP 33a 



PRINT "(64 ONLV) 
ht ACCESS" 
DTH A* (201 

DATA 165,47,133, 

48,133,35,169,2, 

34,131,34 

DATA 141,192,3,2 

34,181,35,141,19 

,34, 105,7 

DATA 133,34,144, 

5,168,3,169,1,14 

,165,34 

DATA 164,35,135, 

6. 144 .1.203.132, 
1,24 

DATA 177,34,113, 
36,177,34,113,36 
165, 36,164,37 
DATA 133,34,132, 

2.144. 1.200.133, 
37 

DATA 205,192,3,1 

193,3,176,12,160 

145,36,200,104 

DATA 14 5,36,24,1 

134,104,96 

FOR J=S28 TO 939 

READ X:T=T+X 

P0Ki3 J,X 

NEXT J 

IF TO10638 THEN 

SYS 828 

FOR J=l TO 28 

PRINT At (J) ; 

NEXT J 



M/L ARR 



34,165, 
24,177, 

G0,177, 
3,3.165 

2,230,3 
5,3 4,24 

2,133,3 
37, 16(1, 

36,72,1 
,72,21, 

35,105, 
36,132, 

52,237, 
,a,la4 , 

44,203, 



□ 



G-ie COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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PROGRAMMER'S PAGE 



Randy Thompson 



Hackers have 

discovered many 

quirks in the 

64— here are a lew. 



TRIVIAL PURSUITS 

Believe it or not, the 64 is over 
ten years old, the 128 a ma- 
ture eight. That's almost a life- 
time in computer years. Dur- 
ing this tenure, hackers have 
found many quirks in these ma- 
chines. Here are a few. 

READY or Not 

In the old days, it was 
thought that the OUT OF DA- 
TA message that spuriousfy 
appears when you're editing 
a program was caused by 
some bug in the computer's 
operating system. Not so. 

As many alert program- 
mers might observe, this 
message occurs when you 
press Return while the cursor 
is on the same line as the 
READY prompt. Notice that 
the word READY can be inter- 
preted as the BASIC state- 
ment READY, which is exact- 
ly what the computer tries to 
do: read information from a da- 
ta statement. If your program 
doesn't have any data state- 
ments, the computer replies 
with the cryptic but correct 
OUT OF DATA ERROR. If 
your program does contain da- 
ta, your computer reads the 
value into Y and then re- 
sponds with a more reasona- 
ble sounding SYNTAX ER- 
ROR, because the period {.) 
that follows READY \s not a val- 
id BASIC command. 

Another common typing mis- 
take is to type the command 
RUN on top of the READY 
prompt. This produces the 
word RUNDY which your com- 
puter rarely accepts. In most 
cases, your computer com- 
plains with an UNDEF'D 
STATEMENT emr because it 
cannot interpret the charac- 
ters DY as a valid line num- 
ber. However, whenever the 
BASIC interpreter is unable to 
find a line number, it tries to 
jump to line number 0. So by 
starting all your programs 
with line 0, you can enter RUN- 



DY— or RUNIl or RUNNY, or 
even RUNAWAY— {o start 
your program. For the same 
reason, you can enter GOTO 
without a line number or even 
GOTOJAIL or GOTOGO to 
start a program from line 0, 

How Old Is Your 64? 

If you own an early-model 64, 
then you've probably encoun- 
tered the infamous lockup 
bug, To see if you're one of 
these lucky people (I am!), 
turn on your computer, move 
the cursor down to the last 
line, and hold down the 
space bar until the cursor 
passes the right edge of the 
screen twice. Next, hold 
down the Del key until the cur- 
sor moves back to the far 
right column. If you own a 64 
with the lockup bug, the 
words LOAD. 7SYNTAX ER- 
ROR. READY and RUN ap- 
pear on the screen, and the 
computer locks up. If you 
have a program in memory, it 
runs. The cursor continues to 
flash, but the computer ig- 
nores your keypresses, even 
Run/Stop-Restore. 

If you own a Datasette (re- 
member them?), you can de- 
feat the bug by simultaneous- 
ly pressing the left Shift key 
and 3, or X and 5. or V and 7, 
and so on (every other key 
from left to right on the top 
and bottom rows). The 
screen will display PRESS 
PLAY ON TAPE. Press Play 
on the Datasette and then 
Run/Stop, Your computer will 
return to normal. Disk drive 
owners can avoid the bug if 
the first line in the program in 
memory is OPEN 15,8,1:5:IN- 
PUT#15,S$:CL0SE 15, 

Interestingly, the lockup 
bug will occur only when 
your cursor color is red, cyan, 
blue, yellow, light red, dark 
gray, light blue, or light gray. 
Safe colors are black, white, 
purpie, green, orange, 
brown, medium gray, and 
light green. 



Beyond the Call of Duty 

Although the widest Commo- 
dore screen is 80 characters, 
the number used in a TAB() 
function can be as iarge as 
255. For example, on a 40- 
column screen you can use 
PRINT TAB(240) to move the 
cursor down six lines. Any 
number greater than 255 re- 
sults in an ILLEGAL QUANTI- 
TY error. 

As with the TAB() function, 
the ON X GOTO statement 
can't handle numbers greater 
than 255. This is contrary to 
early Commodore documenta- 
tion, which states that nega- 
tive numbers and numbers 
greater than 255 cause the 
64 to fall through to the next 
program line. Negative num- 
bers and numbers greater 
than 255 both produce ILLE- 
GAL QUANTITY errors. 

Keyboard Confusion 

Plug a joystick into port 1, 
turn on your computer, play 
with the joystick, and watch 
your comiputer screen fiil with 
seemingly random charac- 
ters. This happens because 
the joystick port shares the 
same CIA chip and I/O lines 
as the keyboard. 

If you're short a joystick 
and need to emulate one, try 
these alternatives. For exam- 
ple, just as pressing the joys- 
tick's fire button produces a 
space, hitting the space bar 
makes a program think that 
you've pressed the joystick's 
fire button. To simulate joys- 
tick up, press 1; joystick 
down, press back arrow (<-); 
joystick left, press Ctrl; and 
joystick right, press 2. 



Send your programming tips 
(or trivia) to Programmer's 
Page. COMPUTES Gazette. 
324 West Wendover Avenue. 
Suite 200. Greensboro. North 
Carolina 27408. We pay $25- 
S50 for each tip that we pub- 
lish in this column. D 



G-20 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



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GEOS 



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Ity these disk 
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MORE GREAT 
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Last month I talked about 
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GEOS applications. You can 
find some great programs in 
other GEOS collections. 

These are disks that con- 
tain a number of GEOS files. 
You'll find a wide variety of 
goodies, from utilities and appli- 
cations to clip art files and 
fonts, Some of the programs 
and fonts I use most often 
came on a collection disk. 
Here are some sources. 

GEOS Powerpack 

GEOS Powerpack, Power- 
pack II, and GEOS Compan- 
ion are collections released 
by RUN magazine. The disks 
are still available, and theyVe 
probably the best GEOS col- 
lections ever released. You'll 
want to get all three. 

Powerpack includes such 
gems as Write Hand Man, a 
writing and pattern analyzer, 
and PaintView II, a geoPaint 
viewer which includes an op- 
tion to save part of a geoPaint 
file as a Doodle file. There's a 
card file database as well as 
Thumbnail, a utility that cre- 
ates miniature versions of ge- 
oPaint documents to be used 
as clip art or printed by the 
page full for reference copies 
of your collection. There's al- 
so a version of Breakout for 
GEOS. The fonts, particularly 
those by Susan Lamb, and 
the scanned, high-quality clip 
art images are spectacular. 

Powerpack II contains the 
updated version of geoTerm 
for the 64 and 128, games, 
and a simple word processor, 
which imports and converts 
text files in ASCII. An interest- 
ing utility on the disk creates 
a stand-alone documentation 
file from a geoWrite docu- 



ment. Unfortunately, all the 
documentation for the pro- 
grams is Included in that 
form on the disk itself, leaving 
little space for clip art files 
and fonts. 

The GEOS Companion 
disk boasts a music editor 
and an animation program, 
as well as a 1581 boot disk 
creator and other excellent util- 
ities, including a batch load- 
er. There are more fonts, in- 
cluding one of my personal 
favorites, Smith Corona (regu- 
lar and megafont versions), 
and still more clip art files. 
Thankfully this disk has a sep- 
arate manual instead of on- 
disk documentation files. 

As of this writing, these 
disks are available from Tech 
Media, Special Products, 
P,0. Box 2151, Salisbury Mar- 
yland 21802. You can order 
by calling (800) 824-5499. 
The two Powerpack disks are 
$19,97 each; GEOS Compan- 
ion is $24.97. Add $3,95 ship- 
ping and handling to each or- 
der, not each disk. 

Collette Utilities 

Jim Collette is so well known 
and admired for his GEOS pro- 
gramming that Creative Micro 
Designs figures that his 
name on a disk Is enough to 
get folks to buy this collection 
of his better utilities. This is 
CMD's most recent GEOS re- 
lease. Included are updated 
versions of some of the finest 
GEOS programs ever written: 
geoWizard and the premier 
font creator, Font Edit. Also in- 
cluded are Mini-Desk, one of 
the more useful desk accesso- 
ries; a utility which automatical- 
ly places the current photo 
scrap into the first photo al- 
bum on the disk; a set of Post- 
Script utilities for laser print- 
ing; and a DOS wedge. As 
always, Jim's programs are us- 
er-friendly and user-proof. 
The $34.95 price is ridiculous- 
ly inexpensive for these quali- 
ty programs. You can order 



the collection from Creative Mi- 
cro Designs. RO. Box 646, 
East Longmeadow, Massachu- 
setts 01028. To place an or- 
der call (800) 638-3263, 

GeoPowerTools 

The folks who publish Lode- 
star, the magazine on a disk 
for the Commodore, offer a col- 
lection of utilities by Scott 
Resh, a talented GEOS pro- 
grammer. PowerToois in- 
cludes several photo albums 
of excellent clip art and a num- 
ber of fonts. For sheer num- 
ber of files for your dollar, you 
can't beat this disk of 21 utili- 
ty programs and games. 
You'll find BASIC 8-to-Amiga 
format conversion programs, 
directory and sector editors, a 
program which prints the con- 
tents of the Date Book that 
your GEOS Calendar uses, a 
nifty desk accessory that 
turns any part of the visible 
screen into a photo scrap, a 
fast formatter, a SID music 
player, and a utility that prints 
multiple copies of a geoPaint 
document. You can get this 
collection from Softdisk, RO. 
Box 30008, Shreveport, 
Louisiana 71130. Or order by 
calling (800) 831-2694. The 
price IS $9.95 plus $4.50 ship- 
ping and handling. 

COMPUTE'S GEOS Collection 

COMPUTE also has a collec- 
tion of GEOS programs, select- 
ed from the Gazette section 
of COMPUTE magazine. In- 
cluded on this disk are a cou- 
ple of nifty games — I like 
Skeet, myself — and utilities 
such as a word counter for 
geoWrite, a screen dumper, 
and a help file creator. The 
disk also Includes a nice mul- 
ttdensity printer driver for Ep- 
son-compatible printers. This 
collection is available for 
$13.95 (shipping and han- 
dling included) from COM- 
PUTE, 324 West Wendover Av- 
enue. Suite 200, Greensboro, 
North Carolina 27408. D 



G-22 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




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DIVERSIONS 



Fred D'Ignazio 



Imagine the 

IV-zapping cowboy 

in your family 

with a remote that 

accesses 

1500 channels. 



WHEN TELEVISION 
GOES DIGITAL 

I opened the Wail Street Jour- 
nal io6ay, and a story jumped 
out at me. It described how 
TCI — Tele-Communications 
Incorporated— may soon offer 
500 TV channels to its 11 mil- 
lion cable viewers. TCI is the 
nation's largest cable TV oper- 
ator. It's now allying itself with 
two other cross-industry heavy- 
weights, AT & T and General 
Instrument Corporation, to up- 
grade its analog cable system 
to a digital network. This new 
network, according to the Jour- 
nal, will "open the gates for a 
vast sea of entertainment and 
information options for cable 
subscribers." 

The conversion to digital is 
possible because of advanc- 
es in video and sound com- 
pression. Complex mathemat- 
ical algorithms hard-wired into 
speciai-purpose (digital signal 
processor) computers in TV 
programmers' studios will 
shnnk a TV signal to one-tenth 
of its normal size. This will al- 
low cable to carry ten times to- 
day's 50 or 60 channels, All 
this is possible without con- 
verting the standard coaxial ca- 
ble to the more expensive fi- 
ber optic cable. As fiber optic 
cables replace coax, howev- 
er, we'll see another threefold 
jump in cable capacity. 

Backyard satellite-dish own- 
ers will see 30 to 50 new digi- 
tal TV channels on their TV 
sets by next summer. The rest 
of us will come online some- 
time in 1994. Once the system 
is up and running, it's expect- 
ed to carry 500 cable chan- 
nels simultaneously. And if 
your local cable uses fiber op- 
tics, you might be seeing up 
to 1500 channels! 

Does this sound like over- 
choice, or what? Can you imag- 
ine the TV-zapping cowboy in 
your family with a remote that 
accesses 1500 channels? It 



boggles the imagination! The 
average zap lasts about 1.4 
seconds, so just completing a 
circuit around the cable race- 
track would take a mind-numb- 
ing 30 minutes. That's 30 min- 
utes filied with random, nonse- 
quential video and sound 
bites, brought to you compli- 
ments of your zippy zapper, 
Most TV shows would be over 
by then, so if your brain isn't re- 
duced to sludge, you can 
blast off into another button- 
pushing blitzkrieg that will last 
another half an hour. 

Fortunately, the move to dig- 
ital cable will result not only in 
more channels but also in a fun- 
damental redefinition of the 
word TV. Fifteen hundred pas- 
sive couch-potato channels of- 
fering video pabulum may 
sound like torture, but that's on- 
ly if your resident zapper forc- 
es you to sit through an orgy 
of channel-hopping. 

A more sane way to ap- 
proach this new deluge of pro- 
grams is to think of TV in a new 
way — not as disjointed pro- 
grams, but as a multimedia li- 
brary or bookstore. The key to 
this way of thinking will be of- 
fered to you at the time your 
TV is hooked up. It'll be in the 
form of a tiny black box that ac- 
cording to one cable-industry 
official "will be the most pow- 
erful piece of electronics tech- 
nology" in your home. This 
box will feature the most ad- 
vanced multimedia computer 
chips and programs on the 
market. The box won't look 
like a computer, so no one will 
panic. But it'll turn your TV into 
a computer monitor and your 
zapper into a tiny computer 
keyboard. 

The transformation of TV to 
computer will happen just in 
time. Instead of randomly hop- 
ping through a confusing 
flood of 1500 programs, you'll 
have brightly colored comput- 
er menus that will allow you to 
pluck a single program out of 
the vast sea of choices. The 



menus will gently guide you 
(much like a good librarian) in- 
to narrowing your selections. 
Do you want entertainment or 
news? Do you want a first-run 
sitcom or an oldie but goody? 
Do you want nature, history, 
mystery, or trash? The choice 
is up to you, 

Don't think ot TV any more 
as TV, Think of it as your own 
private bookstore that houses 
thousands of titles. (At 1500 ti- 
tles an hour, your "bookstore" 
will offer 6000 titles in a single 
evening of browsing.) Your 
bookstore isn't a standard 
print emporium but an electron- 
ic multimedia bookstore with 
books that spring to life when 
you open them: books that 
spill over with real people; and 
books that talk to you, play mu- 
sic, and captivate you with life- 
like scenes of drama, sus- 
pense, murder, and intrigue. 
T'ou can browse through all 
these myriad titles by casually 
pointing and clicking on menu 
buttons that group the books 
into topics such as fiction, non- 
fiction, biography, current 
events, animals, horror, and sci- 
ence fiction. 

And, remember, this is not 
a commercial bookstore that 
you are visiting. It is you/' book- 
store, so you can pick up a 
book, mark a page, set the 
book down, and ramble off to 
a different book or a whole 
new aisle. Later on, you can 
continue browsing where you 
left off. Or you can click on 
your VCR and make "photocop- 
ies" so you can review tfie 
books at your leisure. Or, you 
can place requests to the ca- 
ble operators, and they will re- 
program a channel and ship 
you just the books that you 
want to see again. 

You'll get all this for only a 
small fee — or maybe a large 
fee. It'll be worth it. And it'll be 
a blissful break from the mad 
TV zapper who is prowling 
around the TV room of almost 
every American family. lI 



G-24 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



PROGRAMS 



MAILING LIST 



By Maurice Yanney 
If you want to keep track of names, ad- 
dresses, birthdays, and otiier informa- 
tion, you'll find Mailing List a flexible and 
useful program. You can easily store in- 
formation for up to 500 people pertaining 
to names, addresses, phione numbers, or 
wtiatever else you desire. 

Once the data is entered, it can be re- 
trieved based on any of the fields. You 
can also print labels in any desired order 
by activating some or all of the fields. 

Typing It In 

Mailing List is written entirely in ma- 
chine language, but it loads and runs 
like a BASIC program. To type it in, 
use MLX. our machine language entry 
program. See "Typing Aids" elsewhere 
in this section. When MLX prompts 
you, respond with the following values. 

Starting address: 0801 
Ending address: 2238 

Be sure to save a copy of the program 
before exiting MLX. 

Using Mailing List 

When you begin Mailing List for the 
first time or start from a new disk, the 
program will create files to hold data 
and information on which records are 
available and which are occupied. So 
use a disk that has plenty of room on 
it. Once the files have been created, 
the program will look for a setup file 
and, if one exists, load it. 

At the top of the screen are three 
pull-down menus: System, Printer, and 
Record. On the right side of the 
screen are five other options called but- 
tons. The main part of the screen dis- 
plays the names of all the fields and 
the information contained in those 
fields for a particular record. 

To select an item, move the arrow- 
shaped cursor with a joystick, mouse, 
or cursor keys. When the cursor is over 
a particular item, it will be highlighted. 
Press the fire button, mouse button, or 
space bar to select an item. 

To select one of the data fields, po- 
sition the cursor over either the name 
of the field or the text area for that 
field. (Some fields are larger than oth- 
ers and thus have a larger area from 



which the field may be selected). 

When one of the pull-down menus is 
selected, a menu containing five en- 
tries appears underneath. To choose 
one of the options from the menu, 
rriove the cursor to the desired option, 
highlight it. and press either the button 
or space bar. Moving the cursor out of 
the menu area will remove the pull- 
down menu. 

Editing Data 

To edit any of the fields, just move the 
cursor over either the field label or the 
text area and press the button or 
space bar. Once the field is selected, 
the arrow will disappear. The Home 
key positions to the start of the field, 
the Insert key will insert a character, 
and the Delete key removes the char- 
acter under the cursor. The cursor 
keys can also move the cursor left and 
right. While editing a field, the Run/ 
Stop key can be used to cancel the ed- 
it. Run/Stop also restores the field to 
the previous text in addition to exiting 
the current edit. 

Adding Data 

You can enter data by moving to a 
field, pressing the space bar or button, 
typing the desired text, and pressing 
Fieturn, This approach is tedious and 
suited only for editing a few fields of a 
particular record. When adding sever- 
al records, switch to the Add mode, 

To enter Add mode, move the cur- 
sor to the right of the screen and click 
the Mode button. The mode will switch 
from Edit to Add, and the First Name 
field will now be selected. Proceed to 
enter the data. To leave any field 
blank, just press Return. 

When you press Return on the last 
field (Ind 2), the record is written to 
disk, and the program advances to the 
next available record position. Note 
that the Rec # indicator is updated and 
the First Name field is selected. 

Continue this process until you no 
longer wish to add records. To stop en- 
tering data, press the Run/Stop key. 
This will switch the mode back to Edit 
and return the arrow cursor. If any of 
the fields have data when the Run/ 
Stop key is pressed, the data will not 
be stored unless the Write button is se- 
lected. When all 500 record positions 
are filled, you'll get a message telling 



you that no space is available. 

While in Add mode, data in the 
fields remains preserved. If you notice 
a mistake after you've moved to a new 
field, press the Run/Stop key, which 
sets the mode to Edit and returns the 
cursor to the first field. Make the chang- 
es, set the mode back to Add, and con- 
tinue entering data. 

System Options 

To change screen and cursor colors, 
use the System pull-down menu at the 
top of the screen. Highlight the desired 
option and then press either the 
space bar or fire button. Moving the cur- 
sor outside the menu box will remove 
the pull-down menu. 

Once one of these options has 
been selected, the bottom portion of 
the screen will display an arrow point- 
ing to the current value. Move the cur- 
sor left or right and press either the but- 
ton or space bar to select the setting. 

Printer Options 

The options in the Printer menu are 
selected in the same fashion as those 
of the System. The printer options let 
you customize your printed labels. You 
can save the setup, load the setup, re- 
set the default values, set the printer for- 
mat, and print records. 

The first three options are used to 
save, get, and reset the format that the 
labels are printed in as well as to 
save, get, and reset the system op- 
tions. When the Save Setup option is se- 
lected, the current settings for the print- 
er, screen colors, and cursor speed 
are stored in a file. If the file exists, it 
will be overridden. Load Setup will re- 
trieve prior saved settings. Setting the 
default will reset the values to what 
they were the first time the program 
was run. 

When the option to set the printer is 
selected, a new screen appears. Use 
this screen to set the printer device 
number, the printer secondary ad- 
dress, and the label format. To select 
a particular item, move the cursor to 
the desired item and then press the 
space bar or fire button. 

Once an item has been selected, 
the cursor will change to either a mi- 
nus, a vertical bar, or a plus. The new 
cursor signifies the direction the cursor 
keys, joystick, or mouse can be 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-25 



PROGRAMS 



moved to change the selected item. 
When the item is a number (such as 
the printer device number), moving up 
increases the value by one; moving 
down increases the value by ten. 

If the item is one of the label fields, 
then the cursor will be either a minus or 
a plus. Moving left or right will go 
through the various fields, which are ab- 
breviated by three characters: First 
Name (FST), Middle Name (fvlID), Last 
Name (LST); Address Line 1 (LN1). Ad- 
dress Line 2 (LN2), City (CTY), State 
(STA), Zip Code (ZIP), Phone Number 
(PHN), Other Information 1 (0T1), Oth- 
er Information 2 (0T2), Indicator 1 
(INI), and Indicator 2 (IN2). 

There is also a Numbers option for 
sending special ASCII codes and a se- 
ries of spaces to separate items. (This 
does not result in any output to the print- 
er. It is used to help improve screen 
readability.) This option is a number be- 
tween and 255. Moving the cursor 
left or right will change the selection. 
Moving it up will cfiange the value by 
1, and down will change the number 
by 10. (A value of 65, for example, 
would send a lowercase a to the print- 
er.) Some special numbers to keep in 
mind are 10 (linefeed), 13 (carriage re- 
turn), 27 (escape), 32 (space), and 44 
(comma). 

Once the desired option appears, 
press the fire button or space bar to se- 
lect the item. When you've finished mak- 
ing changes to the printer, move the 
cursor to the Done option. 

Mailing List is designed to be flexi- 
ble. This means that carriage returns at 
the end of each line and spaces be- 
tween the fields need to be explicitly 
specified. This is the default setting. 
Most labels require six lines. So if you 
will be printing many labels, make 
sure that there are exactly six carriage 
returns per label, or else they may not 
print properly. Care must be taken in 
setting the fields so as no! to exceed 
the label width, since the program 
does not restrict the line width. 

When the option to print the records 
is selected from the Printer menu, the 
bottom of the screen will display two 
choices. You can either print the cur- 
rent record or multiple records by se- 
lecting the Based-On-Get option. This 
second option works in one of two 
ways, depending on the Get mode. If 
G-26 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



the Get mode is Seq (sequential), 
then all the records starting with the cur- 
rent record will be printed. If the mode 
is Patt (pattern), then all records match- 
ing the selected Get pattern will be print- 
ed. The printing can be stopped by 
pressing the Run/Stop key, letting you 
abort or continue printing. 

Customizing the Setup 

Once the printer and screen settings 
are to your liking, save the setup under 
the Printer menu. The next time Mailing 
List is started, the setup file will be load- 
ed, and your favorite colors, cursor 
speed, and label format will automati- 
cally be set. 

Record Options 

The Record options at the top of the 
screen are used to go to the next and 
prior records, set the Get condition, 
count the number of records, or delete 
the current record. 

The Next and Previous Record op- 
tion will obtain the next or the prior re- 
cord. If the Get mode is set to sequen- 
tial, then the next occupied record or 
the prior occupied record is retrieved. 
If the Get mode is set to retrieve 
based on the pattern, then the next re- 
cord meeting the Get option or the pre- 
vious record meeting tfie requirements 
of the Get option is retrieved. 

To set the Get condition, a new 
screen is displayed. The screen con- 
tains three items which can be modi- 
fied: Get Option, Get Operation, and 
Get String. Cursor to the desired option 
and press either the space bar or the 
button. 

When Get Option is selected, the cur- 
sor changes to a minus. Moving left or 
right changes the current field. Any of 
the data fields can be used in adjust- 
ing how records are retrieved. Once 
the desired field has been reached, 
press the button or the space bar to 
make the selection. 

The Get Operation has three alterna- 
tives: less, equal, and greater. To 
change the condition, move the cursor 
beneath the field, press the space bar 
or button, and then move left or right to 
the desired operator. Once again, 
press the space bar or button to make 
the selection. 

The Get String is the string that the 
Get Option field is compared to. This 



option is selected by moving under- 
neath the field and pressing the 
space bar or button. Once it is select- 
ed, enter the string and press Return 
when finished. 

Move the cursor to Done and press 
the space bar or button to return to the 
main screen. The Get Option, Get Op- 
eration, and Get String will be dis- 
played at the top of the screen, 

The Get mode is useful when look- 
ing for records meeting a specific con- 
dition or for printing records matching 
a particular requirement. Note that al- 
though the Get condition may be set, 
the mode must be set to pattern (via 
the Get button) to take affect. If the 
mode is sequential, then retrieval of the 
records will be sequential regardless of 
how the Get condition is set. 

If, for example, you want to print out 
all the names of people in the state of 
North Carolina, set the Get Option to 
STA, set the Get Operator to equal (=) 
and make the Get String NC. Set the 
Get mode to pattern, go to the Printer 
menu and select the Print Records en- 
try and then print on the Based-On- 
Get option. 

Other uses of Get involve using the 
Indicator 1 and Indicator 2 fields. 
They can be used to keep track of peo- 
ple on certain lists such as Christmas 
card lists. Each Christmas just print out 
the records where 1ND1 = Y, or howev- 
er you want to set it. 

The Count Records option displays 
the number of records stored. To de- 
lete a record, first go to the proper re- 
cord number and then select the De- 
lete Record option. The record will still 
be displayed on the screen as a safe- 
guard, but it will be marked as re- 
moved on the disk. If you change your 
mind after deleting the record, press 
the Write button while the information is 
still onscreen. 

Buttons 

The buttons are options that appear on 
the right side of tfie screen. A button is 
selected by moving the cursor to the 
item and pressing the space bar or 
fire button. 

There are buttons to select a specif- 
ic record number, set mode to Add or 
Edit, set the Get retrieval to sequential 
or pattern, Write a record, and Clear da- 
ta from the screen. 



Once the Record Number is select- 
ed, you must then input a number be- 
tween 1 and 500. If the selected re- 
cord number has data, that data will 
be retrieved and displayed. If no re- 
cord exists, the record number is updat- 
ed, and the data fields are cleared on 
the screen. 

The Mode button toggles between 
Add and Edit. Its use is discussed in 
adding and editing records. 

The Get button toggles the retrieval 
method to either sequential or pattern 
mode. Sequential mode is used when 
records will be retrieved sequentially 
while pattern mode indicates that retriev- 
al will be based on the settings of the 
Get condition. 

The Write button writes the contents 
currently displayed on the screen to 
the current record number. If, for exam- 
ple, you want to update the phone num- 
ber of a friend, first select the proper re- 
cord number, make the change, and 
then press the Write button. If the 
Write button is not pressed, any chang- 
es will be aborted. 

The Clear button clears a!l the data 
displayed on the screen for a particu- 
lar record, The data is not erased from 
the record on disk. 



MAILING 

0801:08 
0809:37 
0811:20 
0819:3C 
0821:99 
0829:B9 
0831:F7 
0839:2E 
0841:2A 
0849:07 
0851:05 
0859:20 
0861:16 
0869:A2 
0871:10 
0879:A8 
0881:F7 
0889:A5 
0891:E8 
0899:20 
08A1:A6 
08A9:A5 
08B1:03 
08B9:D0 
03C? ;34 
08C9:03 
08Dl:03 
08D9:34 
0BEl:18 
08E9:34 
08F1;03 



LIST 

08 70 

00 00 

20 20 

08 99 

33 03 

00 08 
A9 FF 
4C 00 
AD 20 
08 D0 

01 C6 

34 03 
A2 01 
04 20 

35 A2 
AS A7 
A5 FF 
F8 85 
20 34 
34 03 
18 A5 
FD 65 
4C 13 
IC A0 
03 F0 
4C 5C 
E6 A? 
33 D3 
69 04 
03 D0 
18 59 



17 9E 

00 20 
20 20 
F8 00 
88 D0 
99 FF 
85 2D 

01 IB 
B9 6E 
F7 EE 

F9 Da 

F0 33 
20 34 
34 03 
0A 20 
85 A9 
85 F8 
FF A6 
03 D0 
A0 02 
PC 65 
A7 85 
01 E8 
03 84 
08 A2 
01 A2 
4C 5C 
0A E8 
AS D0 
0A A2 
06 D0 



32 34 
20 20 
A0 C4 
B9 FD 
Fl A0 
03 83 
A9 2A 
E6 03 
09 99 

02 01 
ED A2 
C9 07 

03 D0 
18 69 
34 03 
AS FE 
20 6C 
F7 85 
IE A2 
84 AS 
A6 85 
F8 20 
20 34 
A3 G3 
08 20 
0F 20 

01 EB 
20 34 
D6 E8 

02 20 
ED A2 



30 6E 
20 96 
B9 06 

08 F6 

09 4C 
D0 Al 
as E9 
FF FD 
E8 25 
ES 19 
03 23 
D0 95 
0A A0 

07 65 
85 ID 
85 FB 
03 73 
FE 72 

08 21 
85 2A 
F7 58 
6C EF 
03 FB 
20 36 
34 F4 
34 CF 
20 AF 
03 B2 
20 37 
34 21 
08 A2 



08F9: 

0901; 

0909 

0911; 

0919; 

0921 

0929; 

0931; 

0939: 

0941; 

0949: 

09S1: 

0959; 

0961; 

0969: 

0971; 

0979; 

0981; 

0989; 

0991; 

0999; 

09A1; 

09A9; 

09B1; 

09B9; 

09Cli 

09C9; 

09DX: 

09D9: 

09E1; 

39E9; 

09F1: 

09F9: 

0A01: 

0A09; 

0A11; 

0A19i 

0A21: 

0A29: 

0A31i 

0A39: 

0A41: 

0A49: 

0A51I 

0A59; 

0A61; 

0A69; 

0A71; 

0A79; 

0A81; 

0A89; 

0A91; 

0A99; 

0AA1; 

0AA9; 

0AB1; 

0AB9; 

0AC1; 

0AC9; 

0AD1; 

0AD9; 

3AE1; 

3AE9; 

0AF1; 

0AF9; 

0B01; 

0B09; 

0B11; 

0B19 

0B21 



20 34 03 

A7 A4 FB 
26 A7 C6 
60 43 Bl 

85 rt 68 
FF C6 FE 
FF C0 07 
01 58 4C 
22 A5 F7 
C6 F8 38 
AS B0 02 
FT SB 91 
A9 F0 0A 
F8 C6 A9 
01 4C 16 
0A 00 9E 

00 00 00 
BA 81 D2 
03 80 79 
IB 20 76 
70 46 11 
IF 19 0A 

13 40 58 

01 28 99 
28 0E F9 
80 61 25 
D0 7 8 0C 
0A CA AC 
88 EF 0C 
F0 F0 05 
99 0B D2 
5A 39 19 
0Q AE 0A 
C0 67 13 
IE 44 46 
A0 07 AS 
AD A0 08 

14 6A 0D 
87 Al 30 

86 08 41 
0D C5 90 
A0 0E 20 
28 B4 lA 
C9 OB 04 
11 14 43 
A0 12 A0 
8C 53 83 
0E 61 8C 
0F 00 09 
68 33 F3 
40 F5 09 
6E 3D 23 
0E 62 44 
4C BE 03 
06 4B A3 
78 20 C9 

02 IC 
70 AA 
0C 23 3C 

02 IC 63 
09 0A 55 
8A E7 02 
C8 12 D0 
A4 D0 60 
20 80 ID 
60 24 6A 

lA 2D 
C9 14 
95 lA 4C 
C6 C3 08 



eh 

05 



07 
84 



D0 E6 A9 
F0 0C 06 
FB CA D0 
FE 85 FA 
A4 FE 00 
C0 E7 00 
D0 08 A9 
0E 03 R4 
38 E5 A8 
85 F7 A5 
C6 FD 85 
FC 98 D0 
Bl F7 C6 
10 EC 60 

08 60 00 
20 32 30 
E7 FA 0F 
90 07 C9 
85 9B 51 
IC 86 3E 
29 19 70 
D5 CD FD 
2A AE 13 
98 97 3C 
lA 47 08 
F2 00 C0 
3E 30 2E 
A9 15 42 
IC 5E 15 
AE C0 2A 

78 BB 2A 
A7 12 3E 
BB IF 16 
0C 60 D7 
04 C3 50 
A6 05 IC 
41 99 06 
A0 0B BA 
6B 10 86 
18 0A Bl 

09 C3 53 
0B 4 8 6 
A0 0F 20 
67 28 AC 
0C 0E 43 
13 32 03 
A0 71 EC 
63 18 0A 
A2 3D A9 
23 C9 11 
A8 6E 09 
96 22 34 
A3 20 61 
A2 56 A9 
4 6 0E B9 
3F AE F2 
0C IB 60 
35 05 38 

79 F0 09 
B0 36 C0 
60 B0 20 
85 47 4B 
13 40 6B 
C3 03 
C9 13 
22 63 10 
0A 20 87 
8A A9 05 
72 08 B8 
0C 16 E2 



3E 
60 



00 85 F7 
FA 2A 37 
F2 A8 08 
A9 08 FE 

02 C6 4A 
DE A4 B5 
37 85 BA 
A8 P0 59 
B0 03 7E 
FC E5 8A 
FC Bl 3A 
F8 04 42 
FD 06 76 
78 E6 98 
0C 03 75 
36 32 4F 
82 A5 08 
0C B0 DC 

08 7A B4 

03 60 DE 
El 14 BC 

02 A3 46 
AS E4 FA 
C0 AS B2 
86 CA 76 

01 07 ED 

03 37 39 
E9 67 B8 
00 73 4A 

09 38 CE 
06 IE 87 
9C 84 58 
IE 80 49 

20 EE A3 

08 35 6C 
86 02 IF 
E4 30 20 

21 07 51 
00 23 E3 

06 A0 F7 
73 35 6D 
0A 61 AD 
17 25 38 
lA A0 CC 
21 D5 B9 
0B A2 4A 

15 06 82 
48 60 06 
31 A0 AA 

09 DA AS 
IC 8E 45 

16 00 08 
15 67 23 
56 83 48 

07 AD 40 

80 34 Fa 
71 0F E3 
76 03 16 
26 20 25 
F0 DE DA 
33 70 88 

81 5S 90 
03 Dl 3A 
3A 2B C6 
Fl 3E 0B 
5F 06 B0 
14 BO 74 
IB 40 DE 
94 02 7F 
0A 7D IB 



0B29: 

0B31: 

0B39: 
3B41: 
0B49: 
3B51: 
3B59; 
3B61: 
0369: 
0B71: 
0B79: 
0381: 
0B39: 
0B91: 
0899: 
0BA1: 
08A9: 
0831: 
3BB9: 
0BC1: 
0BC9: 
0BD1: 
0309: 
3BE1: 
0BE9: 
0BF1: 
0BF9: 
BC01: 
0C09: 
0011: 
BC19: 
0C21: 
0C29: 
0C31: 
0039: 
0C41: 
0C49: 
0C51: 
0C59: 
0061: 
0C69: 
0C71: 
0079; 
0C81: 
0C89: 
0C91: 
0099: 

0CA1: 

0GA9: 

0CB1: 

aCB9: 

0CC1: 

0009: 

0OD1: 

0CD9: 

0CE1: 

0CE9: 

0CFli 

0CF9; 

0001; 

0D09; 

3011; 

0019; 

0021; 

0029: 

0031; 

0039; 

0041 

0D49 

0D51 



IB 
14 



2D 40 65 

80 50 58 
04 4C A0 
10 04 IB 
48 81 68 
AA E3 13 

81 07 06 
4C 5F E0 
CC 81 B4 
17 CA 64 
CO BO 60 
C2 5C 
71 64 
30 33 38 
2C 83 48 

55 30 18 

22 E6 00 

23 AE AS 
2C 99 94 
A4 40 01 
0F 72 44 
10 80 46 
38 43 C3 
47 30 10 
30 C3 8E 
60 D9 OF 
01 E9 0F 
06 3F 93 
0A 38 00 
00 03 23 
3A 80 0E 
BC 08 30 
08 78 11 
DB 0B AD 
A7 27 01 
04 Bl 07 
CI D8 CF 
2C 60 21 
CD 41 C8 
7E 28 99 
F4 9E 85 
17 25 IC 
E3 El SO 

82 C2 89 
85 90 EO 
08 A0 51 
2E 20 lA 
AF 2 5 A9 
BS 31 14 
A9 0A D6 
95 10 AB 
08 00 A4 
A9 04 80 
DC 31 A0 
93 31 07 
08 18 A0 
28 CA S3 
30 22 0D 
CI El 01 
78 3F 10 
0A 46 8C 
70 F0 B2 

56 17 00 
0D 02 6F 

;1S 39 3B 
:40 CD 01 
;84 0A 2B 
;8D C2 34 
;C8 8C 80 
;B2 AA AC 



01 30 
40 IB 

93 lA 

39 04 

20 F6 
A0 40 
0B 86 

21 C2 
20 20 
03 10 
Bl FB 
88 31 
lA 09 
AE 02 
03 CC 
60 A0 
El 4F 
08 8 9 
2E 0A 
68 BC 
IE E8 
Fl 00 
07 E7 
80 7A 
8B 09 
10 FD 
0E D4 
15 02 
A2 10 
2B 0B 
0E 50 
3C 20 
C8 Dl 
9B 08 

40 lA 

94 4B 
F7 8A 
99 02 
0E 66 
00 -00 
6C C9 
CF 00 

56 42 

57 13 
66 10 
97 F5 
ai 10 
BD 0F 
99 22 

07 34 
12 62 
32 00 
OB 31 
47 B9 
E5 00 
2A 6A 
B9 57 

08 00 
AA F6 
35 0A 
15 A0 
14 30 
FE 03 
A0 14 
A2 F6 
63 32 
A4 00 
80 D6 
3A 8A 
A0 06 



BE 24 

34 04 

Dl BB 
A0 IE 
C0 EF 
20 18 

40 4C 
13 B0 
A2 09 
79 0B 
FA FB 
06 ID 
0A AC 
83 14 
0A AA 

10 BA 

11 05 

00 EO 
70 7A 
IE 30 
60 99 
6E 10 
3C 02 
BA 80 
31 CC 
09 82 

20 08 
60 A0 

60 05 

61 00 
11 50 
8A 05 

01 OE 
F0 22 
00 01 
50 23 
9A 21 
54 00 
83 28 
98 A2 
33 10 
86 IB 

21 40 
0E 58 
0A 0F 
E3 3F 
8D BB 

35 19 
35 71 
A9 0F 
5A 90 
04 48 
A9 07 
03 29 
70 AS 
A8 B9 
2C 3D 
FA D0 
08 2B 
CD BD 
A0 50 
6E 0F 

41 00 
B9 CI 
AD 43 
E0 AE 
18 60 
3 AC 
03 18 
BO E9 



18 7F 
01 26 
96 01 
55 3B 
Al 2F 
00 Bl 
0A 33 
40 A7 
A0 ID 
20 7F 
BA 55 
18 72 
A0 06 
C4 EE 
E8 AC 
AS EA 
4E BF 
07 A8 
Al 6A 

04 A3 
A3 OE 
'31 53 
07 01 
07 A4 

00 0B 
09 34 
FA FF 
DA SD 
CF 6E 
BF 20 
78 19 
80 19 
4C 75 
90 42 

01 D7 
3F 13 
A9 90 
53 24 
28 50 

00 90 
06 50 

01 30 
F4 IF 
20 DE 
C2 16 
20 5F 
BA D9 
34 EF 
83 26 
lA 7B 
CI 96 

05 70 
80 F2 
99 F5 
04 D8 
5D 81 
23 5F 
EB 40 
E0 88 
SA 3F 
99 5E 
18 A8 
3B ED 
31 76 
4D E9 
Al 19 
7D 66 
67 E4 
60 90 
20 2A 



MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-27 



PROGRAMS 



0D59: 


D0 


04 


CA 


83 


6B 


49 


8C 


25 


7D 


0F8 9: 


4C 


10 


11 


53 


69 


60 


07 


51 


55 


11B9 


:67 


Fl 


ID 


E5 


0F 


50 


91 


0A 


F4 


0D61- 


04 


54 


07 


C0 


8C 


E8 


42 


DE 


CA 


0F91: 


31 


B5 


71 


11 


ID 


ap 


6A 


40 


31 


llCl 


:A9 


00 


A9 


F9 


99 


50 


9A 


7C 


3F 


0D69: 


F0 


26 


C9 


BC 


F0 


40 


S3 


87 


Al 


0F99: 


23 


6F 


42 


El 


CI 


18 


28 


0B 


55 


11C9 


: 57 


2C 


85 


7A 


F5 


72 


7A 


3E 


A7 


0D71: 


C4 


D0 


17 


35 


12 


0D 


CF 


48 


05 


0FA1: 


A0 


D6 


03 


05 


CC 


7A 


00 


0E 


04 


1101 


:3C 


6E 


05 


15 


ac 


72 


25 


00 


13 


0D79: 


0B 


CE 


48 


06 


4C 


8E 


DE 


5E 


EE 


0FA9: 


44 


01 


IC 


E3 


50 


2B 


A0 


55 


Bl 


11D9 


:65 


01 


0B 


AC 


03 


2B 


5D 


lA 


B4 


0D81: 


81 


80 


B7 


60 


74 


CC 


F2 


D0 


97 


0FB1- 


11 


CB 


50 


40 


C8 


48 


B0 


00 


32 


llEl 


:3F 


E4 


E7 


C9 


C9 


EO 


2F 


20 


C6 


0D89: 


F3 


F7 


11 


EC 


CF 


47 


E7 


CE 


C6 


0FB9- 


41 


10 


D2 


L0 


8C 


46 


FC 


Al 


Fg 


HE 9 


:A0 


C9 


70 


B4 


OF 


62 


9C 


80 


E3 


0D91: 


47 


DF 


4C 


B0 


0D 


B9 


A3 


30 


A2 


0FC1 


01 


0D 


DO 


28 


17 


10 


13 


85 


E4 


llFl 


:F8 


53 


05 


2B 


66 


CD 


CA 


85 


3E 


0D99: 


DD 


C4 


30 


90 


D7 


F0 


02 


B0 


lA 


0FC9 


08 


82 


A4 


C5 


ac 


D3 


D0 


13 


E5 


11F9 


:87 


91 


00 


OE 


67 


06 


61 


24 


5F 


0DA1: 


D0 


C8 


E8 


20 


EE 


0D 


F0 


CC 


CF 


0FD1 


24 


97 


43 


ID 


84 


0C 


8A 


20 


AB 


1201 


:B0 


F9 


CA 


C9 


13 


CO 


81 


06 


54 


0DA9 


CC 


C6 


E0 


27 


F0 


C4 


CC 


EC 


8B 


0FD9 


59 


AA 


H 


2E 


40 


F0 


DF 


CO 


9A 


1209 


:2F 


IB 


IE 


74 


59 


52 


A8 


04 


B7 


0DB1 


A2 


C2 


4C 


CE 


0D 


AD 


7D 


80 


DE 


0FE1 


07 


F0 


DB 


C0 


33 


D0 


OC 


4A 


36 


1211 


:08 


25 


70 


29 


34 


89 


25 


04 


15 


0DB9 


05 


08 


07 


AD 


25 


C9 


21 


C5 


6C 


0FE9 


0E 


17 


Bl 


63 


22 


83 


10 


48 


C8 


1219 


:87 


A5 


60 


71 


29 


06 


CI 


20 


92 


0DC1 


13 


22 


Al 


C3 


19 


83 


08 


20 


65 


0FF1 


E4 


0F 


96 


0C 


57 


51 


20 


21 


29 


1221 


:3C 


0B 


20 


52 


13 


91 


ID 


IF 


87 


0DC9 


98 


38 


ED 


BF 


CI 


03 


F6 


39 


39 


0FF9 


24 


4C 


0F 


12 


C0 


3F 


D0 


IF 


04 


1229 


:44 


E6 


81 


36 


13 


A2 


91 


EC 


D3 


0DD1 


C8 


A0 


06 


2E 


08 


63 


10 


0D 


17 


1001 


D0 


Fl 


AE 


£2 


2E 


16 


47 


4E 


B0 


1231 


:10 


10 


F5 


01 


IC 


46 


44 


80 


33 


0DD9 


■01 


22 


27 


F5 


67 


21 


40 


E4 


66 


1009 


60 


E2 


01 


32 


C0 


C0 


01 


F0 


70 


1239 


:41 


37 


47 


01 


00 


9B 


15 


99 


3B 


0DE1 


ED 


E4 


04 


4B 


30 


AA 


02 


32 


C3 


1011 


3B 


E0 


70 


4B 


B9 


C2 


EB 


70 


8C 


1241 


:19 


ID 


60 


CD 


06 


13 


IE 


C0 


22 


0DE9 


4A 


3E 


60 


20 


10 


9E 


F3 


A9 


11 


1019 


39 


E0 


00 


09 


83 


B9 


03 


EC 


IE 


1249 


:F0 


50 


OB 


30 


50 


92 


9B 


ID 


IC 


0DF1 


IE 


88 


AD 


18 


0F 


09 


08 


8A 


4D 


1021 


:4C 


F9 


11 


B9 


81 


EB 


E2 


CE 


F3 


1251 


:D2 


00 


ED 


9A 


85 


45 


C0 


50 


50 


0DF9 


2E 


67 


AB 


C2 


83 


67 


AB 


8E 


46 


1029 


;0A 


22 


AE 


C2 


AD 


04 


2B 


12 


BE 


1259 


:A9 


A0 


99 


6F 


07 


86 


2A 


10 


5B 


0E01 


A4 


80 


8F 


AB 


4F 


6D 


31 


3C 


DA 


1031 


80 


20 


04 


24 


A5 


C5 


38 


ED 


FE 


1261 


:74 


0D 


C9 


FF 


EA 


98 


24 


8A 


86 


0E09 


12 


30 


0F 


90 


13 


67 


IE 


20 


B7 


1039 


73 


2D 


FO 


F8 


20 


6E 


12 


4C 


B9 


1269 


:A4 


06 


71 


F0 


20 


3E 


A0 


0C 


E5 


0E11 


07 


39 


28 


F0 


19 


50 


43 


21 


C4 


1041 


72 


11 


D5 


DD 


21 


04 


52 


80 


B5 


1271 


:8A 


17 


03 


82 


24 


F5 


16 


7B 


C9 


0E19 


AD 


CI 


51 


71 


8A 


E7 


28 


C0 


C2 


1049 


50 


2A 


60 


15 


03 


2B 


CA 


F0 


C4 


1279 


:2D 


A0 


44 


04 


84 


14 


90 


BC 


77 


0E21 


38 


80 


F0 


D0 


Bl 


4C 


DF 


0E 


31 


1051 


A9 


3E 


30 


C6 


14 


44 


34 


84 


E6 


1281 


:12 


88 


3E 


01 


0B 


93 


20 


BA 


08 


0E29 


55 


94 


85 


IC 


64 


C2 


30 


55 


6B 


1059 


F5 


AD 


B9 


13 


9E 


13 


05 


01 


94 


1289 


:63 


04 


79 


25 


20 


3B 


25 


94 


6E 


0E31 


CE 


80 


08 


39 


14 


D4 


E3 


14 


43 


1061 


51 


El 


Fl 


57 


54 


88 


CC 


90 


39 


1291 


:AE 


AF 


25 


AC 


AB 


AE 


10 


8D 


2E 


0E39 


24 


34 


42 


A9 


16 


B6 


04 


11 


FB 


1069 


90 


06 


03 


41 


4C 


49 


12 


60 


03 


1299 


:06 


A6 


2B 


4C 


80 


15 


B9 


5C 


BC 


0E41 


18 


04 


90 


8C 


D0 


03 


03 


10 


EF 


1071 


20 


73 


0A 


14 


FC 


64 


OA 


C8 


57 


12A1 


:2C 


F0 


13 


AD 


7C 


00 


F9 


5B 


88 


0E49 


94 


05 


22 


86 


B9 


0D 


71 


89 


0C 


1079 


AE 


07 


2B 


57 


2F 


90 


F4 


F9 


24 


12A9 


:81 


IC 


DA 


AD 


7D 


2D 


CD 


5C 


64 


0E51 


63 


01 


20 


36 


F8 


0C 


E6 


A9 


36 


1081 


F2 


60 


C2 


4A 


C4 


71 


4F 


89 


3B 


12B1 


:23 


00 


27 


11 


17 


15 


50 


CC 


DB 


0E59 


9E 


5C 


47 


36 


43 


4C 


SB 


0F 


9D 


1089 


83 


00 


B0 


00 


85 


CC 


AE 


41 


7F 


12B9 


:92 


0F 


35 


IF 


9D 


01 


3C 


53 


F7 


0E61 


AD 


26 


C9 


9E 


92 


3D 


18 


33 


BE 


1091 


2B 


AC 


74 


30 


83 


60 


8A 


FB 


B7 


12C1 


:37 


54 


60 


90 


05 


63 


8C 


5A 


F4 


0E69 


94 


A4 


49 


00 


4C 


4A 


0F 


40 


C3 


1099 


C9 


80 


90 


68 


32 


IB 


91 


FB 


74 


12C9 


:81 


2C 


18 


F0 


A0 


36 


Al 


00 


EC 


0E71 


B5 


03 


B0 


03 


B5 


C0 


13 


82 


D2 


10A1 


B0 


48 


08 


18 


74 


50 


D0 


lA 


4F 


12D1 


:A2 


32 


70 


60 


59 


80 


OC 


D0 


9D 


0E79 


01 


08 


CI 


ac 


DF 


28 


41 


7E 


B9 


10A9 


A5 


90 


F0 


16 


29 


40 


C9 


49 


5E 


12D9 


67 


A9 


05 


AB 


56 


28 


6C 


53 


FB 


0Eai 


8E 


C3 


0E 


D4 


E0 


00 


88 


86 


83 


10B1 


F0 


10 


A0 


IC 


B9 


0A 


29 


54 


CO 


12E1 


:05 


4E 


18 


35 


38 


A4 


05 


18 


ED 


0Ea9 


39 


DC 


77 


0F 


09 


06 


8D 


C0 


95 


10B9 


F5 


90 


C2 


11 


A0 


4C 


18 


45 


0E 


12E9 


b9 


BO 


31 


E3 


CF 


46 


05 


F0 


OE 


0E91 


IC 


40 


3D 


98 


17 


A9 


0D 


39 


AF 


10C1 


0F 


Fl 


90 


5C 


50 


02 


30 


A0 


49 


12F1 


:DC 


DE 


40 


C6 


C6 


CA 


8E 


6C 


3D 


0E99 


B8 


C5 


99 


AE 


D4 


02 


EE 


06 


34 


10C9 


08 


70 


60 


0A 


0E 


13 


26 


02 


D5 


12F9 


80 


53 


15 


68 


00 


C7 


AD 


52 


6A 


0EA1 


7B 


20 


0E 


58 


IB 


20 


34 


3D 


99 


10D1 


:06 


C3 


26 


F0 


04 


C8 


4C 


C6 


9B 


1301 


C9 


23 


F0 


C0 


02 


22 


06 


83 


2C 


0EA9 


F0 


16 


Be 


78 


Al 


36 


0B 


8F 


AD 


10D9 


12 


83 


F0 


CE 


03 


71 


AD 


B8 


E0 


1309 


B9 


00 


61 


19 


C0 


4C 


FD 


92 


8F 


0EBI 


DA 


03 


4C 


16 


7C 


4B 


IF 


22 


58 


10E1 


40 


19 


20 


Bl 


36 


D0 


0C 


67 


FB 


1311 


0D 


60 


A4 


09 


34 


34 


91 


AD 


5E 


0EB9 


94 


Ai 


34 


8E 


8F 


0A 


4C 


C9 


FE 


10E9 


91 


32 


93 


60 


01 


4C 


0F 


13 


42 


1319 


46 


0A 


C0 


06 


4C 


86 


02 


E9 


BE 


0EC1 


0E 


F0 


13 


94 


FF 


05 


09 


BD 


B0 


10F1 


AD 


51 


A0 


15 


8A 


C6 


08 


35 


57 


1321: 


0C 


16 


24 


40 


3E 


24 


64 


84 


2B 


0EC9 


94 


2E 


E3 


80 


4C 


D8 


0F 


BD 


El 


10F9 


DO 


12 


AD 


52 


2D 


C9 


39 


09 


A3 


1329: 


06 


A9 


13 


5A 


42 


60 


C3 


18 


F7 


0ED1 


29 


5C 


3C 


60 


36 


20 


A4 


39 


DB 


1101 


0B 


C7 


59 


32 


04 


03 


4C 


38 


E5 


1331: 


20 


08 


60 


C0 


SE 


3E 


9E 


85 


30 


0ED9 


01 


2D 


05 


30 


ID 


AE 


BE 


5B 


El 


1109 


96 


6A 


85 


C7 


3D 


17 


03 


3A 


97 


1339: 


15 


4C 


CF 


D8 


96 


E2 


B0 


59 


7F 


0EE1 


CA 


94 


48 


D0 


CC 


BC 


94 


22 


IF 


1111 


05 


E8 


03 


83 


IE 


R0 


D7 


43 


EE 


1341: 


DD 


90 


85 


E2 


6B 


03 


47 


AD 


FC 


0EE9 


9C 


90 


C2 


DF 


20 


A3 


0B 


F0 


65 


1119 


89 


D0 


A9 


51 


A0 


8B 


83 


76 


2F 


1349: 


4C 


70 


16 


A9 


AB 


40 


77 


09 


65 


0EF1 


17 


CI 


C6 


49 


C9 


FF 


28 


2A 


40 


1121 


80 


86 


42 


80 


90 


71 


IC 


68 


60 


1351: 


3C 


01 


7C 


AE 


E2 


F8 


CD 


90 


77 


0EF9 


06 


21 


CD 


22 


IC 


80 


06 


CD 


F9 


1129 


90 


03 


2C 


3C 


30 


21 


07 


80 


D3 


1359: 


3F 


D0 


94 


A9 


0E 


00 


03 


33 


83 


0F01 


CD 


8D 


D0 


A5 


06 


ED 


07 


AD 


81 


1131 


AA 


53 


91 


OF 


53 


AS 


01 


58 


D9 


1361: 


E9 


01 


3 A 


F3 


15 


57 


E0 


06 


IB 


0F09 


BA 


30 


F0 


27 


DS 


86 


07 


06 


16 


1139 


54 


CC 


Fa 


58 


21 


BD 


98 


29 


B7 


1369: 


5A 


02 


D0 


15 


ID 


46 


AD 


3C 


42 


0F11 


00 


IF 


AD 


BB 


0A 


16 


00 


87 


01 


1141 


09 


AE 


79 


2D 


A0 


02 


OB 


DB 


10 


1371: 


13 


05 


3C 


83 


38 


18 


E2 


A9 


36 


0F19 


32 


BC 


El 


3F 


2B 


39 


86 


06 


05 


1149 


20 


6A 


IB 


0A 


A2 


26 


A0 


29 


32 


1379: 


09 


FO 


DE 


BO 


63 


07 


11 


06 


22 


0F21 


A0 


CA 


B9 


72 


2F 


76 


68 


20 


E4 


1151 


4C 


6C 


13 


8D 


5A 


BC 


03 


E4 


A0 


1381: 


22 


56 


IE 


83 


2D 


4C 


18 


17 


7C 


0F29 


F5 


4F 


5D 


46 


3B 


04 


AD 


BD 


29 


1159 


05 


84 


4F 


50 


E3 


CF 


C0 


62 


50 


1389: 


38 


IB 


OB 


90 


B2 


E8 


30 


04 


3B 


0F31 


30 


8F 


75 


80 


El 


5E 


10 


C5 


70 


1161 


29 


C8 


E8 


85 


10 


05 


C5 


05 


E4 


1391: 


26 


04 


IC 


4C 


4F 


13 


AD 


5C 


Ae 


0F39 


3A 


C0 


C8 


0E 


C7 


80 


C2 


30 


CB 


1169 


58 


33 


77 


70 


66 


E0 


A4 


63 


E2 


1399: 


06 


B0 


Bl 


61 


03 


CB 


00 


62 


E4 


0F41 


68 


4A 


20 


33 


22 


ED 


30 


65 


96 


1171 


6C 


10 


3D 


6C 


25 


59 


21 


05 


12 


13A1: 


34 


Al 


21 


4C 


56 


5F 


Bl 


10 


06 


0F49 


2B 


F8 


3C 


CI 


4C 


Fl 


3D 


90 


14 


1179 


2B 


84 


F5 


99 


32 


10 


04 


IB 


9F 


13A9: 


AD 


64 


19 


30 


0A 


AA 


3E 


A7 


AA 


0F51 


Fl 


A0 


Al 


DA 


F0 


F8 


IE 


D8 


F2 


1181 


F5 


17 


IE 


23 


02 


0C 


20 


09 


□A 


13B1: 


7D 


28 


A6 


OA 


4C 


EE 


16 


DB 


39 


0F59 


4C 


BB 


16 


47 


35 


E2 


11 


2A 


84 


1189 


06 


21 


80 


7B 


20 


20 


AE 


84 


3A 


13B9: 


91 


OA 


9D 


93 


31 


4C 


98 


16 


la 


0F61 


21 


14 


15 


87 


0E 


14 


4E 


C6 


54 


1191 


80 


93 


E2 


0F 


49 


E0 


AO 


7A 


81 


13C1: 


OC 


FE 


19 


30 


43 


DB 


41 


14 


P8 


0F69 


83 


80 


91 


0B 


02 


0E 


10 


OE 


93 


1199 


2D 


D0 


47 


AB 


7D 


88 


47 


D9 


A0 


13C9: 


E3 


16 


AA 


CD 


90 


07 


AE 


DC 


72 


0F71 


08 


42 


Al 


03 


20 


61 


53 


IC 


Dl 


llAl 


86 


CF 


81 


78 


C9 


C8 


9E 


4C 


AD 


13D1: 


31 


E8 


4C 


04 


17 


20 


E2 


0A 


9D 


0F79 


68 


F5 


10 


78 


29 


0E 


08 


42 


A6 


11A9- 


18 


14 


OF 


A4 


4C 


DD 


14 


A3 


AE 


13D9: 


69 


01 


4C 


12 


17 


A0 


C4 


D7 


3C 


0F81 


50 


IC 


ca 


D5 


A3 


38 


90 


CD 


32 


llBl 


AB 


F0 


C0 


0D 


69 


CE 


10 


04 


79 


13E1: 


11 


06 


9A 


88 


D3 


IC 


84 


07 


0D 



G-28 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



13E9 


:A6 


26 


DD 


07 


Al 


08 


Dl 


C8 


B2 


1619: 


A2 


30 


8D 


7B 


05 


4C 


0B 


lA 


95 


1849 


00 


06 


4F 


90 


01 


06 


C7 


El 


7F 


13F1 


:EC 


A9 


30 


A2 


04 


04 


84 


0A 


6C 


1621: 


C4 


97 


90 


44 


A9 


A3 


09 


ID 


E4 


1851 


80 


3F 


2B 


B5 


A2 


00 


AD 


65 


28 


13F9 


:06 


Al 


90 


FF 


17 


04 


28 


41 


F7 


1629: 


0E 


30 


85 


FE 


A0 


13 


B9 


E3 


B6 


1859 


11 


70 


32 


C8 


AD 


D0 


45 


Dl 


0E 


1401 


:0D 


68 


10 


37 


72 


10 


0E 


20 


4F 


1631: 


02 


58 


14 


99 


C8 


05 


70 


Al 


60 


1861 


FB 


90 


98 


56 


71 


FF 


2A 


90 


9C 


1409 


:E7 


3A 


04 


46 


41 


28 


A2 


F3 


7C 


1639: 


05 


F2 


A0 


0B 


A2 


10 


A9 


23 


35 


1869 


24 


80 


52 


FB 


CD 


00 


2B 


90 


2B 


1411 


:04 


50 


41 


10 


11 


lA 


84 


64 


06 


1641: 


23 


5B 


11 


3C 


2E 


03 


B9 


30 


5B 


1871 


10 


EC 


C0 


21 


D0 


01 


60 


8E 


6F 


1419 


:1C 


S4 


12 


06 


Al 


A0 


78 


A9 


3D 


1649: 


A0 


C2 


0B 


84 


2A 


Al 


4E 


23 


B7 


1879 


F0 


00 


34 


AD 


06 


B6 


BA 


09 


00 


1421 


:31 


A2 


13 


20 


C5 


24 


AD 


BC 


95 


1651: 


35 


37 


87 


5C 


A9 


9E 


05 


A2 


F8 


1881 


lA 


22 


06 


60 


IC 


92 


C8 


E8 


B3 


1429 


:E4 


08 


28 


07 


AD 


8D 


31 


BB 


FC 


1659: 


BC 


20 


B0 


22 


A7 


7E 


00 


0A 


65 


1339 


EC 


3E 


F2 


BD 


4A 


9A 


99 


lA 


E2 


1431 


:B0 


00 


8D 


50 


07 


AE 


91 


61 


DF 


1661: 


7A 


FC 


00 


44 


D3 


lA 


09 


89 


F0 


1891 


F8 


04 


42 


A3 


40 


9C 


18 


AE 


E4 


1439 


:El 


21 


77 


20 


EA 


38 


27 


2A 


7B 


1669: 


14 


91 


01 


47 


B6 


11 


40 


38 


C9 


1899 


01 


2B 


E8 


FF 


F0 


43 


08 


6E 


44 


1441 


:A9 


08 


A2 


IF 


08 


31 


00 


62 


74 


1671: 


3F 


E4 


38 


80 


21 


00 


03 


AD 


4C 


18A1 


02 


2B 


07 


CB 


C8 


90 


EF 


80 


28 


1449 


:2C 


59 


13 


41 


5D 


33 


A9 


57 


B6 


1679: 


01 


DC 


AA 


37 


30 


30 


C0 


80 


6A 


18A9 


B5 


ID 


2A 


23 


IC 


A0 


20 


63 


CA 


1451 


:B4 


64 


E6 


C9 


91 


29 


6C 


8A 


FA 


1681. 


02 


30 


0E 


E4 


lA 


28 


C2 


80 


42 


18B1 


C8 


Bl 


FO 


80 


01 


45 


00 


8B 


F3 


1459 


:8B 


C2 


0F 


41 


A4 


08 


34 


2F 


CA 


1689: 


03 


4C 


90 


07 


91 


C9 


0F 


F0 


8F 


18B9 


AC 


04 


40 


70 


11 


E0 


78 


2A 


43 


1461 


85 


4C 


ID 


12 


02 


B9 


86 


99 


CI 


1691 


B6 


E9 


50 


38 


83 


C3 


06 


47 


A4 


18C1 


Bl 


FB 


50 


85 


03 


06 


A6 


BE 


68 


1469 


44 


66 


C0 


66 


A9 


52 


8D 


2A 


A7 


1699: 


F0 


A7 


20 


7F 


0A 


IB 


0F 


0E 


00 


18C9 


4C 


EE 


ID 


C3 


C5 


0E 


83 


F7 


FA 


1471 


D3 


17 


50 


EE 


C6 


FF 


C9 


A5 


53 


16A1: 


4C 


82 


lA 


A0 


0C 


A2 


13 


C0 


BD 


18D1 


32 


05 


2B 


00 


E9 


26 


11 


4C 


00 


1479 


90 


00 


11 


03 


80 


03 


20 


E4 


BE 


16A9: 


BF 


03 


A9 


20 


04 


CD 


81 


33 


17 


1809 


00 


01 


05 


0E 


01 


71 


3E 


51 


CI 


1481 


FF 


DC 


5A 


80 


A0 


98 


EB 


20 


93 


16B1; 


3E 


13 


29 


60 


20 


2F 


25 


20 


54 


18E1 


10 


0B 


7C 


0D 


51 


ID 


3B 


87 


60 


14S9 


Al 


25 


33 


12 


3D 


18 


A0 


00 


DE 


16B9: 


39 


17 


C0 


Dl 


0B 


7B 


C0 


28 


60 


13E9: 


00 


51 


10 


0B 


92 


0D 


51 


5D 


12 


1491 


B9 


DD 


31 


99 


BE 


31 


C8 


C0 


59 


I6C1: 


84 


C9 


20 


F0 


53 


C9 


30 


90 


68 


13F1: 


3D 


20 


90 


42 


34 


10 


0F 


51 


PI 


1499 


4F 


D0 


F5 


40 


F4 


CD 


03 


01 


17 


16C9: 


57 


C9 


3A 


B0 


53 


C0 


00 


F0 


F4 


18F9: 


10 


3C 


44 


A8 


3B 


44 


75 


2C 


56 


14ftl 


51 


D4 


10 


80 


20 


00 


33 


A6 


5F 


1601 


30 


76 


7A 


64 


02 


83 


32 


70 


DB 


1901: 


B3 


34 


44 


75 


2C 


BE 


34 


44 


03 


14A9 


33 


21 


75 


C0 


30 


00 


IC 


05 


15 


1609: 


0A 


CB 


00 


51 


10 


C7 


45 


AD 


2A 


1909: 


75 


2C 


C9 


34 


44 


64 


F5 


30 


90 


14B1 


0C 


20 


35 


32 


07 


60 


06 


OF 


86 


16E1 


02 


5C 


08 


00 


11 


03 


2B 


60 


8C 


1911- 


04 


03 


C5 


60 


4E 


29 


80 


04 


5B 


14B9 


70 


aa 


CE 


51 


58 


E8 


0E 


E0 


6C 


16E9 


OF 


5C 


82 


23 


0E 


10 


07 


2E 


DC 


1919- 


22 


A2 


BB 


IB 


91 


57 


80 


OF 


F3 


14C1 


B0 


CA 


28 


CQ 


7C 


A0 


29 


EB 


53 


i6Fl 


89 


B9 


56 


2B 


38 


E9 


30 


AA 


43 


1921: 


CE 


42 


IC 


9C 


B0 


E8 


00 


2C 


3F 


14C9 


2B 


4E 


36 


IE 


04 


44 


62 


C9 


83 


16F9- 


18 


3A 


6D 


30 


2E 


30 


lA 


39 


34 


1929: 


C4 


Dl 


05 


0B 


Fl 


CD 


42 


07 


05 


1401 


23 


91 


AC 


53 


20 


43 


21 


60 


6B 


1701 


0B 


C8 


C0 


03 


00 


Al 


DF 


94 


90 


1931: 


3C 


0B 


F9 


A0 


27 


79 


F6. 


00 


9A 


14D9 


17 


00 


02 


06 


C9 


27 


00 


0A 


C4 


1709 


04 


00 


8E 


40 


9E 


A4 


99 


BF 


89 


1939: 


08 


20 


69 


0A 


A9 


04 


EC 


SO 


09 


14E1 


AE 


98 


09 


40 


BE 


5B 


3E 


03 


0E 


1711 


02 


38 


00 


FA 


A2 


00 


BD 


CB 


88 


1941 


82 


IC 


77 


F7 


ID 


05 


50 


46 


6B 


14E9' 


9A 


8A 


AE 


66 


E8 


8E 


80 


30 


F0 


1719 


23 


99 


DD 


02 


38 


47 


38 


E3 


EB 


1949: 


A9 


66 


05 


DO 


CO 


A2 


73 


57 


9F 


14F1 


E0 


24 


D0 


D2 


20 


95 


0A 


20 


66 


1721 


E0 


74 


F2 


A9 


0B 


8D 


F8 


37 


50 


1951 


El 


51 


00 


77 


19 


02 


B0 


90 


03 


14F9- 


A6 


0A 


8C 


0B 


01 


88 


A5 


05 


B4 


1729 


B3 


FB 


41 


A9 


07 


2B 


88 


40 


29 


1959- 


41 


7F 


3B 


CF 


50 


36 


3C 


09 


B5 


1501. 


66 


A9 


03 


9E 


69 


3C 


96 


15 


73 


1731 


EC 


10 


08 


46 


00 


IB 


00 


A9 


F6 


1961 


IB 


77 


6C 


39 


39 


IB 


77 


89 


40 


1509: 


C8 


E8 


C4 


43 


36 


20 


20 


20 


3E 


1739 


2F 


8D 


BB 


A9 


23 


43 


4F 


D3 


FD 


1969- 


39 


09 


IB 


77 


A6 


39 


99 


19 


9A 


1511; 


CI 


C9 


20 


08 


9B 


C2 


62 


0F 


CE 


1741 


71 


A0 


BF 


43 


46 


47 


85 


74 


45 


1971 


F4 


CC 


3B 


F7 


32 


C2 


D2 


IE 


98 


1519: 


C0 


IC 


0C 


5A 


A0 


2A 


F4 


82 


EB 


1749 


4F 


3A 


80 


E8 


98 


AC 


E7 


C0 


54 


1979 


A0 


05 


87 


7C 


ID 


3C 


3E 


7C 


C8 


1521: 


0D 


18 


46 


00 


0D 


3A 


00 


El 


D3 


1751 


05 


30 


IC 


32 


2E 


C0 


21 


AC 


2C 


1981 


IB 


15 


A9 


7A 


C4 


37 


Bl 


0F 


D8 


1529: 


A9 


08 


8D 


DF 


29 


A9 


10 


D0 


BA 


1759 


E7 


C0 


15 


F0 


07 


88 


3C 


80 


51 


1989 


5F 


85 


47 


01 


F0 


65 


03 


C0 


B3 


1531: 


61 


20 


73 


03 


63 


05 


5E 


F6 


E5 


1761 


35 


00 


D4 


80 


El 


35 


20 


06 


F6 


1991 


42 


06 


42 


9F 


F3 


C5 


3C 


C3 


83 


1539 


20 


0D 


97 


7C 


20 


F0 


02 


18 


52 


1769 


20 


02 


E2 


03 


C4 


01 


8D 


00 


C9 


1999 


17 


BD 


4F 


C2 


06 


5F 


F9 


17 


95 


1541 


36 


0B 


42 


03 


80 


5C 


04 


75 


B4 


1771 


D0 


98 


8D 


10 


D0 


BO 


F0 


2C 


6C 


19A1 


56 


42 


06 


5F 


53 


4E 


C2 


06 


A5 


1549- 


5B 


4C 


IC 


30 


5C 


61 


E2 


80 


69 


1779 


00 


18 


6D 


03 


A7 


07 


00 


60 


B6 


19A9 


5F 


62 


8E 


AF 


IF 


IC 


Fl 


0B 


49 


1551- 


El 


50 


60 


0F 


0B 


18 


07 


00 


44 


1781 


lA 


09 


76 


3C 


C4 


01 


55 


0C 


72 


19B1 


35 


00 


IB 


63 


0E 


4C 


B4 


IF 


85 


1559 


ID 


AA 


02 


0E 


A9 


14 


6E 


4F 


A7 


1789 


65 


IC 


12 


0C 


98 


3E 


32 


11 


47 


19B9 


4C 


4A 


7C 


10 


27 


77 


85 


DE 


36 


1561 


A0 


05 


B9 


CI 


15 


C0 


E2 


30 


62 


1791 


64 


C0 


60 


01 


60 


69 


02 


09 


F3 


19C1 


IC 


20 


00 


20 


81 


IE 


20 


63 


77 


1569- 


99 


55 


04 


88 


FC 


4A 


A9 


9E 


CI 


1799 


36 


IE 


AA 


01 


E6 


IB 


4C 


64 


70 


19C9 


76 


23 


A9 


8E 


CB 


30 


40 


IC 


0E 


1571 


50 


68 


17 


F0 


3B 


5E 


03 


90 


B9 


17A1 


:12 


90 


02 


C0 


40 


C8 


34 


73 


4A 


19D1 


FC 


A9 


C0 


58 


9D 


00 


20 


8C 


44 


1579. 


ED 


54 


F0 


0C 


46 


0B 


E3 


E3 


A7 


17A9 


04 


04 


E6 


00 


D7 


CI 


20 


C0 


7E 


19D9 


AE 


36 


28 


20 


A2 


23 


80 


40 


F4 


1581 


E0 


0E 


F0 


e0 


4C 


8F 


19 


AE 


4D 


17B1 


IB 


81 


00 


03 


20 


B9 


IB 


E5 


IC 


19E1 


01 


58 


C8 


FF 


F0 


3D 


AD 


3F 


DA 


1539 


ID 


47 


CR 


CA 


E0 


04 


F0 


04 


E7 


17B9 


.12 


85 


C7 


20 


54 


20 


A9 


A0 


64 


19E9 


2B 


F0 


OB 


AD 


3D 


2B 


C9 


00 


0E 


1591 


8E 


00 


DE 


E0 


06 


41 


B9 


09 


9E 


17C1 


:15 


IE 


7B 


20 


OA 


06 


50 


0C 


0F 


19F1 


E6 


09 


71 


40 


C2 


01 


4E 


42 


05 


1599 


06 


06 


A2 


4C 


63 


19 


E0 


0A 


AC 


17C9 


:50 


88 


80 


E8 


06 


90 


B6 


80 


41 


19F9 


CI 


10 


95 


90 


31 


0A 


20 


E3 


21 


15R1 


F0 


EE 


12 


4C 


A9 


B2 


31 


13 


94 


17D1 


:99 


3D 


12 


35 


10 


07 


50 


04 


01 


1A01 


18 


E0 


12 


03 


72 


12 


D6 


0C 


81 


15A9 


3D 


A0 


30 


54 


08 


06 


69 


20 


DF 


17D9 


:ce 


ca 


0E 


00 


F2 


E0 


2E 


06 


E8 


1A09 


AA 


84 


C9 


04 


D0 


06 


20 


16 


22 


15B1 


Ba 


19 


60 


AD 


9F 


67 


17 


90 


BE 


17E1 


:BA 


99 


F7 


04 


99 


BF 


05 


99 


82 


lAll 


11 


4C 


27 


20 


4C 


C7 


IF 


A0 


28 


15B9 


0D 


10 


48 


C9 


0A 


55 


00 


80 


3A 


17E9 


:0F 


8A 


0B 


AF 


06 


99 


FF 


06 


3B 


1A19 


IB 


20 


96 


23 


23 


3C 


25 


AD 


Dl 


15C1 


IB 


4C 


4D 


24 


43 


F0 


49 


Fl 


41 


17F1 


:9e 


18 


69 


28 


A8 


13 


17 


31 


27 


1A21 


07 


2B 


62 


F0 


53 


02 


82 


51 


F7 


15C9 


E8 


12 


EE 


A5 


38 


0D 


78 


7C 


0B 


17F9 


:E6 


30 


5C 


00 


62 


Al 


9B 


59 


50 


1A29 


80 


09 


93 


B7 


6C 


03 


73 


47 


68 


15Di 


0A 


42 


28 


4C 


05 


la 


CE 


40 


C9 


1801 


:83 


08 


67 


21 


Al 


67 


21 


0A 


60 


1A31 


41 


01 


53 


IC 


C0 


4C 


El 


14 


81 


15D9 


01 


AD 


41 


C9 


90 


34 


F0 


0C 


F7 


1809 


:9E 


85 


0C 


93 


00 


79 


16 


AC 


CB 


1A39 


:91 


60 


50 


86 


02 


48 


08 


40 


E3 


15E1 


8D 


Al 


31 


39 


13 


4C 


CC 


19 


99 


1811 


:72 


16 


E2 


0F 


20 


6E 


0A 


A9 


C5 


1A41 


:04 


D9 


99 


00 


DA 


99 


E8 


DA 


m 


15E9 


A9 


AD 


02 


79 


03 


A2 


7A 


F5 


03 


1819 


:B2 


76 


88 


02 


A7 


63 


A7 


IE 


A9 


1A49 


:C8 


D3 


Fl 


8C 


73 


6C 


00 


01 


6B 


15F1 


20 


A2 


21 


D7 


91 


09 


C9 


03 


BO 


1821 


:55 


01 


03 


3C 


F6 


54 


P3 


08 


2A 


1A51 


:47 


ID 


05 


C0 


91 


90 


C3 


20 


93 


15F9 


B0 


EC 


48 


30 


F0 


12 


CE 


8B 


3D 


1829 


:CF 


31 


04 


aE 


DC 


3B 


0E 


A2 


75 


1A59 


:21 


IC 


2D 


F7 


08 


DO 


51 


03 


A4 


1601 


83 


DB 


D0 


17 


A9 


BE 


37 


A2 


45 


1831 


:01 


Aa 


BE 


9B 


08 


CF 


A0 


26 


F2 


1A61 


:28 


8F 


39 


42 


21 


22 


14 


47 


09 


1609 


4C 


44 


lA 


EE 


5C 


D8 


C9 


BF 


38 


1839 


:7B 


24 


06 


03 


ID 


8F 


82 


79 


96 


1A69 


:49 


43 


E3 


B0 


Bl 


IF 


C0 


D0 


F6 


1611 


D0 


05 


A9 


BC 


8D 


E0 


02 


AD 


89 


1841 


:A0 


14 


C3 


3C 


80 


0D 


87 


79 


C3 


1A71 


:CC 


A9 


59 


B2 


08 


23 


07 


10 


52 



MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-29 



PROGRAMS 



1A79 


:19 


8E 


39 


13 


C0 


91 


1A81 


:A9 


85 


09 


28 


D0 


20 


1A89 


:AD 


2C 


20 


7C 


lA 


8D 


1A91 


:8D 


27 


D0 


20 


C3 


40 


1A99 


:AF 


01 


E2 


23 


23 


AS 


IRAI 


;10 


9F 


82 


B9 


43 


76 


1AA9 


:B9 


11 


99 


11 


0E 


F8 


lABl 


:7E 


2D 


CF 


A3 


B9 


46 


1AB9 


:B9 


0E 


A8 


0A 


00 


B9 


lACl 


:C3 


2A 


E6 


E3 


60 


A0 


1AC9 


:99 


50 


04 


99 


IS 


53 


lADl 


:05 


99 


A8 


06 


88 


8E 


1AD9 


:a0 


81 


0A 


Da 


80 


01 


lAEl 


:80 


IB 


10 


F2 


01 


0C 


1AE9 


:41 


AA 


A0 


00 


8E 


CF 


lAFX 


:84 


BD 


41 


24 


AE 


7C 


1AF9 


AC 


7D 


2D 


C8 


C0 


05 


1B01 


:e0 


AD 


31 


36 


BA 


45 


1B09 


30 


OA 


A8 


C8 


86 


BE 


IBll 


A6 


01 


17 


CF 


02 


AD 


1B19 


BE 


A0 


60 


2B 


12 


Ea 


1B21 


0A 


B0 


03 


94 


60 


AE 


1B29 


2E 


BE 


02 


9A 


34 


38 


1B31 


C9 


07 


D0 


06 


E0 


ID 


1B39 


D0 


3E 


61 


4F 


0F 


C9 


1B41 


0F 


B9 


62 


24 


A2 


94 


1B49 


A9 


81 


C9 


IE 


8A 


AA 


1B51 


F0 


IB 


A0 


09 


02 


F0 


1B59 


03 


F0 


0B 


8A 


29 


04 


1B61 


40 


78 


41 


C6 


27 


14 


1B69 


14 


03 


EC 


68 


FF 


CB 


IB71 


F0 


08 


20 


49 


0A 


38 


1B79 


11 


3C 


48 


00 


0A 


78 


1B81 


03 


4C 


A2 


21 


70 


FA 


1B89 


AE 


DB 


31 


AC 


DC 


31 


1B91 


FF 


F0 


B8 


61 


80 


BD 


1B99 


10 


04 


30 


04 


39 


01 


IBAl 


60 


AA 


BC 


2C 


2A 


BD 


1BA9- 


AA 


26 


S7 


88 


03 


A4 


IBBl 


05 


88 


CA 


D0 


F5 


C8 


1BB9: 


2E 


AD 


20 


07 


38 


ED 


IBCl: 


8C 


40 


12 


D0 


0A 


20 


1BC9: 


B9 


C4 


30 


20 


DA 


18 


IBDl: 


FF 


AC 


41 


2B 


66 


04 


1BD9: 


53 


61 


32 


C9 


20 


45 


IBEI: 


40 


BO 


01 


71 


IE 


60 


laE9: 


20 


60 


C9 


80 


B0 


04 


IBFl: 


40 


60 


38 


E9 


80 


4C 


1BF9: 


B7 


AD 


6C 


08 


0A 


18 


1C01: 


31 


69 


CP 


AA 


C8 


D0 


1C09: 


94 


0B 


60 


98 


93 


61 


iCll: 


E0 


09 


F0 


11 


81 


4D 


1C19: 


4C 


BE 


22 


9E 


18 


FB 


1C21: 


A9 


20 


13 


45 


F3 


3C 


1C29: 


39 


75 


02 


23 


20 


31 


1C31: 


FD 


00 


Dl 


01 


C0 


0A 


1C39: 


20 


10 


23 


D0 


EF 


60 


1C4X: 


8F 


81 


35 


90 


87 


9E 


1C49: 


A7 


60 


FB 


69 


28 


B0 


1C51- 


2E 


18 


FC 


04 


FD 


69 


1C59- 


4B 


A5 


FE 


69 


00 


50 


1C61 


E8 


E0 


09 


60 


8E 


DB 


1C69' 


El 


04 


C8 


60 


A9 


D3 


1C71 


A9 


25 


85 


FC 


A9 


27 


1C79 


A9 


26 


E9 


60 


52 


S6 


1C81 


F0 


FA 


AD 


00 


AC 


41 


1C89 


DC 


29 


10 


F0 


EC 


93 


1C91 


30 


58 


00 


04 


4E 


41 


1C99 


ID 


A 2 


04 


20 


C8 


IB 


ICAl 


FA 


A9 


05 


BD 


3E 


2B 



3E 


0A 


A9 


AC 


23 


13 


92 


31 


C8 


3E 


00 


0E 


E0 


B9 


AB 


0A 


0E 


C7 


AS 


B9 


A2 


2E 


DB 


C3 


D6 


2F 


C7 


C7 


14 


A6 


01 


E0 


E9 


07 


5F 


50 


03 


01 


D5 


8A 


E0 


7C 


16 


8C 


E9 


2D 


E8 


EC 


D0 


E8 


BA 


AD 


9E 


41 


93 


31 


84 


35 


29 


15 


BB 


Ea 


E9 


8D 


02 


0D 


D0 


3C 


33 


EE 


3A 


IC 


0F 


D0 


17 


0F 


AA 


2C 


29 


01 


22 


IC 


8C 


04 


D0 


IE 


F2 


02 


E4 


DC 


04 


87 


4D 


24 


00 


34 


90 


00 


A3 


09 


04 


38 


20 


BA 


A5 


41 


C0 


6F 


CC 


FF 


86 


39 


2A 


Fl 


90 


D0 


E0 


£E 


11 


B4 


64 


A8 


Dl 


AC 


14 


DB 


20 


D2 


60 


C8 


30 


13 


14 


C9 


FC 


C8 


41 


E0 


18 


69 


BS 


80 


46 


82 


6D 


8E 


9F 


FD 


E8 


3F 


04 


03 


11 


IB 


CA 


2B 


F5 


78 


6A 


14 


EB 


91 


23 


Bl 


8B 


D0 


F7 


AA 


3C 


24 


35 


2B 


A6 


05 


14 


38 


E7 


OA 


D8 


09 


04 


C8 


A7 


6E 


AC 


DA 


85 


FB 


56 


C9 


3F 


05 


00 


3C 


FC 


F3 


0E 


07 


7A 


00 


36 


13 


A9 


7F 


CA 


D0 


A4 


20 


FA 


15 



1CA9; 
ICBl: 
ICB9: 
ICCl: 
1CC9: 
ICDl: 
1GD9: 
ICEl: 
1CE9: 
ICFl: 
1CF9: 
1D01: 
1D09: 
IDII: 
1D19: 
1D21: 
1D29: 
1D31: 
1D39: 
1D41: 
1D49: 
iD51: 
1D59: 
1D61: 
1D69: 
1D71: 
1D79: 
1D81: 
1D89: 
1D91: 
1D99: 
IDAI: 
1DA9: 
IDBI: 
1DB9: 
IDCl: 
1DC9: 
IDDI: 
1DD9: 
IDEI: 
IDE 9: 
IDFl: 
1DF9: 
1E01: 
1E09: 
lEll: 
1E19: 
1E21: 
1E29: 
1E31: 
1E39: 
1E41: 
1E49: 
1E51: 
1E59: 
1E61: 
1E69: 
1E71: 
1E79: 
lElSl: 
1E89: 
1E91: 
1E99: 
lEAl: 
1EA9; 
lEBl: 
1EB9: 
lECl: 
1EC9: 
lEDl: 



71 BD 
09 48 
F5 IB 
FF 10 

33 40 
66 11 
D0 F4 
80 20 
FB AD 
78 D0 
D4 D0 
ED B0 

08 91 
70 6C 
44 06 

09 19 
AE 39 
03 C2 
Al 22 
88 A2 
49 84 
EC 20 
AB 0E 
AF D8 
IE 89 
CB 00 
01 2B 
01 F0 
20 99 
DC A9 
C4 14 
22 83 
FB C8 
Fl 85 
16 EA 
Dl 24 
11 9F 
FD A2 
20 A0 
CA D0 
13 13 
0C A0 
0A E5 
BD CC 
F4 9C 
66 ED 
18 69 
3 2 5C 
0A 8 4 

09 10 
0F 20 
A9 03 
36 60 
AD 5C 
08 93 
8F D8 
20 5F 
20 5F 

34 5F 
44 9B 
4C 5F 
58 73 
60 73 
68 27 
20 9B 
30 9B 
54 Fl 
06 06 

10 0B 
05 0E 



07 F5 

A3 90 

FD ED 

04 00 

FB 19 

07 46 
9E 16 
DE 23 
91 31 
F2 60 
8E A5 
90 IB 
00 D0 
50 00 
45 EC 
A4 A0 
CA 8E 
00 90 
C2 44 
C7 22 
5A 43 
A9 BD 
2E 3D 
15 D0 
41 C9 
DE AA 
8D 3A 
FA 4D 
23 AF 
FF 8D 

13 12 
65 Bl 
CC 02 
0F 73 

84 FD 
A0 85 

85 35 

08 20 

00 99 
F8 03 

14 05 
A2 06 
72 AE 
35 C7 
A6 7B 

01 20 
B2 09 
A0 F0 
4B C9 
28 lA 
C3 FF 
8D E5 
AD 5B 
2B 8D 

00 FC 
B5 18 
23 70 
2F 08 
37 08 
47 08 
4F 08 
5B 05 
63 05 
6B 7B 
2F 7B 
3F 7B 
30 03 
C0 0B 
44 0C 

01 16 



12 C0 
04 14 
93 0C 
60 8D 
16 17 
98 8E 
9E IC 
DB A9 
91 FD 
18 AS 
FB 8 5 
E3 01 
CI 91 

47 85 
03 65 
90 20 
40 2B 
83 00 
42 E6 
52 D4 
40 08 
A0 28 
23 20 
55 59 
11 B0 
20 80 
2B A5 
EF 20 
E9 7F 

00 DC 
8D CF 
FD 11 
2B D0 
16 2E 
A9 IE 
16 90 
FE A9 
5B 11 
C4 30 
72 12 
8D 15 
A0 23 
69 22 
37 78 
2D D0 
7D 13 
40 69 
0B C9 
F5 B0 

01 84 
20 98 
0E A9 
60 05 
7D. 2D 
FB F8 
20 2F 
20 87 
30 4B 
40 9B 

48 5F 
50 4B 
5C 73 
64 27 
48 8F 
34 9F 
50 8F 
10 07 
07 24 
01 25 
0F 01 



F8 5 C8 

IC 20 C6 

4E C9 85 

55 20 82 

A0 0C 17 

46 10 62 

00 03 55 
A0 91 C8 
08 C0 A7 
FC 69 B9 
FD 80 6F 
B0 F0 97 
91 5D 8D 
E3 4F lA 
0A 22 52 
7D 12 D6 
80 21 IC 

42 0A 03 
07 C9 70 
37 08 DF 
A9 B8 F6 
20 IE IF 
8E 24 61 
B7 43 21 
17 AD 01 
ID AD 03 
05 09 99 
A9 ID ID 
8D 0D 0F 
83 87 89 
20 B7 62 
80 91 50 
F3 23 7A 
0A 70 A9 
A0 5D 8E 
85 0B 93 
25 86 EC 
3A 39 83 

03 00 IF 
A0 8D AF 
05 D0 E0 
C0 41 63 
20 CD CD 
8A A6 56 

04 20 43 
03 OA 27 
68 52 79 

02 B0 E4 

03 CA D4 
A0 A9 Al 
12 50 65 

01 8D 09 
7C 2D 61 
63 aE 29 
FC DE D2 
23 44 IC 
23 08 66 
33 08 IF 

43 08 0E 
4B 03 8E 
53 05 89 
5F 05 07 
67 05 33 
4B 7B 93 

7B 8A 

03 FC 

03 IB 90 

03 42 66 

0D 00 D0 

11 11 45 



37 
53 



1ED9:80 
1EE1:00 
1EE9:82 
1EF1:0F 
1EF9:28 
1F01:30 
1F09:24 
1F11:2C 
1F19:34 
1F21:28 
1F29:30 
1F31:30 
1F39:07 
1F41:40 
1F49:10 
1F51:44 
lF59:Da 
lF6i:00 
1F69:B2 
1F71:4C 
1F79:4C 
1F81:20 
iF89:49 
1F91:45 
1F99;80 
1FA1:08 
1FA9:32 
iFBl:A2 
1FB9:41 
1FC1:C5 
1FC9:03 
1FD1:00 
1FD9:68 
1FE1:70 
1FE9:40 
1FF1:0C 
1FF9:C8 
2301:08 
2009:45 
2011:49 
2019:6D 
2021: 34 
2029:03 
2031:B9 
2039:AC 
2041:45 
2049: 19 
2051:80 
2059:03 
2061:18 
2069:40 
2071:60 
2079:66 
2081:30 
2089:19 
2091:20 
2099:46 
20A1:53 
20A9; 12 
20B1:54 
20B9:01 
2001:03 
20C9:00 
20D1:50 
20D9: 3B 
20E1:B1 
20E9:9B 
20F1:47 
20F9:73 
2101:01 



0B 12 

0A 15 

14 08 
IE 05 
3F 2B 
3F 33 
6B 27 
6B 2F 
68 37 
97 2B 
97 33 
E2 05 
44 33 
04 06 
0A 04 
07 40 
48 40 
OE 41 
5A El 
41 62 
Dl IB 
00 CA 
54 59 
5D 0C 
00 48 
75 30 
3D 41 
32 4C 
38 02 
D2 lA 
CF D2 
62 25 
BD 4 3 
85 CI 
28 C4 
83 43 
2A E0 
26 0A 
58 9E 
C7 46 
58 55 
D2 30 
75 E3 

00 10 
E0 0D 
44 26 

01 2E 
71 El 

15 12 

03 55 
4F 52 
0A CD 
01 04 
C3 21 
00 8C 
00 C5 
40 45 
4B 20 
80 71 
54 84 
80 02 
57 61 

04 00 
A0 81 
BB D2 
7E 41 
30 C6 
50 43 
92 03 
60 04 



88 13 

00 09 
IE 09 
17 24 
17 2C 

17 34 
43 28 

43 30 
6F 24 
6F 2C 
6F 34 
05 44 
35 80 

44 07 

50 05 
04 03 
F0 09 
4D 01 

01 10 
CC 72 

90 03 

18 3C 
B2 83 

20 DA 
4F 4E 
CF 54 
31 0D 
64 D9 

00 D2 
10 22 

04 0D 
0E Dl 

21 0E 

3 9 2A 
CC 4F 
61 23 
24 03 
54 03 
C6 86 
24 80 
64 10 

51 24 
4E 41 
57 25 
41 2F 

91 41 
2E C6 

43 B3 
F7 D8 

52 53 
75 6E 
4F 44 
D7 3D 
07 10 
14 51 

44 49 
79 59 

05 52 
98 8D 

04 OF 
47 20 

01 ID 
OA 56 

45 A9 
45 41 
56 15 
94 90 
00 41 
D4 D9 
DA 09 



00 10 
0D E0 
0A IE 
3F 27 
3F 2F 
3F 37 
6B 2B 
6B 33 
97 27 
97 2F 

97 37 
06 40 
10 40 
40 04 

40 04 
IB 0A 
30 5A 
21 06 
CD 4 9 
E2 00 
Al 0E 
00 A6 
D3 54 
49 CC 
A9 23 
48 74 
5C F8 
D3 68 
09 CE 
80 02 
48 22 
0A 0F 
DD 80 

41 44 
41 44 
46 40 
03 0E 
06 C9 
09 34 
20 89 

43 2C 

40 6A 
2A EE 
D3 43 
IE A0 
57 22 

41 53 

03 70 
80 43 
62 01 
90 11 

4 5 90 
74 54 
03 D0 
OB 31 

54 D7 
CA 8D 
52 3A 
6B C2 
30 09 
D4 4F 

55 45 
09 64 

98 2F 

44 59 
4C 2C 
CD C9 

46 47 

47 D3 
D0 46 



14 C8 
06 87 
08 04 
17 D2 
17 04 
43 4F 
43 D5 
43 33 
6F 67 
6F 43 
04 35 
04 EF 
35 57 
08 EE 
06 CE 
CD 4A 
80 67 
49 B3 
08 F6 

04 62 
98 12 
F0 FD 
EA 06 
2B 0E 
27 D0 
3E B0 
01 60 
CD 5A 
D4 24 

05 IB 
86 D8 
10 13 
20 66 
00 70 
A9 69 
54 F3 
20 DF 
CE CF 
56 59 
30 8A 

53 44 
00 42 
C2 FC 
5E 26 
45 36 
03 01 

54 35 

40 59 
8A FB 
AC 41 
23 40 
00 6B 
45 57 

41 AA 
D8 BA 
59 83 
49 AA 
00 0F 

55 02 
B0 04 
20 7A 
92 5D 
Bl 51 
C9 BE 
00 56 
40 9A 
04 3D 
CC 71 
D4 C6 
D0 59 



G-30 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



2109 


C8 


CE 


60 


04 


19 


09 


CF 


D4 


11 


2111 


55 


42 


41 


31 


20 


04 


C9 


CE 


3D 


2119 


32 


3E 


3C 


23 


23 


23 


3E 


C4 


A4 


2121 


03 


20 


20 


20 


12 


D0 


94 


34 


P3 


2129 


40 


6C 


CF 


C4 


45 


56 


49 


78 


7B 


2131 


CE 


15 


09 


00 


39 


B0 


E7 


78 


16 


2139 


43 


95 


65 


44 


41 


52 


59 


DC 


56 


2141 


44 


44 


52 


B2 


4C 


D8 


07 


73 


73 


2149 


00 


19 


01 


68 


32 


02 


9A 


81 


08 


2151 


03 


26 


E4 


C2 


05 


A7 


2C 


40 


C6 


2159 


06 


06 


A4 


20 


0D 


20 


07 


00 


AD 


2161 


13 


8A 


83 


3A 


16 


32 


3C 


ca 


9E 


2169 


60 


20 


23 


00 


32 


0E 


C4 


B3 


CD 


2171 


4F 


79 


50 


41 


43 


45 


20 


CI 


09 


2179 


56 


41 


12 


CE 


41 


42 


43 


39 


39 


2131 


80 


3A 


4D 


4C 


2E 


53 


A0 


36 


37 


2189 


m 


53 


20 


57 


00 


0E 


IB 


27 


2B 


2191 


45 


63 


72 


81 


8B 


9F 


B3 


C7 


BF 


2199 


ca 


C9 


D6 


0B 


0F 


IE 


IE 


0F 


7A 


21A1 


0F 


0A 


14 


14 


14 


01 


01 


12 


eA 


21A9 


C9 


4E 


49 


A0 


07 


41 


40 


49 


ac 


21B1 


5ft 


E0 


54 


C6 


49 


4C 


45 


53 


A9 


21B9 


EE 


13 


04 


6D 


58 


55 


50 


D0 


19 


21C1 


42 


3C 


C4 


5C 


56 


A0 


05 


11 


E2 


21C9 


19 


IE 


14 


21 


CF 


50 


5E 


20 


51 


21D1 


41 


02 


4F 


4E 


46 


11 


0D 


00 


Al 


21D9 


12 


ID 


ID 


ID 


C7 


45 


54 


20 


FD 


21E1 


D3 


54 


52 


CC 


9D 


2D 


72 


2A 


EA 


21E9- 


CE 


55 


4D 


42 


45 


52 


78 


46 


61 


21F1 


46 


82 


EA 


20 


3D 


20 


9B 


ca 


01 


21F9- 


10 


D4 


C9 


CE 


05 


C5 


3E 


A0 


62 


2231 


3C 


CI 


C2 


CF 


D2 


51 


9E 


91 


03 


2209- 


3C 


C3 


05 


D2 


D2 


C5 


CE 


01 


51 


2211' 


ID 


20 


3C 


C2 


CI 


03 


05 


04 


40 


2219- 


20 


CF 


CE 


20 


C7 


C5 


04 


3E 


7A 


2221- 


00 


12 


D3 


AC 


27 


54 


49 


4E 


9A 


2229 


47 


20 


D2 


45 


43 


4F 


52 


44 


08 


2231 


53 


00 


30 


00 


00 


00 


00 


30 


25 



Maurice Yanney, the author of Balloon 
Pop (August 1992) and Cats and Mice 
(January 1993), lives in Lebanon, Penn- 
sylvania. 



UTILITY PLUS 



By Eric Jevon Bryant 
Utility Plus is a group of three useful util- 
ity programs for the 64 written in ma- 
chine language to take advantage of 
the language's power and speed. The 
first utility, Word Wrapper, wraps text 
around the screen when words become 
cut off by the screen border. Integer Ar- 
ray Search lets you quickly search 
through an array of integers for a spe- 
cific value, and String Array Search 
searches through an array of strings for 
a specific string of characters. 

The utilities in the Utility Plus package 
can be used separately or together. 
T-hey were programmed independent- 
ly. Also, they reside at 52376-53247. 
which is near the top of free RAM, so 
it may be possible to run other machine 



language programs with these in 
place. If you use all three programs, 
this leaves you with 3227 bytes of free 
RAM,, a little more than 3K. 

Originally, Utility Plus was written to 
complement a text adventure I had writ- 
ten. The majority of the program was in 
BASIC, and the utilities were created to 
speed up the parsing of commands 
and outputting text to the screen. Utility 
Plus's usefulness, however, is not restrict- 
ed to text adventures. You may use the 
package in just about anything from da- 
tabases to your own word processor. 

Entering Utility Plus 

Utility Plus is written entirely in machine 
language. To enter it, use fvlLX. our ma- 
chine language entry program; see 
."Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. When MLX prompts, respond 
with the following starting and ending 
addresses tf you want to have all three 
utilities. 

Starting address: CCOS 
Ending address: CFFF 

Note that Utility Plus is a package of 
three utilities that are independent of 
each other. This means that you may 
wish to type in only the ones that you 
need. If you want oniy one or two of 
them, use the addresses listed below 
and enter only those lines of the MLX 
listing. 

Word Wrapper 
Starting Address: CC98 
Ending Address: CDFB 

Integer Array Search 
Starting Address: CDFC 
Ending Address: CEE4 

String Array Search 
Starting Address: CEE5 
Ending Address: CFFF 

Be sure to save a copy of the program 
before exiting MLX. When you're ready 
to use the program, load it with the ,8,1 
extension, type NEW, and then start to 
work on your own BASIC programs. 
You'll find Utility Plus helpful in many 
programming situations, 

Word Wrapper 

If you've ever used the PRINT state- 



ment in a program to print out instruc- 
tions Of other information, you know 
how difficult it can be to make the 
words wrap properly. It usually takes a 
good deal of trial and error to make the 
statement print correctly. Word Wrap- 
per does the work for you. 

To use this utility, place the text you 
wish printed to the screen in the string 
variable A$. (Failure to do this could re- 
sult in the computer's locking up). 
Type SYS 52376,0 and the text con- 
tained in variable AS will be printed. 
Any words that might have been cut off 
by the edge of the screen will be 
wrapped around. If you type SYS 
52376, 1 the words will print, but the pro- 
gram will automatically add a prompt 
that tells you to press Return to contin- 
ue. Note that you may print something 
beforehand with a semicolon and then 
invoke Word Wrapper, and it will con- 
tinue from that PRINT statement, wrap- 
ping accordingly. 

Word Wrapper is quite powerful. Af- 
ter Word Wrapper has printed some- 
thing onscreen, anything that is printed 
afterward will be tacked onto the end 
of the string, as if you used PRINT 
with a semicolon. To avoid this, simply 
print after you execute Word Wrapper. 

Integer Array Search 

An integer is any number that does not 
contain a fraction. On the 64, an inte- 
ger must fall within the range of from 
32767 to -32767. In Commodore BA- 
SIC, an integer is recognized as a var- 
iable name following by a percent 
sign, A% or BC%, for example. 

Integer Search can look through any 
array of integers that contains no 
more than 255 elements. (It's better if 
your arrays have no more than 254 ele- 
ments since a 255 is a null value for In- 
teger Search.) 

To invoke the Integer Array Search, 
type the statement SYS 52732,XY%. 
NUM.Z. In this statement, XY% is the in- 
teger array to search through (the per- 
cent sign is needed), NUM is the num- 
ber to search for, and Z is the initial 
value in memory location 251. Index Ar- 
ray Search will retrieve the index held 
in 251 first and will start the search at 
the very next index. Therefore, it's a 
good idea to initialize your integer 
search by entering SYS 52732,XY%,0. 
This will place a in 251 and start 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-31 



PROGRAMS 



your search at an index of 1. 

The array index that contains your val- 
ue NUM is held at memory location 
251; just enter PRINT PEEK(251) to 
find its value. A value of 255 means 
there was no match, while anything 
less indicates the index where there 
was a match. If the variable you en- 
tered for XY% does not exist, the pro- 
gram will return a SEARCHING ERROR 
message. 

String Array Search 

In BASIC, a siring is any string of char- 
acters. String Array Search lets you 
search through any list (an array) of 
strings for a specific string or even a 
part of a string. 

Place the string you're searching for 
in string vahable AS. This may even be 
the first few characters of the string. 
For exampie, JOH would locate 
JOHNS, JOHNSON, or JOHANSON, 
but not JIM JOHNSON. Failure to 
have something contained in AS could 
result in the computer's crashing. 

With this done, enter SYS 
52965.AB$.X, with ABS being the 
string array to search (the S is neces- 
sary) and X being the initial value for 
252. Once again, if string ABS does 
not exist, you'il receive a SEARCHING 
ERROR message. This time, however, 
the matched index will be stored in 
memory location 252, so it will not con- 
flict with the Integer Array Search. A 
255 in this location indicates that a 
match was not found. 

Utility Demo 

This demonstration program gives you 
an example of the IJtility Plus features 
and how to use their functions. Program- 
mers may find that dissecting the 
code is helpful. Since Utility Demo is 
written entirely in BASIC, enter it with 
The Automatic Proofreader to help elim- 
inate typing errors. Be sure to save the 
program before running it. 

Simply run the demonstration with 
Utility Plus already in memory and 
watch as it demonstrates the integer 
and string searches, saving the Word 
Wrapper for the finale. 

The program sets arrays T%( ) and 
IR%() for integer arrays and S$() 
for a string array. The demo illustrates 
the Integer Search by picking ten ran- 
dom numbers between 0-254 and 
G-32 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



then searching for these values in ar- 
rays T%( ) and IR%{ ). T%( ) has a max- 
imum of 100 elements, so sorrie of the 
random numbers will not be found if 
they exceed 100, Also, the values in 
T%() are equal to 100 minus the in- 
dex, while in IR%() there is a direct 
relationship. Thus, the value 37 is held 
in index 73 in T%{) and 37 in IR%{), 
Use this to check the searches. 

The second demo deals with the 
string S$(). This array contains the 
word TRASH In 234 of its 254 elements 
and the word TREASURE is scattered 
at random in 20 elements throughout 
the array. The numbers onscreen are 
the indexes of the elements that con- 
tain the word TREASURE. The variable 
LIS contains this list. 

Finally, the word-wrap demo prints 
some text on the screen, prompts you 
to press Return, and continues with 
more text. 

Some Final Notes 

First, the Z in SYS 52732,XY%,Z (Inte- 
ger Search) and the X in SYS 
52965,ABS,X (String Search) are option- 
al; they may be left out. The utility will 
simply begin the search at the current 
index held in 251 for Integer Search or 
252 for String Search. 

Second, when searching for nega- 
tive values in the Integer Search, you 
must place this value in a variable and 
then enter SYS 52732.XY%.VAR with 
VAR being this variable. If you attempt 
to enter SYS 52732. XY%,-1 you will run 
into problems. 

Third, if your A$ variable contains a 
short string and you caii Word Wrap- 
per, you may see some garbled text 
printed after your word. To clear this 
up, simply add CHR$(0) after your A$ 
text as in A$=AS-hCHR${0). This will 
add a null character to your string and 
stop the garbage. 

Finally, there is a programming trick 
that will allow you to set the left margin 
for Word Wrapper. Simply enter POKE 
52496. 236 - left margin. For example, 
if you wanted a left margin of 5, you 
would enter POKE 52496. 255 - 5. or 
POKE 52496. 251. There is also a way 
to set the right margin, but it isn't as sim- 
ple; those able to decode machine lan- 
guage may be able to solve it. Hint: 
fool around with locations 52460 and 
52496 combined. 



UTILITY PLUS 



CC98: 
CCA0; 
CCftB: 
CCB0: 
CCB8; 
CCC0: 
CCC8; 
CCD0; 
CCD8: 
CCE0; 
CCES; 
CCF0: 
CCF8; 
CD0O: 
CD08: 
CD10; 
CD18; 
CD20; 
CD28; 
CD 30; 
CD38: 
CD40; 
CD48: 
CD50: 
CD58: 
CD60; 
CD68; 
CD70I 
CD78: 
CD80i 
CD881 
CD90; 
CD98: 
CDA0; 
CDA8; 
CDB0; 
CDBS; 
CDC0; 
CDC8; 
CDD0; 
CDBS; 
CDE0; 
CDE8; 
CDF0; 
CDF8: 
CE00: 
CE08; 
CE10: 
CE18: 
CE20: 
CE28: 
CE30: 
CE38: 
CE40: 
CE4B: 
CE50: 
CE58: 
CE50: 
CE68: 
CE70: 
CE78: 
CE30: 
CE88: 
CE90: 
CE98: 
CEA0: 
CEA8: 
CEB0: 



A2 00 

03 20 
CD 00 

02 69 
A0 00 
A5 Bl 
20 D2 

01 85 
0D D0 
A0 01 

:hD A9 
A5 A5 
ft6 D0 
A9 14 
F6 CA 
;00 D0 
;A5 A5 
;E5 A4 
;84 A3 
;A5 A5 
;E0 00 
;A6 4C 
;2D 85 
;00 Bl 
;20 BE 
:C9 80 
:CD A0 
Bl A3 
;C9 FF 
iBl A3 
:01 85 
:A5 A3 
00 D0 
il2 5B 
5D 92 
D2 FF 
00 B9 
17 F0 

06 D0 
D0 Fl 
D2 FF 
00 35 
00 A0 
D2 FP 
00 85 
20 FD 
73 00 
85 A4 
FF AE 
85 A6 
05 20 
85 AD 
Bl AD 
AD C5 
37 D0 

07 A0 
20 DB 
A4 EA 
00 20 
F8 A0 

03 F0 
20 DB 
00 D0 

02 C6 
85 AB 
C5 A6 
A7 D0 
FB 90 



20 79 

00 E2 
fl5 D3 
28 8D 
Bl A5 
D0 01 
FF C9 
A3 A2 
05 A2 
20 8E 
CC 09 
A5 C9 
BB C6 
20 D2 
A9 20 
F6 A0 
E5 A3 
85 A6 
4C AA 
A5 C9 
F0 08 
37 CD 
A3 AS 
A3 C9 
CD F0 
D0 F4 
00 Bl 
85 A6 
D0 02 
A8 A9 
A4 4C 
C9 00 
F3 60 
52 45 
A0 00 
C8 C0 
A2 CD 
0A 20 
EE F0 
A0 00 
C8 C0 
C6 A5 
00 84 
08 C0 
C6 60 
AE 09 
C9 25 
20 73 
20 83 
84 A7 
00 E2 
A5 30 

05 A3 
A4 F0 
0D A5 
00 20 
CE 4C 
EA A9 
DB CE 
00 Bl 

06 AA 
CE Bl 
Fl 06 
BB 20 
8 5 AC 
D0 12 
0B 13 
03 86 



00 



C9 2C 

86 Bl 4C 

18 E9 27 

A9 00 A2 

C9 00 D0 

60 40 AC 

20 D0 08 

00 36 A4 

FF BE A9 

CD EE A9 

28 F0 00 

00 D0 BF 
A3 A2 00 
FF B4 A3 
20 D2 FF 

01 20 BE 

85 A5 AS 
4C 20 CD 
CC A2 03 
00 F0 08 
4C 2F CD 
4C AA CC 
2E as A4 
41 F0 06 
F2 Ca Bl 
fi0 03 20 
A3 85 A5 
06 A3 A5 
C6 A4 A0 
00 91 A5 
27 CD E6 
F0 06 88 
E6 A4 F0 
54 55 52 
B9 A0 CD 

02 D0 F5 
AE 18 D0 
D2 FF C8 
05 18 69 
B9 AS OD 
02 D0 F5 
C6 F0 FC 
Bl A9 14 
08 D0 F6 
A9 80 85 
80 85 A3 
F0 37 05 
00 A9 25 
AE 20 AA 
20 79 00 

86 FB A5 
85 AE AS 
D0 07 C8 
IE A5 AD 
AE C5 38 
2F Fl D0 
36 CE 4C 
00 85 B0 
08 C0 04 
AD 8 5 AA 
CA 20 DB 
AD 95 AF 
AF A5 B0 
DB CE A9 
A0 09 Bl 
08 Bl AD 
A5 AB AA 
FB 60 20 



D0 6F 

47 CC 

B0 82 

00 49 

08 2B 

CD IF 

A9 CI 

C9 18 

CC 52 

00 42 

E6 FD 

E6 01 

E8 BE 

D0 52 

E0 36 

CD 3C 

A6 9B 

C8 6E 

E6 01 

CA F7 

Ee 84 

A 5 52 

A0 IC 

C8 0C 

A3 32 

8E 4A 

C8 75 

A3 9C 

00 3D 

A0 BF 

A3 41 

C0 92 

F6 8F 

4E A5 

20 B7 

A0 BA 

E0 4C 

00 50 

80 64 

20 91 

A9 EB 

A0 A5 

20 71 

A9 36 

A4 D3 

20 15 

A4 3D 

20 E5 

Bl 9A 

F0 0D 

2F ID 

00 DB 

Bl F2 

C5 72 

D0 7F 

06 06 

65 86 

A0 IB 

D0 98 

C9 70 

CE B6 

E0 IE 

F0 6B 

00 66 

AD 75 

05 34 

E5 48 

DB B6 



CEB8 


CE 


20 


DB 


CE 


A5 


AB 


C5 


AF 4 5 


HH 


220 


REM 


CEC0 


F0 


35 


E6 


AB 


4C 


9C 


CE 


A5 C7 


QF 


230 


REM DEMO 


CEC8 


AC 


C5 


B0 


F0 


09 


E6 


AC 


A9 3A 


AH 


240 


REM INTEGER ARRAYS 


CED0 


00 


85 


AB 


4C 


9C 


CE 


A9 


FF 7D 


DK 


250 


REM 


CED8 


85 


FB 


60 


E6 


AD 


AS 


AO 


F0 03 


DA 


260 


PRINTCHR$(147) ;CHR$(18) 


CEE0 


01 


60 


E6 


AE 


60 


A9 


80 


85 0F 






; "INTEGER ARRAY DEMO:" 


CEE8 


Bl 


20 


FD 


AE 


85 


B0 


20 


73 B4 


PF 


270 


FOR X=1TO10:Y=INT(RND (0 


CEF0 


00 


C9 


24 


F0 


07 


05 


Bl 


85 C9 






)*254) :NU$=MID$(STR5(Y} 


CEF8 


Bl 


20 


73 


00 


A9 


24 


20 


FF 04 






,2) 


CF00 


AE 


20 


79 


00 


FS 


05 


20 


00 0A 


BC 


280 


PRINTSPC(l) ;NUS;TAB(5) ; 


CF03 


E2 


86 


FC 


A9 


30 


85 


AC 


85 E9 






" (T%) {2 SPACES}"; 


CF10 


A A 


A5 


2E 


85 


AB 


A0 


00 


Bl IE 


PF 


290 


SYS 52732, T%,Y,0:IF PEE 


CF18 


RA 


C9 


41 


F0 


0C 


E6 


AA 


A 5 AD 






K(251)=255 THEN PRINT"N 


CF20 


AA 


C9 


00 


00 


F0 


E6 


AB 


F0 FF 






OT FOUND" :G0T0 310 


CF28 
CF30 


EC 
E6 


C8 
AA 


Bl 
20 


Ah 
EB 


C9 
CF 


30 

E6 


D0 
AA 


ED 31 
20 40 


BO 


300 


PRINT"LOCATION";PEEK{25 

1) 

PRINTTAB(5) ;" (IR%) "; 


CF38 
CF40 


EB 
95 


CF 
A3 


A0 
E0 


00 
02 


A2 
F0 


00 
04 


Bl 
E8 


AA FB 
C8 02 


DS 


310 


CF48 


D0 


F4 


A5 


2F 


85 


AA 


A5 


30 87 


KB 


320 


SYS 52732, IR%,Y,0 


CF50 


85 


AB 


A3 


00 


Bl 


AA 


C5 


B0 26 


ER 


330 


PR I NT "LOCATION"; PEEK (25 


CF58 


FO 


20 


A5 


AA 


C5 


37 


90 


0E 12 






1) :NEXT X:GOSUB590 


CF60 


A5 


AB 


CS 


38 


90 


08 


AB 


0C EB 


JS 


340 


REM 


CF68 


20 


2F 


Fl 


4C 


65 


A4 


E6 


AA ID 


PK 


350 


REM STRING ARRAYS 


CF70 


A5 


AA 


C9 


00 


00 


DC 


E6 


AB 3A 


BA 


360 


REM 


CF78 


F0 


D8 


C8 


Bl 


AA 


C5 


Bl 


D0 9B 


JE 


370 


PRINTCHRS(147) ;CHR$(18) 


CF80 


DA 


A0 


00 


E6 


AA 


20 


EB 


CF Al 






; "STRING ARRAY DEMO:" 


CFSa 


C0 


03 


F0 


03 


C8 


D0 


F4 


A0 AB 


KS 


380 


PRINT" THE TEXT ";CHRS( 


CF90 


00 


Bl 


AA 


C9 


01 


DO 


03 


E6 68 






34) ;"TREASURE- (X) ";CHR5 


CF98 


AA 


20 


EB 


CF 


E6 


AA 


20 


EB IE 






(34) ;" IS LOCATED: ":POK 


CFA0 


CF 


38 


Bl 


AA 


E9 


00 


85 


A9 IB 






E252,0 


CFftS 


E6 


AA 


A0 


00 


A2 


00 


Bl 


AA 90 


RP 


390 


FOR X=1TO20:IX$=MID$(ST 


CFBO 


9 5 


A6 


C0 


02 


F0 


04 


ca 


E8 OF 






R$(X) ,2) :A$ = "TBEASURE" 


CFB8 


00 


F4 


A6 


A3 


CA 


E4 


A6 


B0 F4 


DE 


400 


SYS 52965, SS,PEEK(252) 


CFC0 


0F 


A0 


00 


Bl 


A4 


01 


A7 


DO B7 


HQ 


410 


VUS=MID$(STR5 (PEEK (252) 


CFC8 


07 


C8 


C4 


A3 


F0 


27 


00 


F3 AA 






) ,2) :LN=LEM(VU$) : ZE$=" 


CFD0 


E6 


AC 


A5 


AC 


CS 


A9 


00 


05 0A 






000" 


CFD8 


A9 


FF 


85 


FC 


60 


A0 


00 


E6 3A 


KK 


420 


IF LN<3 THEN VU$=LEFT$ ( 


CFEa 


AA 


20 


EB 


CF 


C0 


02 


F0 


C2 0B 






ZES,3-LN)+VU$ 


CFE8 


C8 


□a 


F4 


A5 


AA 


C9 


00 


F0 37 


SH 


430 


PRINT" ";vas; :LI$=LI$+V 


CFF0 


01 


60 


Ee 


AB 


60 


18 


A5 


AC IC 






U$+" ":NEXT X:GOSUB 590 


CFFS 


AA 


E5 


FC 


90 


03 


86 


FC 


60 23 


EF 


440 


REM 


















KF 


450 


REM WORD WRAPPER 


UTILITY DEMO 












QG 


460 


REM 


HE 10 REM 


UTILITY/DEMO 




HR 


470 


PRINTCHR5(147) ;CHR$(18) 


EX 20 REM 


BY 


ERIC J. 


BRYANT 






;CHR$ (14) ;"WORD WRAPPER 


XB 30 REM 


COPYRIGHT 1993 


- COM 






DEMO:";CHR?(146) ;" "; 


PUTE 


POBLICATIONS 


- ALL 


HJ 


480 


AS="THIS IS A DEMO FOR 


{SPRCElRIGHTS RESERVED 






{SPACE}THE WORD WRAPPIN 


DD 40 REM 


DIMENSIONING ARRAYS 






G OTILITYl SEE HOW THE 


EC 90 DIM 


Tl{100) 












{SPACE}WORDS WERE " 


GR 10 


DIN 


IR%(254 








AD 


490 


A$=AS+"AUT0MAT1CALLY WR 


MH 110 


DIM 


35(254) 












APPED AROUND THE HEADIN 


HA 120 


REM 


















G? WORD WRAPPER KEEPS T 


XG 130 


REM 


BUILDING ARRAYS 






RACK " 


CC 140 


REM 














HF 


500 


A$=A$+"OF WHAT POSITION 


EC 150 


FOE 


X= 


=1TO130: 


T%(X)=100 






ON SCREEN YOU ENABLED 




-X 


:MEXT 














{SPACE}THIS UTILITY, AL 


DP 160 


FOR X- 


=17025 


4: 


IR%(X)=X 






LOWING FOR " 




{4 


SPACES}: 


NEXT 




PM 


510 


AS=AS+"MUCH VERSITILITY 


PD 173 


FOB X 


=1T0254:SS(X)="TRA 






. " 




SH' 
REh 
FOI 
TR 


' ; NF'fi' 










JK 


520 


SYS 52376, 1:PRINT:PRINT 


CF 180 
SS 190 


{ 












FH 


530 


A$="ALSO NOTICE HOW WOR 


? X=1T02B 
?(X),2) 


:IXS = 


MIDS(S 






D WRAPPER JUST PROMPTED 
YOU TO PRESS [RETURN] , 


KB : 
PA ; 


00 
>10 


:; = INT (RND(0)*254) 
{Y)<>"TRASH" THEN 
S${V)="TREASURE-' 
EXT X 


:IF SS 

200 
+IX$:N 


EF 


540 


A$=AS+"THIS ALLOWS YOU 
{SPACE}TO PROMPT THE US 
ER BEFORE CONTINUING WI 



TH 

FQ 550 A5 
FF 563 SYS 

OSU 
BP 570 PRI 

);" 

E." 
QM 580 END 
HX 590 PRI 

oil . 



A RATHER " 
A$+"LENGTHY TEXT." 

52376:PRINT:PRINT:G 
B 590: 

NTCHRS(147) ;CHRS(142 
UTILITY/DEMO COHPLET 



NTCHRSdS) ;"CONTINUE 
PRINTCHRS (18) ;" (Y)ES 

(N)0" 

AS :IF A$="" THEN 6 



OR 
EJ 600 GET 

00 
DR 610 IF A$<>"N" THEM RETURN 
XQ 620 END 

Eric Jevon Bryant lives in the Bronx, 
New York City, NY. 

DIRECTOR-EASE 

By Randy J. Clemmons 
I have subscribed to Gazette since 1985, 
and I always look forward to reading Jim 
Butterfieid's "Machine Language" col- 
umn. In October 1992, Jim wrote that pro- 
gramming to read a disk directory is no 
trivial task. 1 thought you might like to 
look at my solution for reading directories. 
Director-Ease (pun intended) makes it 
possible to create a directory reader eas- 
ily wherever 102 bytes of RAM are 
available. 

Director-Ease has an option to create 
a BASIC loader, which allows BASIC pro- 
grammers an easy path to incorporate a 
directory reader into their work, Also, if 
you wish, Director-Ease lets you display 
only specific file types, such as PRG, 
SEQ, REL. or USR files. 

Entering the Progrom 

Director-Ease is written entirely in BA- 
SIC. To help avoid typing errors, enter 
the program with The Automatic Proof- 
reader; see "Typing Aids" elsewhere in 
this section. Be sure to save a copy of 
the program before you try to run it. 

Using the Program 

Load and run Director-Ease. To use 
the program for the first time, use the 
default starting address of 828 which 
appears on screen. Location 828 is in 
the 64's cassette buffer, a favorite 
place for small machine language rou- 
tines. Respond to the make loader ques- 
tion with Wfor no. You1l then see a mes- 
sage onscreen that tells you to use 
SYS 828 to view files. Enter that SYS to 
verify that everything is working well. 
MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-33 



PROGRAMS 



Relocation 

Let's check out Director-Ease's relocat- 
ability feature. Enter RUN and repeat 
the steps outlined in the previous par- 
agraph, but this time pick an address 
in the 64's upper RAM. For example, en- 
ter a starting address between 49152 
and 57145. Remember, use a place 
where 102 bytes of RAM are available. 
You could choose a location inside 
BASIC'S normal program space, but 
you'd have to take steps to protect the 
code from being overwritten eventual- 
ly by BASIC, You could do it by mov- 
ing BASIC'S top-of-memory pointer 
down and then entering a CLR state- 
ment to realign BASIC'S pointers. 
Then you could safely use an address 
above the top-of-memory pointer. 

Create a Loader 

To use the BASIC loader option, enter 
y when the programs asks if you want 
to create one. When the program finish- 
es executing, several lines of BASIC 
code will appear onscreen. This code 
is ready to run, save, or renumber. 

It's easy to add this BASIC loader 
code to your programs by using an ap- 
pend routine. If you don't already 
have an append routine, see Randy Th- 
ompson's "Programmer's Page" in the 
September 1992 Gazette. 

What's Hoppening 

As Director-Ease executes, the follow- 
ing events take place. The code is 
placed in 102 bytes of RAM and then 
a relocation routine makes adjustments 
to some machine language instructions 
(JMP and JSR} inside the code. When 
the make loader option is selected, the 
dynamic keyboard technique is em- 
ployed to create the data statements 
for BASIC and to delete Director-Ease 
from memory, leaving only the code for 
a BASIC program. 

Being Selective 

Reading either specific (PRG, SEQ, 
REL, USR) file types or all file types is 
easy with Director-Ease. The default for 
Director-Ease is to view all file types, 
but by entering a few POKEs, you can 
change the program to read specific 
file types only. Another default option is 
to view sequential files only. To switch 
to this default, enter POKE (starting ad- 
dress + 9),6. Then enter the SYS and 

G-34 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



starting address to view the directory. 
If there are no sequential files on the 
disk, only the disk header is printed. To 
switch back to viewing all files, enter 
POKE (starting address + 9).1. 

Before continuing, let's review the 
decimal equivalents for ASCII charac- 
ters H S. R, and U. The ASCII value for 
P(PRG) is 80, the value for f?{REL) is 
82, the value for S(SEQ) is 83, and the 
value for U (USR) is 85. Here's how 
those values can be used to select spe- 
cific file types for display. 

POKE (starting address + 99).80 
to view program (PRG) files only. 
POKE (starting address + 99),82 
to view relative (REL) files only. 
POKE (starting address + 99), 83 
to view sequential (SEQ) files only. 
POKE (starting address + 99),85 
to view user (USR) files only. 

To enable the option to view specific 
file types, enter one of the above 
POKES and then POKE (starting ad- 
dress + 9),6. Then use SYS to get to 
the starting address to see the directo- 
ry. To switch back to viewing all file 
types, enter POKE (starting address + 
9).1. 

Device Numbers 

Director-Ease also lets you see direc- 
tories on devices other than device 8. 
You can customize the program by en- 
tering the following three POKEs plus 
the device number of your drive or 
REU. (Note: The selective directory op- 
tion will not work with Commodore 
1700 series REUs. When used with 
these REUs, the option only lists direc- 
tories of all file types.) 

For directories on devices other than de- 
vice 8, you'll have to enter three 
POKEs, each ending with the desired 
device or drive number. Here are 
those POKES. 

POKE (starting address + 1), device # 
POKE (starting address + 21), device # 
POKE (starting address + 89), device # 

Now, when you check a directory by 
typing SYS starting address, you'll get 
a listing of programs and files on which- 
ever device or drive number that you 
selected in the above POKEs. 



DIRECTOR'EASE 



BH 

JM 1 

SD 2 

JR 3 

FD 4 

HS 5 

GH 6 

XK 7 

SH 8 
PJ 13 

KJ 20 

JH 30 
JJ 40 
PK 50 

PJ 60 
BM 70 

GH 80 

DE 90 

t<F 100 
EK 110 
MB 120 
SC 130 



REM COPYRIGHT 1993 - COMP 

UTE PUBLICATIONS INTL LTD 
- ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

GOTO 10: REM BY RANDV CLEMH 

ONS 

S=10{2 SPACES): REM * DELE 

TE ROUTINE 2-8 * 

PRINT"{CLR} {2 D0WN)":F0RI 

=S TO S+60 STEP10 

IFI>340THEN NEXT; PRINT"GO 

T07":GOT06 

PRINTI:PRINTCHRS{20) :NEXT 

1 : PRINT "S="S+60"{ LEFT}: GO 

T03" 

POKE198,10:FORK-1TO10:POK 

E630+K, 13 ;NEXTK: PRINT" 

{HOME}": END 

PRINT"{CLR} {2 D0WN}":F0RM 

=lT08:PRrNTM:NEXTM:PRINT" 

PRINT CHR5 (147) :LIST" 

P0KE198,9:F0RK=1T09:P0KB6 

30+K,13:NEXTK:PRINT" 

{HOME}": END 
GOSUB130:IMPUT"{CLR} 
{2 RIGHT} {2 DOWN}CREATE 
{SPACE)BASIC LOADER Y/N" 
;C$: IFC$="Y"THENGOSUB110 
:GOTO 30 

PRINT" (2 RIGHT} {2 DOWN}S 
YS";S:PRINT"{2 RIGHT} 
{2 DOWN}TO VIEW "T$" FIL 
ES":END 

PRINT"{CLR} {2 DOWN}";FOR 
I=STOS+47STEP6 
IFI>FTHENNEXT: PRINT"GOTO 

80":GOTO70 
PRINTI;"DATA ";!FORJ=0TO 
5:R$ = STRS (PEEK(I+J) ) :PRI 
NTRIGHTS (R?,LEN(R$) -1) ;" 



DX 140 
DK 150 



NEXTJ:PRINTCHR$(20) :NEXT 
I ;PRINT"S="S+4a"{LEFT} :F 
="F"{LEFT} :GOTO 30" 
POKE198,10:FORK=1TOX0:PO 
KE630+K,13:NEXTK:PRINT" 
{H0HE}":END 

SA= {PEEK (679 )*256)+PEEK( 
680) :EA=SA+101 
PRINT"{CLR}{3 D0WN)"SA-1 
"F0RI="SA"T0"EA":READDA: 
POKE I , DA: NEXT I: END" 
PRINT"RON 2":P0KE198,2: 
POKE631,13;POKE632,13:P 
RINT"{H0ME}":END 
REM **(3 SPACES}SAVE ST 
ARTING ADDRESS 
{3 SPACES}** 
TV=S:HB=INT (TV/256) :LB= 
IKT(TV-(HB*256)) :POKE67 
9, HB: POKE 680, LB: RETURN 
PRINT"{CLR}{3 RIGHT) 
{3 DOWN}ENTER STARTING 
{SPACElADDRESS NO. 
{3 SPACES}828" 
INPUT"{30 RIGHT}{UP}";S 
PRINT"{3 RIGHT}{2 DOWN) 



POKING DATA TO MEMORY . 
n 

REM * DIRECTORY ML DATA 

FOR 1= S TO S+101:READD 

A:POKEI,DA:NEXTI:F=S+10 

1 

DATA 169,8,170,160,0,32 

,186,255,169 

DATA 1,162,154,160,3,32 

,189,255,32 

DATA 192,255,162,8,32,1 

98,255,32 

DATA 228,255,32,229,255 

,32,225,255 

DATA 240,49,32,228,255, 

32,228,255 

DATA 165,144,208,39,32, 

228,255,141 

DATA 160,3,32,228,255,1 

74,160,3,32 

DATA 205,189,169,32,32, 

210,255 

DATA 32,228,255,240,6,3 

2,210,255,76 

DATA 126,3,169,13,32,21 

0,255,76,91 

DATA 3,32,204,255,169,8 

,32,195,255 

DATA 96,36,48,58,42,61, 

83,0,0 

REM ** RELOCATION DATA 

fSPACE}** 

DATA 94,11,13,100,50,51 

,100,56,57,66,75,76,31, 

83,84 

REM ** RELOCATION ROUT I 

NE ** 

F0RI=1 TO 5:READ DA:TV= 

S+DA:HB=INT (TV/256) :LB= 

INT (TV-(HB*256) ) 

READL0:P0KE (S+LO) ,LB:RE 

ADHI:POKE(S+HI) ,HB:NEXT 

I: RETURN 



Randy Clemmons wrote Ihis program 
when he found himself needing to re- 
locate a directory reader to make 
room for other machine language 
code which required the same memo- 
ry. He lives in San Diego, California 

CROSSREF128 

By Donald G. Klich 

Have you ever wanted to make modifica- 
tions to someone else's BASIC program 
but were afraid to touch it for fear of reus- 
ing a variable name or removing an in- 
struction that may be used as an entry 
point? Ttien you need CrossRef 128. 

CrossRef 128 will process any 64 or 
128 BASIC program and send an alpha- 
betical listing of all variables and all the 



GG 


160 


XR 


170 


FC 


130 


KS 


190 


XS 


200 


QJ 


210 


HC 


220 


AH 


230 


PD 


240 


MG 


250 


JE 


260 


DJ 


270 


KJ 


280 


FD 


290 


DH 


303 


QR 


310 


RM 


320 


EB 


330 


SG 


340 



tines that refer to them to your printer. It 
also prints a list of all entry-point line num- 
bers with their associated branching line 
numbers. 

With this listing, it's then possible to 
choose unused variable names or re- 
place original coding lines without the 
fear of accidentally queering the original 
program. 

Typing It In 

CrossRef 128 consists of two program 
segments, both written in BASIC 7.0. 
To help avoid typing errors, enter the 
programs with The Automatic Proofread- 
er; see "Typing Aids" elsewhere in 
this section. Save the first segment 
with any name you wish, but be sure to 
save the second segment with the file- 
name SEG.2 since the first program 
loads the second by that name. Note 
that abbreviated commands (upper 
case characters) are used on line 20 of 
the first segment. This is necessary so 
that the required code will fit in the key- 
definition area. 

Creating a List 

Load and run the first short program, 
and make sure your printer is turned 
on. This program loads the f1 function 
key area, displays some instructions, 
and then exits. Now DLOAD the pro- 
gram to be cross-referenced. Finally, 
be sure that the disk containing SEG.2 
is in the drive and press the f1 key. 

The amount of execution time re- 
quired depends on the length and com- 
plexity of the target program. Large pro- 
grams may take 15 minutes or more to 
process. As a comfort, turn up the vol- 
ume on your monitor, and you should 
hear the churning activity. 

The printout lists all variables used 
in the program in alphabetical order 
and the line numbers in which they ap- 
pear. Following that is a listing in numeri- 
cal order of lines that branch to other 
lines and their destinations. Now you 
can consult this cross-reference list be- 
fore making changes or alterations to 
64 or 128 BASIC programs without wor- 
rying about deleting or overwriting im- 
portant variables or line numbers. 

CROSSREF 128 

PK 5 HEM COPYRIGHT 1993 - COMP 
OTE PUBLICATIONS INTL LTD 
- ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



AG 20 
ED 30 



SG 40 



QA 50 
PF 60 



JS 10 REM LABELS AND CONSTANTS 

SB 20 AS= "FAST"+CHR$(13)+"0P2 
,8,2,"+CHR$(34)+"0:W,S,H 
'HCHR$ ( 3 4 ) +CHR$ ( 1 3 ) + "CM2 
"+CHR$(13)+"LI."+CHR$ (13) 
+"PR2"+CHR$(13)+"CLOSE2" 

MF 25 KEY1,A5+CHR$(13)+"RUN"+C 
HRS (34)+"SEG.2"+CHR$ (34) 
+CKR$(13) 

BQ 30 COLOR0,1:COLOR4,1:PRINT" 
{CLRH4 DOWN}{YEL) 
{5 SPACES}LOAD THE PROGR 
AM TO BE PROCESSED" :PRIN 
T"{10 SPACES}THEN PRESS 
{SPACElTHE Fl KEY" 

SEG.2 

MS 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1993 - COM 
PUTE PCJBLICATIONS INTL L 
TD - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
REM SEGMENT 2 
FAST:OPEN2,8,2,"@0:W,S,R 
":DIHRSS(150) ,PU5 (14) ,LB 
$(700),LN%(700),ZS$(20), 
NA%(200) ,BA%(200) :B=l:Q= 
1:QT5=CHR$ (34) :0PEN1,4 
FORI=1TO150:HEADRS$(I) :N 
EXT 

FORI=1T012:READPUS(I) : NE 
XT 

REM ***ROUTINE TO EXTRAC 
T A LINE 
GET#2,A$:SU=ST 
IFA5=CHR$(13)THEN100 
BS=B$+A$:GOTO150 
IFLEFT9(BS,5>="READY"TH 

ENB$="":GOT0150 
IFB$=""THEN150 
I=INSTR(LEFTS (BS,9) ,"RE 
M") :IFI>0THENB5="":GOTO 
150 
PA 130 I=INSTR(LEFT$ (B$,10) ,"D 
ATA") : IFI>0THENB$="":GO 
TO150 
GOSUB170:B$="" 
IFSU=0THEN70:ELSBCLOSE2 

:GOTO600 
REM ***ROUTINE TO EXTRA 

CT AN INSTRUCTION 
C5="":I=INSTR(B5," ",1) 
:N = VAL(LEFT$ (B$,I-1) ) :P 
=I+1:ZP=1 
IFP>LEN(B$)THEN250 
IFMID$(B$,P,1)=":"THEN2 

40 
IFMIDS (BS,P,1) <>QT$THEN 

220 
P=P+1:IFCS=0THENCS=1:GO 

TO180:ELSECS=0:GOTO180 
IFCS=0THENC$=C$+MID$ (B$ 

,P,I) 
P=P+1:GOTO180 
CL=LEN(CS) :GOSUB270:P=P 

+l:C5="":GOT0183 
CL=LEN(CS) :GOSaB270:RET 

URN 
REM ***SUBR0UTINE TO EX 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-35 



cx 


70 


PB 


80 


GC 


90 


ER 


10 


MA 


11 


SB 


12 



XP 


14 


KH 


15 


CH 


16 


CE 


17 


QQ 


18 


BD 


19 


HK 


20 


EH 


21 


GC 


22 


AB 


23 


DB 


24 


MB 


25 


DC 


26 



PROGRAMS 



TRACT CONSTANTS 
AQ 27(1 L = l 
PQ 280 HT=0 
JM 290 GOSUB520:IFL>OTHEN290:E 

LSEL=-L 
DC 300 IFL=CL+1THEN470 
BR 310 F0RT=1T012:IFHID$ (CS,L, 

1) OPUS (T)THEIJNEXTS GOTO 

330 
FD 320 HT = l:L = L+l:IFL=Ct,+ lTHEN 

470:ELSE310 
MA 330 IFASC(MID$(C?,L,1) ) 034 

THEN380 
RP 34fl HT=1:L=L+1 
FK 350 FORT=LTOL+254:IFASC{MID 

$ (C9,T,1) )=34THENL=T+1: 

GOTO370 
MM 360 NEXT:END 
HH 370 IFL=CL+1THEN470 
PC 380 IFHIDS(CS,L,1) <>CHR${44 

) ANDMIDS (C$,L,1)<>CHRS( 

32)THEN400 
GQ 390 L=L+1:HT=1:IFL=CL+1THEN 

47a:ELSE380 
FB 400 IFASC(MID5{CS,L,1) )>570 

RASC (MID5 (CS,L,1) ) <4 8TH 

EN430 
RH 410 IFSN=1THEN430 
GR 420 HT=1:L=L+1:IFL=CL+1THEN 

470ELSE400 
GG 430 IFHT=lANDSN=0THEN2afl 
AA 440 IFHT=1ANDSN=1THEN460 
HK 453 SN=1:E$=ES+MID$(C$,L,1) 

:L=L+1:IFL=CL+1THEN4 70: 

ELSE2a0 
BQ 460 SN=0:GOSUB48O:GOTO280 
AK 470 IFSN=1THENSN=0:GOSUB480 

:RETURN 
SA 480 REM ***80UTIME TO BLOCK 

DUPLICATE REFERENCES 
RF 490 F0RI=1T0ZP: rFE$=ZSS(I)T 

HENES="": RETURN 
EB 500 NEXT:LN% (B)=H:LBS (B) =E$ 

:ZP=ZP+l:ZS$(ZP)=ES:B=B 

+1:E$="" :RETURN 
KG 510 REM ***SU8R0UTINE TO ST 

RIP INSTR 
XE 523 FORT=3flTO15OSTEP30:IFMl 

DS (C$,L,LEN(RS$(T) ) )>RS 

S {T)THENNEXT:GOTO580 
CQ 530 T=T-29:FORU=TTOT+29: IFH 

IDS (CS,L,LEH(RS$(U} ) ) >R 

SS (U)THENNEXT:GOTO580 
DX 540 IFMIDS (CS,L,LEN(RSS(U)) 

) <RSS (U)THEN580 
JF 550 IFRSS (U)="REH"THENB$ = "" 

:GOT0I50 
AD 560 IFRSS (U)="THEN"ORRSS(U) 

="ELSE"ORRSS{U) ="GOTO"0 

RRSS (U) ="GOSUB"THENGOSU 

B700 
CG 570 L=L+LEN(RS$(U) ) :HT=1:RE 

TURN 
GE 580 L=-L:RETURN 
HF 590 REM ***ROUTINE TO PRINT 

OUTPUT 
GK 600 PRINT#1, "VARIABLE CROSS 

G-36 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



REFERENCE LIST": PRINT* 

1, "LABELS MAY APPEAR MO 

RE THAN ONCE ON A LINE" 

:PRINT#1 

DR 610 A$="ZZSZ":F0RI=1T0B-1:I 

FLB5 (I)<A$THENA$=LBS (I) 

CB 620 NEXT:IFAS="ZZZZ"THEN650 

FM 630 PRINT#l,AS;SPC{6-LEN(A$ 

) ) ;"-"; :F0RI = 1T0B-1:IFL 

BS {I) =ASTHENPRINT#1,LN% 
(I) ; :LBS(I)="ZZZ2" 

BQ 640 NEXT:PRINT#1:GOTO610 

QG 650 PRINT#1:PRINT#1, "ACCESS 
ED LINES AND WHERE THEY 
ARE REFERENCED": PRINTS 
1 

GJ 660 A%=32767:FORI=1TOQ-1: IF 
BA% (I) <A%THENA%=BA% (I) 

MM 670 NEXT: IFA%=32767THENPRIN 
T# 1: CLOSE 1: SCRATCH "W":S 
LOW: END 

AC 680 PRINTil.Al;" - ";:FORI= 
lTOQ-1 : IFBA% (I) =A%THENP 
RINT#1,NA% (I) ; :BA% (I) =3 
2767 

JH 690 NEXT;PRINT#1:GOTO660 

AD 700 L$="":FORI=L+LEN(RSS (U) 
)T0CL:AS=MIDS (C$,I,1) : I 
FASC(AS) <58ANDASC{AS) >4 
7THENLS=L5+AS : NEXT : GOTO 
730 

IFA$=" "THENNEXT:GOT073 


IFAS=","THENNA% (Q)=N;BA 
%(0)=VAL(LS) :LS="":Q=Q+ 
1: NEXT: GOTO? 40 
IFL$<>""THENNA% (Q)=N:BA 
%CQ)=VAL(LS) :Q=Q+1 
RETURN 

DATA AB5, AND, APPEND, ASC 
,ATN, BACKUP, BANK, BEGIN, 
BEND ,BLO AD , BOOT , BOX , BS A 
VE,BUMP,CATALOG,CHAR,CH 
RS, CIRCLE, CLOSE, CLR,CMD 
, COLLECT, COLLI SIGN, COLO 
R,CONCAT, COPY, COS 

PB 760 DATA DCLEAR,DCLOSE,DEC, 
DEF,DTM,DIRECTORy,DLOAD 
,DO,DOPEN,DRAW,DSAVE,DV 
ERIPY, ELSE, END, ENVELOPE 
, ERRS, EX IT, EXP, FAST, FET 
CH, FILTER, FN, FOR, FRE,GE 
T 

AJ 770 DATA GOSUB , G064 , GOTO , GR 
A PHI C,GSH APE, HEADER, HEX 
S, IF, INPUT, INSTR, I NT, JO 
Y , KEY , LEFTS , LEN , LET , LI S 
T , LOAD , LOCATE , LOG , LOOP , 
MI OS, HOVS PR, NEW, NEXT 

AH 780 DATA OK , OPEN , OR, PAINT , P 
EEK,PEN,PI,PLAY,POKE,PO 
S, POT, PRINT, PUDEP,RCLR, 
ROOT , READ , RECORD , REM , RE 
NAME , RESTORE , RESUME , RET 
URN, RGR, RIGHT S,RND,RREG 
,RSPCOL0R 

JF 790 DATA HSPPOP,RSFRITEiRUN 



SC 


710 


RC 


720 


SC 


730 


RF 


740 


DS 


750 



, RWINDOW, SAVE , SCALE , SON 
CLR, SCRATCH, SGN,S I N,SLE 
EP, SLOW, SOUND, S PC, SPRCO 
LOR,SPRDEF,SPRITE,SPRSA 
V,SQR,SSHAPE,STASH,STEP 
, STOP, STRS, SWAP 
PM 800 DATA SYS, TAB, TAN, TEMPO, 
THEN, TO, TRAP, TROFF,T RON 
,UNTIL,USING,USR,VAL,VE 
RIFY,VOL,WAIT,WHILE,WID 
TH,WINDOW,XOR,ZZZZZ,#, ( 

Donald Klich is the author of File Index 
128 (April 1993). He lives in Mount Pros- 
pect, Illinois. 

YOUR OWN DATABASE 

By Jim Butterfield 

You can sit down at your 64 or 128 and 
write your own customized database pro- 
gram. Tiie program will be in BASIC, and 
although it will have a few limitations, it 
will work nicely. Here's how to go about 
it. A sample program is included that will 
run on either a 64 or 128, 

Types of Databoses 

The simplest type of database is 
called a flat file system. You may think 
of it as a set of cards in a drawer, in no 
particular order. To find a given record, 
you'll have to search through the 
whole set. That's not too hard to do if 
your database is of modest size. Our 
program will use flat files. This means 
that any new items that we add go at 
the end. We may also delete or modify 
existing records. 

Indexed files are the next type of da- 
tabase and are a step up in complexi- 
ty. The records are put in some type of 
order, such as alphabetical order by 
name. Although it wouldn't be a great 
deal of work to change our simple pro- 
gram to an indexed type, we'll stick 
with the simple flat files. 

Relational databases are more com- 
plex because records are linked to 
each other. A school database might 
(ink students to classes to teachers to 
classrooms. These databases are too 
complex for us to tackle here, 

Limitations 

Some Commodore 8-bit machines 
have hard disks, but the most common 
setup is a single floppy disk drive. 
That configuration limits the size and 



style of databases that can be easily fit- 
ted into our systenn. 

Our project will stay with a database 
that can be read completely into the 
computer's RAM memory The process 
consists of reading in the whole file, 
viewing or modifying the data, and writ- 
ing the whole fife back to floppy disk. 

Commodore BASIC is limited by the 
INPUT statement (and the related IN- 
PUT* statement). If the data coming in 
contains a comma (,) or colon (:) char- 
acter, these statements will not be- 
have, Ornate coding can get around 
these problems. But to keep it simple, 
we'll forbid the use of these characters 
in our database. 

Typing It In 

Database is written entirely in BASIC. 
To help avoid typing errors, enter it 
with The Automatic Proofreader; see 
"Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. Be sure to save a copy of the pro- 
gram before you exit Proofreader, 

The Program 

Database is a brief demo program to 
show you how to go about doing the 
job. You may want to modify it and ex- 
pand on its basic form. As it stands in 
this demo, the database keeps track of 
members of a small club: last name, 
first name, date (of birth or member- 
ship), and high score. 

In planning a database, it's impor- 
tant to list the fields: the data elements 
that go to make up a record. The sam- 
ple program has four fields, and I've de- 
liberately chosen three types: string (a 
name), date, and numeric value. A 
fourth type, dollars and cents, is also 
common, but isn't included here. 

Decide on a maximum number of re- 
cords for your database. I've chosen 
50 records, but this can be easily 
changed by modifying the value of N9 
in line 110. 

The four fields are set up as arrays 
named A$( ), B${ ), C${ ), and D( ). 
The dollar symbols used with the first 
three indicate that these are strings. 
Field 3, C$( ), is the date, and it could 
be a number rather than a string. But 
since we don't do arithmetic on this 
field, it may be conveniently left as a 
string vaiue. You may want to total or av- 
erage field 4, which is the high score, 
so we'll drop the dollar sign and make 



this field a numehc one. 

Program Modules 

in iines 100-350, the program does a 
little initialization and then reads in the 
data file. If the data file doesn't exist, 
the program warns you of this but al- 
lows you to continue with an empty da- 
tabase. The program will create this 
file once you have entered some data. 
Lines 400-510 ask for some action. 
You have the following options: add, de- 
lete, change (a record), show (the 
file), or quit. Some actions are not avail- 
able if tfie database is empty or full. 

Quit 

Lines 520-760 handle the Quit option, 
if no changes have been made to the 
file or if the database contains no re- 
cords, the program quits immediately. 
Otherwise, the program creates an up- 
dated file called fvlYDATA and writes it 
to disk. This is done carefully so that a 
backup file will exist. The sequence 
scratches the previous backup file; re- 
names the former data file so that It be- 
comes the backup; and, finally, writes 
the new data file. 

Add 

Lines 1000-1160 let you add records 
to the database. Data for the new re- 
cord is requested. Then this record is 
displayed, allowing you to accept or 
cancel it. 

Delete 

Lines 2000-2210 contain the routine to 
delete records. You can select the re- 
cord for deletion. That record is 
shown in detail so that you can confirm 
or cancel the delete request. 

Change 

The routine to change a record is 
found in lines 3000-3190. You are al- 
lowed to select the record to be 
changed. The record is shown in de- 
tail, with the four fields numbered; you 
are asked to select which field to 
change. After any change, you may 
continue to make changes on the 
same record. 

It should be noted that a program 
can be set up to allow only certain 
changes. For example, the high score 
field might be available for modifica- 
tion, but the name fields, once entered. 



might be nonchangeable. 

Display 

Lines 4000-4290 display the records 
on the screen or send them to the print- 
er. The coding assumes a 40-column 
screen, so the data is squeezed to fit. 
The screen display pauses from time 
to time to allow the data to be read. 
Printer output, in contrast, takes advan- 
tage of the wider output area and 
prints all records without pause. 

Specify 

The DELETE and CHANGE commands 
call for a specific record to be select- 
ed. This is done in the subroutine be- 
tween lines 5000-5160. If you don't 
find the desired record, a no-record- 
selected value of may be returned. 

Date 

Lines 8000-8120 handle the date rou- 
tine: You are prompted for a date in 
year/month/day order, This is 
changed to a numeric string within the 
database. Dates held in this way, 
19930214, for example, may be easily 
searched or sorted if necessary. Note 
that you may enter the month either as 
a name or as a number. 

Comments 

Database programs often contain extra 
features not shown here, For example, 
the program might search for selected 
data or produce totals or averages. 
Again, there are related programs (re- 
port generators) that sort and summa- 
rize data, but our simple program is 
kept to a minimum of steps. 

Watch for the limitations of the IN- 
PUT statement. We've mentioned the 
need to stay away from commas and 
colons. As you expand the features of 
your database, keep in mind a few oth- 
er factors. The computer won't like emp- 
ty fields. If you have fields such as mid- 
dle initial, apartment number, or date 
of marriage, be sure to have your pro- 
gram fill unused items with a dummy 
character such as a slash or asterisk. 

Some databases never delete or 
change a record. If you need a 
change, a correcting entry is added. 
That's a valid way to do things, but it 
may cause the data file to grow to an 
unreasonable size. You might find it use- 
ful to reform your data at intervals, say 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-37 



PROGRAMS 



at the start of each year. The old 
database may be kept as an ar- 
chive: the new one vt'ill contain only 
current information. 

The program Database is just a 
start. Plan your own data, and mod- 
ify the program to meet your own 
needs. 

DATABASE 

re 513 REM COPYRIGHT 1993 - COM 
PUTE PUBLICATIONS - ALL 
{SPACE}RIGHTS RESERVED 
AS 100 REM SIMPLE FLAT FILE DA 

TA BASE 
XE 110 N9=50 
QM 120 DIM AS (N9) ,B$(N9) ,CS(N9 

) ,D(N9) 
QH 130 SS="{17 SPACES}" 
JF 140 H95=". . JANFEBMARAPRMAYJ 

UNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDEC" 
KH 203 OPEN 15,8,15 
PR 2ia OPEN 1,8,3,"0:HYDATA,S, 

R" 
AD 220 INPUT#15,E,ES 
PF 233 IF E=0 GOTO 300 
QH 240 CLOSE l:CLOSE 15 
DA 250 PRINT "I CANNOT FIND FI 

LE 'MYDATA'" 
DS 260 INPUT "CONTINUE";X$ 
SR 270 IF X$="Y" OR XS="YES" G 

OTO 400 
MH 28fc END 
JE 300 N=N+1 
DQ 310 INPUT#1,A${N) ,BS (N) ,C$( 

N) ,D(N) 
EF 320 IF ST=0 GOTO 300 
FX 330 CLOSE i:CLOSE 15 
SJ 340 PRIMT N; "RECORDS FOUND 

(SPACE)ON FILE." 
EQ 350 IF N+10>N9 THEN PRINT " 

FILE ALMOST FULLl" 
GB 400 IF N>g THEN PRINT "SHOW 

RJ 410 IF N<N9 THEN PRINT "ADD 



BP 420 

QG 430 
JS 440 
HX 450 
GG 460 
DP 470 
RK 480 
BF 490 
QM 500 
MH 510 
OS 5 20 

XJ 530 
FP 540 

HX 550 
EE 560 
EJ 570 



IF N>0 
TE, CH 
PRINT 
INPUT 
IF N = 
IF XS = 
IF XS = 
IF XS = 
IF N = N 
U' XS = 
IF XS< 
REM QU 
WRITE 
IF F9 = 
PRINT 
ILE!" 
PRINT 
GET XS 
GET XS 




THEN PRINT "DELE 
ANGE, "; 
"QUIT?" 
X5:XS=LEFT$ (X$, 1) 

GOTO 493 
"S" GOTO 4000 
"D" GOTO 2000 
"C" GOTO 3000 
9 GOTO 510 
"A" GOTO 1000 
>"Q" GOTO 400 
IT .. BUT PERHAPS 

FILE 
OR H=0 THEN END 
"READY TO WRITE F 

"PRESS ANY KEY." 

,xs,x$ 

:IF X$="" GOTO 57 



CH 





RESENT 


QR 


2090 


AB 


590 OPEN 15,8,15 






RA 


600 PRINT»15,"S0:MYDATA.OLD 


DA 


2100 


SJ 


610 REM RENAME PREVIOUS DAT 


RX 


2110 




A FILE 


PH 


2120 


XA 


620 PRINT#15,"R0:MYDATA,OLD 


AF 


2130 




3 


•OiMYDATA" 


XQ 


2140 


JQ 


630 REM WRITE NEW MASTER FI 


JM 


2150 




LE 


RJ 


2160 


HS 


64 OPEN 1,8,3,"0:MYDATA,S, 


SS 


2170 




W" 


CH 


2180 


HQ 


650 


[NPUT#15,E,E$ 


GE 


2190 


FE 


663 XF EO0 THEN PRINT E;E$ 


FH 


2200 






CLOSE ItCLOSE 15:END 


FK 


2210 


FE 


670 FOR J=l TO N 






XA 


680 


SRINT#1,AS(J) 


FE 


2220 


HG 


690 


=RINT#1,BS(J) 


QB 


3000 


QG 


700 PRINT#1,CS(J) 


GR 


3010 


JS 


710 


'RINT#1,D(J) 


BM 


3020 


FD 


720 NEXT J 


KS 


3030 


JD 


730 


[NPUT#15,E,SS,E1,E2 






XB 


740 


[F EO0 THEN PRINT E;ES 


SJ 


3040 


DM 


750 CLOSE 1:CL0SE 15 


HR 


3050 


FF 


760 END 


MF 


3060 


RG 


1000 


REM ADD A RECORD 


DS 


3065 


EQ 


1010 


INPUT "LAST NAt1E";A$(N 
+ 1) 






RR 


1020 


INPUT "FIRST NAME";B$( 


EH 


3070 






N + 1) 


PA 


3080 


GX 


1030 


V=N+1:G0SUB 8000 : REM 










GET DATE 


EP 


3090 


HD 


1040 


INPUT "HIGH SCORE";D(N 










+ 1) 


SG 


3130 


KX 


1050 


PRINT 






KJ 


1060 


PRINT A$(N+1) 


JO 


3110 


AS 


1370 


PRINT B5(N+1) 


JG 


3120 


PX 


1030 


PRINT C$(N+1) 






KE 


1090 


PRINT D(N+1) 


BH 


3130 


DG 


1100 


INPUT "IS THE ABOVE OK 

";x$ 


DP 


3140 


QM 


1110 


IF X5="Y" OR XS="YES" 


PG 


3150 






(SPACE)GOTO 1140 


JK 


3160 


JX 


1120 


PRINT ">>> RECORD CANC 










ELLED! <<<" 


FE 


3170 


XA 


1130 


GOTO 400 


RP 


318 


XF 


1140 


N=N+1:F9=1 






PE 


1150 


PRINT N; "RECORDS TOTAL 


XP 


3190 






M 


JS 


4000 


GF 


1160 


GOTO 400 






GE 


2030 


REM DELETE A RECORD 


CM 


4010 


AB 


2010 


GOSUB 5000 






MJ 


2020 


IF X=0 GOTO 400 


BP 


4020 


FD 


2030 


PRINT "READY TO DELETE 


SC 


4030 






RECORD:" 


SM 


4040 


AX 


2040 


PRINT "(2 SPACESl";A$( 


KS 


4050 






X) 


RM 


4060 


ER 


2050 


PRINT "(2 SPACES}";BS( 










X) 


FC 


4070 


FH 


2060 


M=VAL (MIDS (CS{X) ,5,2) ) 






PB 


2065 


PRINT "(2 SPACES}";LEF 
TS(CS(X) ,4) ;MID$(M9S,M 


GH 


4080 






*3,3) ;RIGHTS(C$(X) ,2) 


DE 


4090 


HG 


2070 


PRINT "(2 SPACES}";D(X 


EP 


4100 


PC 


2080 


) 

INPUT "OK TO DELETE" ;X 







s 

IF XS="Y" OR XS="YES" 

{SPACE)GOTO 2120 

PRINT "RECORD >>>NOT<< 

< DELETED!" 

GOTO 400 

N=N-1 , 

IF X>N GOTO 2220 

FOR J=X TO N 

A$ (J)=A$(J + 1) 

BS (J)=B$(J + 1) 

C$(J)=C${J+1) 

D(J)=D(J+1) 

NEXT J 

F9 = l 

PRINT ">>> RECORD DELE 

TED! <<<" 

GOTO 400 

HEM CHANGE A RECORD 

GOSUB 5000 

IF X=0 GOTO 400 

PRINT "READY TO CHANGE 

RECORD:" 
PRINT "1:";A$(X) 
PRINT "2:";BS(X) 
M=VAL{HIDS{C$ (X) ,5,2) } 
PRINT "3:";LEFT${C$(X) 
,4) ;MID${M9$,M*3,3) ;RI 
GHT5(CS(X} ,2) 
PRINT "4:",-D(X) 
INPUT "CHANGE WHICH FI 
ELD (0=NONE)";J 
J=INT (J) ;IF J<1 OR J>4 

THEN J=0 
ON J GOTO 3120,3140,31 
60,3180 
GOTO 400 

INPUT "LAST NAME"; AS (X 
) 

F9=1;G0T0 3040 
INPUT "FIRST NAME";B${ 
X) 

F9=l:G0T0 3040 
V=X:GOSUB 8000 : REM G 
ET DATE 

F9=1:G0T0 3040 
INPUT "HIGH SC0RE";D(X 
) 

F9=1:G0T0 3040 
REM SHOW - DISPLAY OR 
{SPACE}PRINT 
INPUT "SCREEN OR PRINT 
ER";XS 

X$=LEFTS(XS,1) 
IF X$="P" GOTO 4190 
IF X$<>"S" GOTO 4010 
J = l 

K=J+20:IF K=N THEN K=N 
+ 1 

PRINT LEFTS (AS (J)+S5,l 
3); 
PRINT LEFT$(BS{J)+S$,1 

0); 

M=VAL(MIDS(C$(J) ,5,2)) 
PRINT LEFT$(C$(J) ,4) ;M 
ID5(M9S,M*3,3) ;RIGHT${ 
CS(J),2); 



G-38 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



DB 


4110 


EQ 


4120 


5A 


4130 


BR 


4140 


BM 


4150 


RF 


4160 


RS 


4170 


HD 


4130 


DP 


4190 


KQ 


4209 


BF 


4210 


MB 


4220 


BJ 


4230 


JQ 


4240 


EE 


42S0 


hk 


4260 


QG 


4270 


MB 


4280 


MM 


4290 


XM 


5000 


JM 


5010 


XK 


5020 


HS 


5030 


AF 


5040 


BR 


50 50 


BG 


5060 


CR 


5070 


QO 


5080 


DF 


5090 


SD 


5100 


AH 


5110 


SE 


5120 


JB 


5130 


SS 


5140 


KM 


5150 


XB 


5160 


XP 


8000 


CM 


8010 


CQ 


8020 


FD 


8030 


JM 


8040 


SX 


8050 


HP 


3060 



PRINT RIGHTS (SS+STRS (D 
(J)) ,7) 

J=J + 1:IF JOK GOTO 417 


PRINT "(2 SPACES 3 >> MO 
RE - PRESS AtJy KEY <<" 
;CHRS(145) 
GET X$,X$,XS,X5 
GST XS: IF XS^"" GOTO 4 
150 

GOTO 4060 
IF J<=N GOTO 4070 
GOTO 430 

REM SEND TO PRINTER 
OPEN 4,4 
FOR J=l TO N 

PRINT#4,LEFT$(AS{J)+SS 

,20); 

PRINT#4,LEFTS(B$(J)+SS 

,15); 

M=VAL(MID$(CS(J) ,5,2) ) 
PRINT#4,LEFT$(C$(J) ,4) 
;MID?{H9S,M*3,3) JRIGHT 
S(CS(J) ,2); 

PRINT#4 , RIGHTS (S$+STR$ 
(D(J)) ,10) 
NEXT J 
CLOSE 4 
GOTO 400 

PRINT "SELECT WHICH RE 
CORD:" 
J = l 

K=J+20:IF K>N THEN K=N 
FOR S=J TO K 
PRINT RIGHTS (S$+STR$ (S 
) ,3) ;": ";LEFTS(AS(S) + 
SS,12); 
PRINT LEFTS (BS (S)+SS,6 

); 

PRINT LEFTS (CS(S) +SS,8 

); 

PRINT RIGHTS (SS+STR5(D 
(S)) ,7) 
NEXT S 

PRINT ">> SELECT RECOR 
D NUMBER, OR "; 
IF KON THEN PRINT "FO 
R MORE <<" 

IF K=N THEN PRINT "TO 
{SPACElQUIT <<" 
INPQT X 

X=INT(X)!IF X>N THEN X 
= 
J = K 

IF X=0 AND KON GOTO 5 
020 

RETURN 

INPUT "YEAR";Y 
IF Y<1900 OR Y>9999 GO 
TO 8000 

INPUT "MONTH" ;HS 
M=VAL (MS) :IF M>0 AND M 
<13 GOTO 8053 
MS = LEFTS (H$ + SS, 3) 
FOR J=l TO 12 
IF MS=MIDS{M9S,J*3,3) 
{SPACE }TKEN M=J 



FG 8070 NEXT J 

QQ 8080 IF H<1 OR M>12 GOTO 80 

20 
SE 8099 INPUT "DAY";D 
HQ 8100 IF D<1 OR D>31 GOTO 80 

90 
RK 8110 CS(V)=RIGHT5 (STR$(Y) ,4 

)+RIGKTS{STR$(M+100f ,2 

)+RIGHT$(STRStD+100) ,2 

) 
RS 8120 RETURN 

Jim Butterfield writes "Machine Lan- 
guage, " a regular Gazette column, l-ie 
lives in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 



ML MACROS 



By Cameron Kaiser 
On the side of my computer I have 
taped a list of SYS codes: SYS 62913; 
SYS 49152,X,YZ; SYS 64738; SYS 
57812"fi[8name",D,S; and so on, The on- 
ly way I can keep thiem straight is to use 
them or write them down; otherwise, I'll for- 
get them. 

Unfortunately, I still have problems 
keeping all those SYS codes straight. 
This is where fvIL f^acros comes in. All 
you have to do is remember one SYS 
code, and with a simple symbol that you 
define, you can call up an infinite number 
of ML programs easily and quickly. And 
ML fvlacros can prove a boon to program- 
mers by providing an easily customized 
and handy interface to their programs. 

Entering the Program 

f^L Macros is written in machine lan- 
guage. To enter it, you'll need MLX, 
our machine language entry program; 
see "Typing Aids" elsewhere in this is- 
sue. When the program prompts for 
starting and ending addresses, enter 
the following. 

Starting address: CEOO 
Ending address: CFE7 

Be sure to save a copy of the program 
before exiting fvlLX. 

Running the Program 

To install ML Macros, simply load the 
program with the ,8,1 extension, After 
it loads, type SYS 53052, press Return, 
and then type NEWto clear pointers. If 
you want to. load and run ML Macros 
from within a BASIC program, add 
these lines to your program. 



IFft=0 THEN A=1:L0flD "ML MACR0S",8,1 

1 iFA=1 THEN SYS 53052 

Of course, you can use whatever line 
numbers are convenient for you. 

Using tlie Program 

To converse with ML Macros, you'll 
use commands that all begin with the 
# symbol. In ML Macros the first com- 
mand defines a macro. To use it, type 
#,2, ASCC'character"), address. Char- 
acter is any symbol not reserved by 
the computer. Most punctuation marks 
are acceptable. Address is the starting 
address of the machine language sub- 
routine that will be triggered when you 
enter the character. For example, 
#,2,ASC("&").64738 will program the 
ampersand to reset the computer if it is 
entered as a command. 

The second command lets you 
save a set of macros to disk. To use it, 
type #,3," filename", dev,1. where file- 
name is any legal filename and dev is 
the device number of your drive, usu- 
ally 8, This command also saves the 
ML Macros code to disk with the mac- 
ros so that one LOAD command will 
give you easy access to macros and 
ML code on all your disks. 

The final command reloads a set of 
macros from disk. To use it, type 
#,4,"filename",dev,1. Filename and 
dev are used the same as they are in 
the SA'\/E command. 

ML Macros isn't fussy about its in- 
put. It's possible to define two macros 
to the same character; however, only 
the first macro defined will be honored. 
This means you cannot erase a macro 
by defining its character to another ML 
routine. Should you wish to wipe the 
macro memory, type POKE 52992, 3. 
Should you wish to erase only the last 
macro defined, type POKE 52992, 
PEEK(52992)-3. 

While ML Macros was designed 
with compatibility in mind — it doesn't 
modify IRQ, NMI, or Kernal vectors and 
occupies a rarely used portion of mem- 
ory — any modifications to locations 
52736-53223 ($CE00-$CFE7) will 
cause erratic behavior when ML Mac- 
ros or any macro defined under it is in- 
voked. This doesn't apply to BASIC, 
but it does apply to some ML routines. 
Good luck with your ML programs, and 
I hope ML Macros makes them easier. 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE G-39 



PROGRAMS/THE AUTOMATIC PROOFREADER 



ML MACROS 
















CEO0; 


23 


0C 


CF 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


2C 


CE08: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


A5 


CEL0: 


30 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


AD 


CE18: 


30 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


B5 


CE20: 


03 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


BD 


CE28: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


C5 


CE30: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


CD 


CE3a: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


D5 


CE40: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


DD 


CE48: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


E5 


CE50: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


ED 


CE58: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


09 


F5 


CE60: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


FD 


CE68: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


06 


CE7 0: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


0E 


CE78: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


16 


CEaO: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


IE 


CESS: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


26 


CE90- 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


2E 


CE98: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


36 


CEA0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


3E 


CEA8: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


46 


CEB0 


00 


00 





00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


4E 


CEB8 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


56 


CEC0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


5E 


CEC8 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


66 


CED0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


6E 


CED8 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


76 


CEE0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


7E 


CEE8 


00 


90 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


86 


CEF0 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


8E 


CEF8 


00 


00 


4C 


DB 


CF 


4C 


98 


CF 


8E 


CFO0 


03 


00 


00 


20 


FD 


AE 


23 


9E 


AC 


CF08 


AD 


4C 


01 


B3 


20 


03 


CF 


CO 


AA 


CF10 


01 


F0 


0F 


ca 


02 


F0 


E6 


CO 


BC 


CF18 


03 


F0 


DF 


C0 


04 


F0 


15 


4C 


D7 


CF20 


E7 


A7 


4C 


AE 


A7 


00 


08 


A9 


4C 


CF2a 


01 


8D 


01 


CF 


4C 


AE 


A7 


A9 


DE 


CF30 


00 


4C 


29 


CF 


20 


73 


00 


4C 


20 


CF38 


8F 


CF 


60 


0D 


A9 


47 


A0 


CF 


EB 


CF40 


8D 


08 


03 


8C 


09 


03 


60 


20 


07 


CF48 


.73 


00 


A2 


00 


DD 


00 


CE 


P0 


73 


CF50 


2C 


E8 


E8 


E8 


EC 


00 


CF 


00 


C3 


CF58 


:F3 


20 


79 


00 


4C 


E7 


A7 


8E 


09 


CF60 


:02 


CF 


20 


73 


00 


20 


6B 


CF 


57 


CF68 


:4C 


E7 


A7 


AE 


02 


CF 


E8 


BD 


E6 


CF70 


:00 


CE 


E8 


BC 


03 


CE 


85 


FE 


Fl 


CF7a 


:84 


FF 


6C 


FE 


00 


AD 


01 


CF 


60 


CF83 


:F0 


DD 


20 


73 


00 


F0 


D8 


DD 


9E 


CF88 


:00 


CE 


F0 


D3 


4C 


82 


CF 


20 


63 


CF90 


:D4 


El 


20 


A7 


F4 


4C 


AE 


A7 


6F 


CF98 


:20 


03 


CF 


98 


AE 


00 


CF 


90 


3F 


CFA0 


:00 


CE 


EE 


00 


CF 


20 


FD 


AE 


7B 


CFA8 


:20 


9E 


AD 


20 


F7 


B7 


A5 


14 


B5 


CFBO 


:AE 


00 


CF 


9D 


00 


CE 


EE 


00 


94 


CFBe 


:CF 


A5 


15 


9D 


01 


CE 


EE 


00 


47 


CFC0 


:CF 


4C 


AE 


A7 


20 


04 


El 


A9 


6D 


CFC8 


:00 


85 


FD 


A9 


CE 


85 


FE 


A9 


58 


CFD0 


:FD 


A2 


E8 


A0 


CF 


20 


D8 


FF 


EF 


CFD8 


:4C 


AE 


A7 


20 


73 


00 


4C 


C4 


3A 


CFE0 


:CF 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


68 



Cameron Kaiser is a senior at Luther- 
an Higi-i in San Diego. His interests in- 
clude Pink Floyd, basketball, rock mu- 
sic, and his nine-year-old Commodore. 
He lives in La Mesa. California. □ 

G-40 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



The Automatic Proofreader helps you 
type in program listings for the 128 and 
64 and prevents nearly every kind of 
typing mistake. 

Type in Proofreader exactly as list- 
ed. Because the program can't check 
itself, be sure to enter each line care- 
fully to avoid typographical errors or oth- 
er mistakes. Don't omit any lines, even 
if they contain unusual commands. Af- 
ter you've finished, save a copy of the 
program before running it. 

Next, type RUN and press Return. Af- 
ter the program displays the message 
Proofreader Active, you're ready to 
type in a BASIC program. 

Every time you finish typing a line 
and press Return, Proofreader displays 
a two-leiter checksum in the upper left 
corner of the screen. Compare this re- 
sult with the two-letter checksum print- 
ed to the left of the line in the program 
listing. If the letters match, the line prob- 
ably was typed correctly. If not, check 
for your mistake and correct the line. Al- 
so, be sure not to skip any lines. 

Proofreader ignores spaces not en- 
closed in quotation marks, so you can 
omit or add spaces between keywords 
and still see a matching checksum. 
Spaces inside quotes are almost al- 
ways significant, so the program pays 
attention to them. 

Proofreader does not accept key- 
word abbreviations (for example, ? in- 
stead of PRINT). If you use abbrevi- 
ations, you can still check the line by 
listing it, moving the cursor back to the 
line, and pressing Return. 

If you're using Proofreader on the 
128, do not perform any GRAPHIC com- 
mands while Proofreader is active. 
When you perform a command like 
GRAPHIC 1, the computer moves eve- 
rything at the start of BASIC program 
space — including the Proofreader — to 
another memory area, causing Proof- 
reader to crash. The same thing hap- 
pens if you run any program with a 
GRAPHIC command while Proofreader 
is in memory. 

Though Proofreader doesn't interfere 
with other BASIC operations, it's a 
good idea to disable it before running 
another program. To disable it, turn the 
computer off and then on, A gentler 
method is to SYS to the computer's 
built-in reset routine (65341 for the 128, 
64738 for the 64). 



AUTOMATIC PROOFREADER 

CLR 

10 VE=PEEK{772)+256*PEEK(773) : 
LO=43:HI=44: PRINT" {CLR} 
fWHT] AUTOMATIC PROOFREADER 
ESPACE}FOR "; 
20 IF VE=42364 THEM PRINT "64" 
30 IF VE=17165 THEN LO=45:HI=4 

6:WAIT CLR:PRINT"128" 
40 SA={PEEK(LO)+256*PEEK(HI))+ 
6: FOR J=SA TO SA+166:READ B 
:POKE J,B:CH=CH+B:NEXT 
50 IF CHO2057O THEN PRINT "*E 
BROR* CHECK TYPING IN DATA 
{SPACE} STATEMENTS": END 
60 FOR J=l TO 5:READ RF,LF,HF: 
RS=SA+RF:HB=INT (RS/256) :LB= 
RS-(256*HB) 
70 CH=CH+RF+LF+HF:POKE SA+LF,L 

B:POKE SA+HF,HB:NEXT 
80 IF CHO22054 THEN PRINT "*E 
RROR* RELOAD PROGRAM AND CH 
ECK FINAL LINE":END 
90 IF VE=17165 THEN POKE SA+14 
,22:POKE SA+ia,23:POKESA+29 
,224:P0KESR+139,224 
100 POKE SA+149,PEEK(772) :POKE 
SA+15g,PEEK(773) :PRINT" 
{CLR} PROOFREADER ACTIVE" 
110 SYS SAiPOKE HI,PEEK{HI)+1: 
POKE (PEEK(LO)+256*PEEK(HI 
) ) -1,0: NEW 
120 DATA120,169,73,141,4,3,169 
,3,141,5,3,88,96,165,20,13 
3,167 
130 DATA165,21,133,168,169,0,1 
41,0,255,162,31,181,199,15 
7,227 
140 DATA3, 202, 16, 248, 169, 19, 32 
,210, 255, 169, IB, 32, 210, 255 
,160 
150 DATA0, 132, 180, 132, 176, 136, 
230,180,200,185,0,2,240,46 
,201 
160 DATA34,208,8,72,165,176,73 
,255,13 3,176,104,7 2,201,32 
,208 
170 DATA7, 165, 176, 208, 3, 104, 20 
8, 2 26, 104, 166, 180. 24, 165,1 
67 
180 OATA121,0,2,133,167,165,16 
8,105,0,133,168,202,208,23 
9,240 
190 DATA202, 165, 167,69,168, 72, 
41,15,163,185,211,3,32,210 
,255 
200 DATA104,74,74,74,74,168,13 
5,211,3,32,21(3,25 5,162,31, 
189 
210 DATA227,3,149,199,292, 16,2 
48,169,146,32,210,255,76,8 
6,137 
220 DATA65,66,67,68,69,70,71,7 

2,74,75,77,80,81,82,83,88 
230 DATA 13,2,7,167,31,32,151, 
116,117,151,128,129,167,13 
6,137 



REVIEWS 



TANDY 
SENSATION! 

Tired of computers whose 
names look like catalog or- 
der numbers? Ready for a 
machine that does more 
than merely boot up or run 
Windows? Need a little fan- 
fare before you start punch- 
ing numbers into your 
spreadsheet? 

Probably not. Most likely, 
you're more concerned with 
getting a computer that 
runs quickly and efficiently 
at a good price — one that 
comes with plenty of soft- 
ware, a sharp monitor, and 
worthwhile extras like a 
mouse and advanced 
sound. Fortunately, the Tan- 
dy Sensation! offers all that 
along with its cutesy name, 
colorful graphical user inter- 
face, and flashy introductory 
screen. 

The Sensation! is a multi- 
media PC, meaning it has a 
CD-ROM drive and meets 
the MPC hardware stan- 
dards as defined by the 
MPC Marketing Council 
(see Test Lab in the Decem- 
ber 1992 issue of COM- 
PUTE). It also has a 107MB 
hard drive, a 3y2-inch flop- 
py drive, a 2400-bps mo- 
dem (4800-bps for fax com- 
munications), a 486SX proc- 
essor running at 25 MHz, a 
standard 101 -key keyboard, 
a two-button Tandy mouse, 
stereo MPC sound, and a Su- 
per VGA monitor running in 
1024 X 768 noninterlaced 
mode. Loaded with plenty 
of software, including CD- 
ROM programs, this system 
gives you enough to keep 
you busy until the next con- 
gressional elections. 

Forget about sitting 
through any tedious installa- 
tion programs. Despite its 
wealth of features, getting 
started with the Sensation! 
couldn't be simpler. All you 



do is take the unit out of its 
box; plug the monitor, key- 
board, and mouse cables in- 
to the receptacles labeled 
for them; run the phone 
cord provided from the mo- 
dem to the nearest jack; 
and plug in the PC and mon- 
itor. Turn on the power but- 
ton at the front of the unit — 



es them under such logical 
headings as In Touch and 
In the Know. Need to type a 
memo? Try Windows' Write 
program, or the truncated 
version of Microsoft Word 
included with Microsoft 
Works. Planning a trip? Try 
Travel Planner, which organ- 
izes all your important vaca- 




Once past the Tandy Sensation! 's exclamatory name and heraldic 
Introductory screen, you'll find a versatile multimedia PC. 



it's clearly marked, and it's 
distinct and separate from 
the reset button — and with- 
in moments the Sensation! 
announces itself with .a 
trumpetlike fanfare, Another 
few seconds, and you're in 
WinMate, Tandy's brightly 
colored, talking Windows 
companion. 

From there you're only a 
few clicks of the mouse but- 
ton away from hours of fun 
and/or productivity. Win- 
Mate takes you through 
your programs in much the 
same way that Windows 
does; it just enhances the 
icons, sets them against viv- 
id backdrops, and organiz- 



tion information into one log- 
ical file. Want to know who 
invented the cotton gin? 
Look it up in the Concise Co- 
lumbia Encyclopedia. 

There's plenty more soft- 
ware where that came 
from — including Bartlett's 
Quotations, The World Alma- 
nac, Phoenix MicroFAX. and 
startup programs for Ameri- 
ca Online, Prodigy, and The 
Sierra Network — accessible 
from the moment your Sensa- 
tion! powers up. I installed 
and used a few programs of 
my own, including XyWrite 
and The Norton Antivirus, 
and they all worked fine, 
even when modifications 



were necessary to the Sen- 
sationl's CONFIG.SYS or AU- 
TOEXEC.BAT files. I tried 
nearly every preinstalled pro- 
gram at least once, and I 
never had a problem except 
the occasional prompts to 
put a missing CD in the CD- 
ROM drive, (It would be 
nice if the Sensationl's Win- 
Mate icons indicated which 
CD to use for which pro- 
gram, but that's hardly a sig- 
nificant concern.) 

Those CD prompts take lit- 
tle effort to fulfill. The CD- 
ROM drive sits in the upper 
right corner at the front of 
this compact PC (its foot- 
pnnt is 15 X 15.5 x 4.2 inch- 
es), to the right of the floppy 
drive and above the volume 
buttons and jacks for micro- 
phone and headphones. 
You open the CD-ROM 
drive by pushing it in a little, 
after which the CD tray 
slides out. Unlike some mul- 
timedia machines, the Sensa- 
tion! requires no CD caddy. 
You simply place the CD in 
its slot and manually close 
the drawer, and the disc be- 
gins to spin. As a music fan, 
i enjoyed being able to lis- 
ten to Thelonious Monk, Je- 
sus Jones, and Charlie Rich 
CDs played in the back- 
ground on the Sensation! 
while I did my work. Like the 
Sensationl's keyboard and 
mouse, the CD drawer 
proved a little stiff and 
clunky, though not debili- 
tatingly so. While not blinding- 
ly fast, both the CD-ROM 
and hard drives gave me 
the speed I'd expect from a 
486 machine. 

The logically organized us- 
er's guide provides clear, 
helpful information for nov- 
ice and veteran alike. I'd 
like to be able to tell you the 
technical support for the Sen- 
sation! did as well, but I 
don't know. The computer 
ran so well that ! never 
found an excuse to call the 

rvlAY 1993 COMPUTE 97 



REVIEWS 



company and find out. The 
biggest drawback I found 
with the Sensation! had noth- 
ing to do with technical sup- 
port, anyway: I missed hav- 
ing a SVi-inch floppy drive 
to load my old programs 
that came in that format. 
Thai's the price you pay, I 
suppose, for having a hard 
drive, Sy^-inch floppy drive, 
and CD-ROM drive. The Sen- 
sation! also has a crisp, col- 
orful monitor; a sturdy mo- 
dem; and MIDI connector 
cables to facilitate the use 
of the computer's multime- 
dia capabilities. 

Looking for a computer 
that does a good job on a 
variety of tasks, comes load- 
ed with software and CDs, 
and offers multimedia func- 
tions? Don't let the Sensa- 
tionl's flash fool you. Behind 
all the lights and sounds, 
you'll find an excellent ma- 
chine that does a lot and 
does all of it well. 

EDDIE HUFFMAN 

Tandy Sensation!— $2,398.95 

TANDY 

1800 One Tandy Ctr. 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 

(817)390-3011 

Circle Reader Service Number 434 

ROOMS FOR 
WINDOWS 

Whether you're a Windows 
novice or power user, 
Rooms for Windows can 
make your computing life a 
lot easier. Rooms offers a 
convenient and simple way 
to multitask like a master 
and organize your applica- 
tions and files — both Win- 
dows and DOS. The Rooms 
metaphor — with its concrete 
images of rooms, suites, 
and doors — makes the pro- 
gram fairly intuitive; learning 
is also enhanced by plenty 
of online help and a well-de- 
signed, slim manual, 
With Rooms, instead of 

98 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



working in a window, you 
work with applications, files, 
and other objects in a room, 
(Each room is a separate 
Windows desktop, even 
though only one instance of 
Windows is actually run- 
ning.) Several rooms occu- 
py a suite, and doors ena- 
ble you to enter and exit the 



between projects and/or ap- 
plications and files in Win- 
dows and DOS is as simple 
as double-clicking on a 
Door icon. And there you 
go: You're multitasking and 
well organized to boot. 
What's more, you can cre- 
ate different suites for differ- 
ent tasks or people. If you 



If r- 



■■■■■■■■ 



hkpj^ I , ^ IB ■■'■ ■"■■•. J I 



:i r, -' r -If ■• 





Open a new door Into Windows computing witli Rooms for 
Windows, a simplified way to organize your applications and files. 



rooms. From the Suite Over- 
view, you can see at a 
glance all the rooms in your 
suite: They appear side by 
side as large squares. 

Each room can contain a 
specific application, such 
as a database program and 
files, or all applications and 
files for a specific client or 
project. For instance, a News- 
letter Room can hold a desk- 
top publishing program, 
graphics application, and all 
newsletter files. But what if 
you want to draft newsletter 
stories in your DOS word 
processor? Simply create a 
full-screen DOS Room, The 
screen looks as if you exited 
to your word processor in 
DOS, except that when you 
finish your DOS document, 
you return to the DOS Room 
and can enter the door to 
your Newsletter Room. 

Switching back and forth 



share the computer withi 
someone, each can have 
his or her own suite of 
rooms, 

A special room in a suite 
is the Overlay Room, be- 
cause any application you 
put inside it automatically ap- 
pears in all rooms. Having 
Program Manager in Over- 
lay enables you to start up 
Windows applications from 
any room. With your word 
processor in Overlay, it's 
available in whatever room 
you need it. It's also handy 
to include Windows accesso- 
ries such as Cardfile and Cal- 
endar in Overlay, so you 
can grab or jot down names 
and dates from any room. 

You can also share a doc- 
ument between rooms by us- 
ing the Include command; 
this is similar to placing a 
document in Overlay. A 
Copy command enables 



you to copy a file to another 
room, such as a contract, 
and make changes to it with- 
out changing the original. 
You can also drag an object 
out of one room and into an- 
other with Move, 

Rooms runs as an applica- 
tion under Windows; when 
you start a Windows ses- 
sion, all rooms and suites 
you've created are automat- 
ically opened and ready for 
business. To conserve sys- 
tem resources, you create 
shortcut buttons in a room. 
Buttons may store a special 
Windows application or an 
exit to a full-screen DOS 
room, or they may execute 
a DOS command such as 
copying files for backup. 
The application or file isn't 
opened until you click on 
the button icon. 

Overall, Rooms for Win- 
dows is a practical way to 
take the hassle out of get- 
ting the full benefits of the 
Windows environment. 

BETH C FISHKIND 

IBM PC or compatibls (80286 com- 
patible. 80386SX/DX compaiible rec- 
ommended), 2MB RAM (4MB recom- 
mended), EGA or VGA, Windows 3.0 
or 3. 1 ; mouse recommended — S59 

XSOFT 

3400 HillviewAve. 

Palo Alto, CA 94303 

(800) 526-6775 

Circle Reader Service Number 435 

COLORADO 
MEMORY 
SYSTEMS JUMBO 
TRAKKER 250 

I needed help. I was using 
a 200MB hard drive with 
Stacker 3.0, so I had over 
300MB of programs and da- 
ta to back up. 

Norton Backup for Win- 
dows told me I needed 187 
high-density 3'/2-inch disks 
to back it all up. To top it 
off, my computer, a porta- 



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Barbie's Gamorojs Quest 27 

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Caesar 37 

CardDriver 40 

Castles 2: Siege & Conquest ,..,37 

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Crviliration , 43 

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OutofthisWorW 37 

Paladin H 37 

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Quest for Dlory 3 43 

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RotMjSport forWiridffffS 37 

Rome CALL 

Rules of Engagement 2 40 

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Shartow of ttie Sorcerer 33 

Shadow Ur^is 32 

Shadow President 43 

Sharif on B'idge 37 

Shanf on Bridge for Windows 32 

Sim Ant 37 

SmUre 43 

SmCIIy 30 

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The Dagger of Amorv Ra -..,.43 

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Daililarais 43 

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Design Vour&An Railroad 37 

□ragon'sLairS 37 

Dune 2 37 

ECO Quest 2 32 

Empiia Deluxe J7 

Eric the Unready 37 

Eye of the BaKoUaf III .43 

Siobal Effect 33 

Grard Slam Bridge 2 33 

GODS 27 

Guy Spy 32 

Heaven and Earth 32 

Horre Alone 2 30 

HongKong Mahjong Pro 33 

Hoyles Booli of Games 3 32 

TtieHurtians 27 

Indiana Jones 4;Faie of Atlantis 40 

Inspector Gadget 37 

Island of Or, Brain 32 

Kjng's Quest 5,.. 37 

Kirk's Quest 6 .47 

Learner Goddesses PhoOos 2 ...43 

Legend of Kyrafldia 37 

Leisure Larry 5 37 



Sim City GiaohiiAr^clenl Cities. ,24 
Sm Ci^ GraphKiFulure Cities ..,24 

SmEanh 41 

Sim Earth lor windows 43 

Solitaire for Windows 32 

Space Ace 2: Serf's Revenge ,..,37 

Space Quest 5 37 

Spaceward Ho! 37 

Spear of Dastrny 37 

Speedball2 27 

SiKllcastirg 301 37 

SiMllciaftlAspects ol Valor 37 

Star Control 2 37 

Star Trek 25th Anniversary 37 

Strllfe CwnmantlBr 52 

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Stunt IslaiW 37 

Supef JeopaitJy 27 

Syper Space Invaders 27 

Super Telris 32 

Terminator 2029 43 

Tracon for Windows ..47 

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TurtlesAcade Game 32 

TuitlesiMainatian Missions 32 

Uttima 7: The Black Gate 52 

UfJma 7's Forge of Virtue 22 

Ullima 7: Serpent Isle 52 

Ultima Undeni^orld 52 



ULTRHBOTS 



By eiectronii: Arts . 



Lemmings 2 32 

Life & Death IhThe Brain 27 

Lord of the Rings II: Two Towers 37 
Lost Files of Stieriock Holmes, ,.47 

Lost Treasures of tnfocom ,.. 43 

Lost Treasures of Infocom 2 37 

TtieLoslTnlK 27 

Magic Candle 3 40 



Ultima Undenvorld 2 52 

Ultima Tri'ogy 2 52 

UBrabots 39 

Virtual Reality Stodio 2.0 57 

Veil of Darkness 39 

Waxwortrs 37 

Wt'eei of ^ohur>e w/ Vanna 27 

Wfiere m Time is Carmen 32 



Where in USA IS Carmen 32 

Wriere in USA Carmen De!uAe„,.47 
WJiere In World Is Cannen VGA, ,47 

Wing 2 Special Operations 1 27 

Wing 2 Special Operations 2 27 

Wing Commander 2 52 

Wing Commandei 2 Speech Pak 21 
! Commandei Deluxe 52 



WARGAMES 



Air Dual 37 

Aces of the Pacrtc 47 

Air Force Commander 37 

Ancient Art of War in S*(ies .,37 

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A,T,P, Right Commander ,37 

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Ancient An of Wa' 31 

B-17 Rying Fortress 42 

Campaign 37 

Canler Stnke 43 

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CarTl«rf War Cm$tuctJon 5et.37 
Command W) Classic 22 



SPORTS 



4D Belong 22 

Bill Elliot's Nascar Challenge 32 

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Front Page: Sports Football 43 

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Jack Nicklaus Tour DisHor 2 ,,,20 

Jordan In Flight,,,,... 39 

John Madden Football 2„,„.. 33 

links 386 PRO 42 

Links: Mauna Kea Course Disk .,20 

Links: Course Disks IS 

MIcroLeegue BaseOall 4 ..,42 

NCM:Ro3d to Final Four 2 CALL 

Na Pro League Football 47 

NFL 32 

NFL Full Motion Video 47 

PGATourGolf 32 

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Wayne Gnetzkj Hockey 3 37 




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Virtual Pilot puts firepower right 
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Commanche: Maximum Overkill, 4? 
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F15 Strike Eagle 3 47 

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Harpoon,,, 30 

Harpoon BattleSet 1 2 or 3 21 

Harpoon BattleSet # 4 25 

Harpoon Challenger Pak 46 

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Line in ttie Sand 27 

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Task Fofce 1942 43 

V for Victory 47 

X-Wine 45 



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nuMsmnnM 

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ZooKeeper 37 



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REVIEWS 



ble Toshiba T6400. had on- 
ly one slot, which I didn't 
want to devote to an inter- 
face card for a tape back- 
up system. 

Fortunately, several man- 
ufacturers make paral- 
lel-port tape backup drives, 
including Colorado Memory 
Systems, a company with a 
reputation for selling quality 
tape drives at affordable pric- 
es. I looked at the Jumbo 
Trakker 250. It should work 
with any PC that has a par- 
allel port, including note- 
book, laptop, and desktop 
computers. 

As you might expect, the 
parallel-port tape drives are 
somewhat slower than stan- 
dard internal or external 
tape drives. A 33-MHz 
80386 can back up 10MB in 
roughly three minutes with a 
Jumbo Trakker; it takes 
roughly two minutes with a 
standard tape drive. The 
slower speed isn't a prob- 
lem in most cases, as you 
can get the system going 
and come back to it when 
it's finished. If your comput- 
er has a bidirectional paral- 
lel port, you can pick up 
some extra speed. (1 wasn't 
able to get this setting to 
work with the T6400; Colora- 
do Memory Systems is cur- 
rently working on a fix). And 
if you have an EPP (En- 
hanced Parallel Port) on 
your system, the Trakker 
can actually move data as 
fast as a standard tape 
drive. 

The Jumbo Trakker 
comes in two models: the 
120 (a 120MB system for 
$448) and the 250 (a 
250MB system for $548). 
These capacities are based 
on data compression, so 
you may get more or less 
than this amount on a single 
tape. 

If you have additional da- 
ta to back up, the software 
will prompt you to insert ad- 

100 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



ditional tapes. Both models 
use standard DC-2000 mini- 
cartridges and QIC format- 
ting and provide a parallel- 
port pass-through for your 
printer. 

The DOS-based software 
is easy to use and well doc- 
umented. The Windows soft- 
ware wasn't ready in time 



MIGHT AND 
AAAGIC: CLOUDS 
OF XEEK 

Bigger, brighter, and bolder 
than ever. New World Com- 
puting's latest flight of fanta- 
sy is so charismatic that it 




Colorado Memory Systems Jumbo Trakker 250: slower than a 
conventional tape backup, great for notebooks and laptops. 



for this review, but it should 
allow you to run other pro- 
grams while you're perform- 
ing a backup. 

Overall, I like the Trakker 
250 very much. If you have 
a notebook or laptop, it's 
your best solution for back- 
ing up a medium to large 
drive. 

And if you have more 
than one PC and don't mind 
the slower speed, you can 
use the Trakker on ail your 
PC-compatible systems by In- 
stall ing the software on 
each and moving the drive 
from machine to machine. 

DAVID ENGLISH 

Colorado Memory Systems Jumbo 
Trakker 250— S548 lor 250MB mod- 
el, $448 tor 120MB model 

COLORADO MEMORY SYSTEMS 

800 S. Taft Ave. 

Loveland, CO 80537 

(800) 845-7905 

(303) 669-6500 

Circle Reader Service Number 436 



nearly jumps off the screen. 
From the opening credits — 
with a clever parody of 
MGM's Leo the Lion — to the 
rogues' gallery at game's 
end, designer Jon Van Can- 
eghem displays the confi- 
dence of an artist at the top 
of his form. 

Caneghem utilizes the 
same dynamic front-end of 
his previous hit. Might and 
Magic III. Might and Magic: 
Clouds of Xeen may well be 
the perfect role-playing inter- 
face: detailed, yet stream- 
lined, and colorfully intuitive. 
The main display window is 
among the largest in the gen- 
re, pulling players into this 3- 
D fantasy world, Even the or- 
nate window frame is interac- 
tive, featuring unique animat- 
ed signs of nearby danger, 
secret passages, and active 
spells. Character portraits al- 
so provide visual clues to 
your party's health: Facial ex- 



pressions change to show 
conditions such as pain, 
unconsciousness, fatigue, 
and insanity. Select any por- 
trait to display the icon-driv- 
en character screen, where 
you can view Individual attrib- 
utes, track party statistics, 
and manage inventories. Eve- 
ry aspect of the game is eas- 
ily accessed via keyboard 
or mouse. 

Beyond these familiar trap- 
pings, the game's story line 
takes the series in an entire- 
ly new direction. Your party 
of six adventurers gathers 
in the town of Vertigo, 
summoned through their 
dreams by Crodo, adviser 
to King Burlock. He warns of 
a stranger who has ap- 
peared, claiming to be the 
King's long-lost brother. The 
impostor is in fact Lord 
Xeen, a demonic fiend who 
imprisons Crodo and poi- 
sons the land from his elu- 
sive cloud kingdom. Your 
quest: Search the vast neth- 
er world, battle hordes of ter- 
rible creatures, and put an 
end to Xeen's rule. 

The game world is huge: 
five towns, nine mines, 
three towers, three cloud 
worlds, four castles, five dun- 
geons, three caverns, and 
24 unique outdoor areas. 
The game's open-ended de- 
sign encourages spontane- 
ous exploration, allowing 
you to branch off on dozens 
of miniquests. Although 
most have nothing directly 
to do with your main objec- 
tive, these subplots earn 
characters experience and 
rewards while adding flavor 
and variety The game also 
contains built-in links to the 
Darksideof Xeen, a forthcom- 
ing sequel. 

Other new features in- 
clude two initial play 
modes: Adventurer and War- 
rior. The first, designed for 
novice players, softens the 
combat aspects of play. 



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REVIEWS 



The second unleashes full- 
tilt carnage from the game's 
roster of 90 ghastly crea- 
tures. These oversized char- 
acters, beautifully rendered 
in 256-color VGA, spring to 
life with vivid animation and 
chilling sound effects. Fend 
them off with specially mod- 
ified weapons and armor, or 
master each of the 76 
unique cleric and sorcerer 
spells. Veteran players will 
be especially pleased with 
the new adventurer's jour- 
nal, which automatically re- 
cords important clues, loca- 
tions, and quest items. 

The only shortcoming 
worth mentioning is the rath- 
er rudimentary nature of 
your quest. Role players itch- 
ing to solve complex puzzles 
might be disappointed by 
the combat-intensive plot. On 
the other hand, hardcore 
hack-'n'-slashers will revel in 
melees that grow more in- 
tense with every turn. 

Nearly perfect in design 
and execution, Might and 
Magic; Clouds of Xeen is 
one fantasy you'll wish 
would never end. 

SCO^ A. MAY 

IBM PC or compatible, 2MB RAM, 
VGA, hard drive; mouse optional, sup- 
ports Sound Blaster, Sound B taster 
Pro, Ad Lib. Sound Master II, Pro Au- 
dioSpectrum, and Disney Sound 
Source— S69.95 

NEW WORLD COMPUTING 
P.O. Box 4302 
Hollywood, CA 90078 
(81S) 999-0607 

Circle Header Service Number 437 

DARKLANDS 

The setting is medieval Ger- 
many in the 1400s, where 
witches, alchemists, relig- 
ious fanatics, dragons, de- 
mons, myths, and supersti- 
tions fill the popular con- 
sciousness. Darklands, a 
new adventure game from Mi- 
croProse, tal<es you there. 
In Darklands, magic, or al- 

102 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



chemy, is based on the mix- 
ing of 19 potions of three dis- 
tinct quality levels from 19 
special substances and four 
bases. They're mixed in 
glass flasks which are 
thrown at, applied to, or im- 
bibed by the intended target. 
Clerics call to 140 saints 
for individualized interven- 



saints. use of alchemic formu- 
las, and ranged melee weap- 
ons, which become effec- 
tive automatically when you 
select various actions. Com- 
bat can be with city street 
thugs and roving bandits, 
and can occur in robber 
knights' castles. Templar 
monasteries, witches' Sab- 




Suit up for a trip to medieval Germany in Darklands, a role-playing 
adventure game packed with interesting details- 



tion in worldly events, 
These saints not only have a 
personality but they also 
have a sense of (iumor, 
which makes selecting differ- 
ent saints in various situa- 
tions an entertaining game 
within itself. 

Parties can be created 
via a selection of heritage, 
training, and professions, 
which will mold the six attrib- 
utes and 19 skills into a 
group of four adventurers. A 
fifth member can join the 
group for specific quests, or 
you can choose a predeter- 
mined party. Characters ap- 
pear in paper-doll fashion 
on the comprehensive char- 
acter information screen, 
which shows the item inven- 
tory {holding up to 45 
items), known saints, and 
known alchemic formulas. 

An overhead oblique dis- 
play of realtime combat 
shows the invo(<inq of 



baths, dragons' lairs, and 
dwarven mines, I'd advise di- 
recting the play In realtime 
rather than allowing the rath- 
er limited and flawed artifi- 
cial intelligence routing to di- 
rect the action. But for easy 
battles, autocombat will do. 

Attention to detail is exem- 
plary in Darklands. It's filled 
with appealing details, such 
as the relative destructive 
power of brass versus iron 
handguns, which were engi- 
neered and used in the fif- 
teenth century. All details are 
as they were — or as they 
would've been, had the 
myths and stories been true. 

The interiors of mines, 
monasteries, and the final cit- 
adel are all in the same over- 
head oblique display. Cur- 
rently, games cannot be 
saved from these interiors, 
making gameplay more of a 
marathon realtime arcade 
game than most role players 



are used to. MicroProse has 
plans to eliminate the prob- 
lem. The interior maps can 
be scrolled, allowing the 
map to serve as its own au- 
tomapping routine. 

Movement through the cit- 
ies is achieved by making se- 
lections from lists of choices 
that are overlaid by watercol- 
or background representa- 
tions of the events at each ar- 
ea. These drawings evoke 
the original Samurai game 
engine on which Darklands 
has been hung. You get 
many such choices through- 
out the game, and the deci- 
sions made from these choic- 
es determine not only where 
the character goes and his 
or her success or failure, 
but also the plot's texture, fla- 
vor, and nuances. 

The real beauty of the 
Darklands epic is the multi- 
tude of choices you get, 
which surpass the complexi- 
ty and historical accuracy 
seen in any other contempo- 
rary computer game. The 
true role-playing enthusiast 
will be dazzled by the 
game's sheer volume of choic- 
es and historically accurate sit- 
uations. Even after you've ex- 
plored the central plot and 
many subplots, you can con- 
tinue the quest indefinitely 

In spite of the initial troub- 
le with bugs, this newly re- 
vised game should give you 
hours of pleasure. fVlicro- 
Prose should be congratulat- 
ed for a truly heroic effort in 
creating a game for sword, 
sorcery and history buffs. 

ALFRED C, GIOVETTl 



IBM PC or compatible (80386 com- 
patible), 2MB RAM, VGA, hard disk 
with 20MB free, mouse: supports 
Sound Blaster, Ad Lib. Pro Audio- 
Spectrum, Roland— S69, 95 

MICROPROSE ENTERTAINMENT 

SOFTWARE 

180 Lakefront Or. 

Hunt Valley, WD 21030 

(410)771-1151 

Circle Reader Service Number 438 



EOMpymii 




COMPUTE'S 

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To order send the appropriate amount plus 
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CCC, 2500 McClellan Ave., Pennsauken, NJ 
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Nintendo, The Legend of Zelda, and Super Mario 
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trademarks of Nintendo of America Inc. which has not 
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CPIU1PUTE5 



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COMPUTE'S 

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Sizzling tips for defeating Super 
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To 

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Ave. Pennsauken, NJ 08109. (Resi- 
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REVIEWS 

ZOLTRIX ENHANCED 
96/24, ZOLTRIX 
STANDARD 
96/24, ZOLTRIX 
INTEGRA 

As much as I'd like to have a fax ma- 
chine, the cost is too great for two or 
three transmissions a week. But I use 
a modem every day, and its cost is 
easy to justify. Zoltrix has addressed 
this problem head-on with three low- 
cost internal fax/modem cards. Each of 
them functions just like a modem and 
adds full fax capabilities— all for about 
twice the price of a standard internal 
mode mi. 

They're not at the leading edge of 
fax/modem technology, The manual 
isn't 500 pages boasting thousands of 
features. In other words, they're just at 
my level, 

I don't want features I'll never use or 
a manual that takes a Ph,D, to read, I 
want a simple, straightforward device 
that does what I need. Anyone who 
can read will have no trouble installing 
and configuring the cards and getting 



the software up and running. 

All three communicate at 300, 1200, 
or 2400 bps. All my terminal programs 
worked perfectly, and the America On- 
line software— notoriously picky about 
modems — worked fine. I've used plen- 
ty of dedicated modems that had 
more trouble coexisting with a variety 
of communications programs. 

BitCom Deluxe software comes with 
all three. It's a basic telecommunica- 
tions package for modem mode with- 
out a lot of bells and whistles. There 
isn't a script or macro language as 
powerful as Telix's or Procomm's. and 
file transfers are limited to ASCII, 
XfylODEfvl, YMODEM, CompuServe B 
Plus, and Kermit protocols. If you're 
new to modems, online services, and 
BBSs, though, it's an adequate start. 
One nice feature is software-generated 
MNP 5 compression. Since the mo- 
dems aren't equipped with MNP 5 com- 
pression in hardware, this is the next- 
best thing. Theoretically, MNP 5 can 
speed up transfers as much as 200 
percent. 

In fax mode the boards perform 
well. The Standard and Enhanced mod- 
els send and receive at 9600 bps, 
while the Integra sends at 9600 tiips 
and receives at 4800 bps. All of them 
have the ability to drop their transmis- 
sion speeds to 7200 or 4800 bps if the 





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receiver is at a lower speed or if ad- 
verse transmission conditions such as 
line noise make a slower speed advis- 
able. Don't worry if all of this sounds 
technical. It's handled automatically by 
the hardware and software; I was nev- 
er aware of the communication speed 
when sending and receiving. 

fvlost of my testing was done be- 
tween two computers at home. That pro- 
vided a great advantage for reviewing 
these units. I saw the results of trans- 
missions immediately and was able to 
draw accurate conclusions quickly. 
Both systems are IBfvl compatibles, but 
they're configured differently. One is a 
286 with Stacker managing the hard 
drive. The other is a 486 with plenty of 
extended memory. There wasn't the 
faintest hint of hardware or software con- 
flicts on either machine, even when I 
ran the background send and receive 
modules. I'd feel comfortable saying 
that you'll probably have the same re- 
sults. Of course, there will be excep- 
tions to this, but those will probably be 
rare. 

All three fax/modem cards come 
with BitFax/SR software. It's easy to 
use, and it has everything I need. I was 
disappointed not to get an installation 
program to make the setup easier. But 
the manual is clear and easy to follow, 



so I didn't have any problems. 

The Enhanced model has built-in er- 
ror correction protocols. The best of 
these is the V.42/MNP auto reliable 
mode. It senses whether the other ma- 
chine has the equivalent error-correct- 
ing protocol and responds according- 
ly. This is one of the most sophisticated 
error-correcting operating modes availa- 
ble today fvly phone lines are relative- 
ly free of noise, so I couldn't tell the 
difference between models. If you're 
worried about line noise, though, this 
feature might be important for you. 

Sending faxes with BitFax is easy It 
loads any file in IVlultiMate, WordPer- 
fect, [Microsoft Word, or WordStar for- 
mat. If you have any other word proc- 
essor, you have to save a document as 
an ASCII file before sending. Then you 
design a cover sheet, enter information 
about the destination fax machine (the 
phone number, for instance), and 
press a function key. 

From there it's all automatic. The 
transmission is initiated and managed 
entirely by the software and hardware. 
Different cover sheets can be saved to 
disk and loaded anytime before send- 
ing a fax. Or you can send a document 
without a cover sheet. And a database 
of destinations can be retained on 
disk for easy retrieval. 



I I found the built-in text editor useful 
for sending faxes, fvlost of the time, 1 
send faxes with a one- or two-page 
message, Using my word processor re- 
quires two steps: creating the docu- 
ment and saving to disk, then running 
BitFax and sending the document. 
With the built-in editor, you can type 
your document and send it from within 
the same program shell. 

It's just as easy to send PCX, TIF, 
ItvlG, BFX, or DFX graphics files. The 
software loads them and sends the 
graphics image automatically. And 
there's a conversion utility that chang- 
es received faxes which are usually in 
TIF format to other graphics formats. 
That way, you can use faxes in other 
programs, possibly importing them in- 
to a desktop publishing application as 
part of a presentation. 

BitFax has a rriodule you can install 
as a memory-resident program that 
automatically sends and receives fax- 
es in the background. Background 
sending can be done automatically at 
a preset time, freeing up your comput- 
er from having to dedicate itself to fax 
transmissions. I found that sending 
and receiving would occasionally 
cause my systems to slow down. I sup- 
pose you'd have to weigh that against 
the benefits of running the back- 

MAY 1993 COMPUTE 105 





^tifiA 



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uniquely combines over 25 classic 
children's songs, animations, song lyrics, 
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REVIEWS 



ground module. 1 prefer sending and 
receiving faxes from the main BitFax 
menu without loading the memory- 
resident module. 

There are a lot of features I don't 
have space to describe in detail, but 
here are a few that deserve mention. 
Incoming faxes can automatically 
print when received. You can view fax- 
es on the screen instead of printing 
them, Multiple files can be sent in a sin- 
gle transmission, saving you separate 
initial connect charges. Form letters 
can be customized with a mail-merge 
feature. 

After spending time with these fax/ 
modem boards, I'd have a hard time 
justifying a dedicated fax machine for 
myself. It's not so much a question of 
cost as of usefulness. These internal 
fax/modem boards do so much more 
than a stand-alone fax machine that I'd 
choose them anytime over a regular 
fax machine for personal use. The 
folks at Zoltrix have arrived at what ap- 
pears to be the best solution to having 
a complete communications system at 
a reasonable cost- Now I can happily 
give out my fax number, which hap- 
pens to be the number to my home of- 
fice, too, 

(Editor's note: After this review was 
written, Zoltrix announced that the Inte- 
gra was being discontinued.) 

RICHARD C, LEINECKER 

Zollrix Enhanced 96/24— S149 

Zotlrix Standard 96/24— $109 ($129 with Bitfex for 

Windows) 

Zotirix Integra— $B9 

ZOLTRIX 

47517 Ssabridge Dr. 

Fremont, CA 94538 

(510)657-1133 

Clrei« Reader Service Number 439 



ELECTRONIC 
DICTIONARIES 



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The two things to look for in an electron- 
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instant Definitions is quicl<er than Random 
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providing definitions for the highlighted 
word, as well as a list of the words de- 
rived from it. Words within the definition 
may be defined by placing the cursor 
at the word and striking Enter again, 
opening a separate definitions window. 

Instant Definitions' DictionaryScan 
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tries via key words in the definitions. 
Can't think of the name of the biped 
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The Random House Webster's Elec- 
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Need a network at home? 
See page 91 

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See page 55 

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COMPUTE 
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eiEws 



takes longer to load than Instant Defi- 
nitions (from three to ten seconds, de- 
pending on your hardware), but for con- 
firmed dictionary buffs, it's worth the 
wait. The Random House College Dic- 
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REFERENCE SOFTWARE INTERIMATIONAL 

330 Townsend Sl., Ste. 123 

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(600) 872-9933 

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Circle Reader Service isiumber 441 

TOM LANDRY STRATEGY 
FOOTBALL 

The ongoing fight for top gridiron sim- 
ulation has left many participants bat- 
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clear winners are the fans, basking in 
the rumble of tough competition. The lat- 
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Software's Tom Landry Strategy Foot- 
ball, should be greeted with a warm 
cheer. 

One of football's true innovators, Lan- 
dry coached the Dallas Cowboys to 20 
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NFC titles, and two Super Bowl victo- 
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adopts a low-key, conservative ap- 
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ers don't directly control the on-tield ac- 
tion but guide the team through myriad 
coaching duties. Exhibition and season 
games can be enjoyed by one or two 
players or as straight simulation with 
two computer-controlled teams. Head- 
to-head match-ups are by far the most 
rewarding, executed via nuH or remote 
modem link, with chat window. This ex- 
citing option makes it possible to form 
player leagues across town or across 
the country. Unfortunately, season 
play is for statistical purposes only — 
there are no built-in playoffs or league 
championships. 

The game offers 28 professional 
teams — loosely based on their real-life 
counterparts — divided into two 
leagues but no divisions. Detailed scout- 
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to their rivals' offensive and defensive 
ratings, from individual player stats to 
overall team performance: run/pass 
blocl<ing. tackles, penalties, and turno- 
vers. Reports can be saved to disk or 
printed, and they're automatically updat- 
ed throughout season play, The only 
thing missing is the ability to trade play- 
ers or manually adjust player attributes. 

Landry's playbook boasts 2500 pos- 
sible offensive combinations and hun- 
dreds of defensive plays. Most calls on 
either side of the line are standard is- 
sue, although a few surprises await. 
For example, offensive coaches can 
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a blitz. The ability to put a man in mo- 
tion also fielps to confuse your attack- 
ers. Otherwise, as mentioned earlier, 
Landry's playbook is fairly conserva- 
tive. Fans of razzle-dazzle football will 
be disappointed. 

Defensive higfilights include tftree 
types of line shifts and linebacker blitz- 
es. Run and pass coverage is quite ge- 
neric, limited to straight man-to-man 
and two types of deep zone coverage. 
Strong points include the ability to spec- 
ify doubie coverage on different prima- 
ry receivers and to key linebackers on 
a specific running back or simply to fol- 
low the offensive flov/. 

The game's point-and-click mouse in- 
terface makes it easy for anyone to as- 
semble a cohesive play. Would-be 
coaches will be disappointed to find 
no playbook designer. Instead, the pro- 
gram offers a scenario builder, which al- 
lows you to specify the details of a hypo- 
thetical match-up and then play the 
game. 

Optional 256-color 'VGA grapfiics de- 
pict the outcome of your coaching ex- 
pertise. The images are well drawn but 
superfluous to the game. Limited anima- 
tion and poor color separation make 
the action difficult to follow. The graph- 
ics also slow the game considerably, re- 
quiring extensive hard drive access be- 
fore each play. Peripheral high points 
include digitized referee calls and VCR- 
style instant replay Context-sensitive on- 
screen help is available throughout the 
program. 

The game's main weakness is com- 
mon to all statistical sport designs: in- 
ternal number crunching versus real- 
time player interaction. When the re- 
sults of your efforts are simply varia- 
bles weighed against mathematical per- 
centages, the game loses spontaneity 
and emotional appeal. Winning or los- 
ing becomes less a matter of inspira- 
tion and personal effort than the roll of 
invisible dice. 

Although the program functions 
flawlessly, it's far too dry and distant. 
Designer Kerry Batts deliberately limits 
his audience, while most of his cur- 
rent competitors offer both statistical 
and hands-on play Saved from obscu- 
rity by its excellent muitiplayer modem 
option, Tom Landry Strategy Football 
will satisfy Stat hounds but leave oth- 
ers wanting more. 

SCOTT A. MAY 

IBM PC or compatible (80286 compatible), 640K 
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MERIT SOFTVi/ARE 

13707 Gamma Rd. 

Dallas, TX 75244 

(214) 385-2353 

Circle Reader Service Number 442 



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Circle Reader Service Number 282 



REVIEWS 



JOHN IVIADDEN 
FOOTBALL II 

If you're a computer football 
fan, you've been spoiled late- 
ly. Whether you prefer ar- 
cade-style or strategic foot- 
ball, software sfielves host 
several excellent games 
from which to choose. 

That choice just became 
a little tougher, though, with 
the release of Electronic 
Arts' John Madden Football 
II. 

John Madden Football II, 
like most other games of its 
type, offers several play 
modes. From the main 
screen, you can choose to 
play a quick game, play a 
standard game, resume a 
previously saved game, or 
practice plays. If you 
choose to play a game — ei- 
ther quick or standard — the 
game setup screen ap- 
pears. Here, you can 
change the weather, the 
length cf a quarter, and the 
game playing speed, as 
well as toggle such options 
as fatigue, injuries, penal- 
ties, and the 45-second 
clock. 

In a quick game, after the 
game setup screen, you 
needn't bother with choos- 
ing teams and playbooks, or 
even setting up game-save 
directories. Rather, you 
jump right onto the field, 
ready to test your moves 
against those of your oppo- 
nent. Quick games play 
much like standard games, 
but with limited playbooks 
and some options, like 
game saves, unavailable. 

The standard game, on 
the other hand, is your pass- 
port to the full simulation. Af- 
ter the game setup screen, 
you choose the visiting and 
home teams. Then, you se- 
lect the teams' playbooks, 
set the teams' playing abili- 
ties, choose home-field con- 
no COMPUTE MAY 1993 



ditions (the conditions under 
which the team is used to 
playing), and set the coach- 
ing style (which controls the 
balance of running plays 
and passing plays). Then 
it's onto the field, where, un- 
like in the quick game, you 
have full access to the 
plays in the chosen play- 



ball II offers extensive oppor- 
tunities for the computer 
coach with his eye on victo- 
ry. The game includes two 
defensive playbooks and 
one offensive playbook, 
each of which offers more 
than 80 ready-to-run plays. 
And if you can't find the 
plays you need in the sup- 




What are those blacky cartoon characters doing? John Madden 
Football II offers excellent simulation but inadequate graphics. 



books. (If you find the num- 
ber of available plays over- 
whelming, John Madden is 
happy to narrow things 
down to a few good choic- 
es. All you have to do is 
ask.) 

When the game begins, 
you select your play, and 
then the teams line up on 
the scrimmage line to battle 
it out. If you like, when the ac- 
tion begins, you can control 
the player with the ball, di- 
recting his run or guiding 
the pass. However, the ar- 
cade elements of the game 
are limited to a few simple 
moves. Where John Mad- 
den Football II shines is on 
the strategic side of the 
sport. You'l\ probably find 
yourself just picking the 
plays and watching the 
teams run them. 

And speaking of the 
plays, John Madden Foot- 



plied playbooks, you can al- 
ways create your own play- 
book with the program's 
Chalkboard. Here, you se- 
lect various starting forma- 
tions, and, using chalkboard- 
like tools, modify them by 
moving players, assigning 
tasks and routes, changing 
the types of players, and 
more. 

Unfortunately, while John 
Madden Football II offers a 
fairly complete strategic foot- 
ball simulation, the graphics 
are less than state-of-the- 
art. The players are blocky 
figures that scurry about the 
field like characters in a cut- 
rate Saturday morning car- 
toon. Because of this lack of 
graphical detail, plays are of- 
ten hard to follow. 

Still, if you're fascinated 
by this rough-and-tumble 
sport's strategic side, John 
Madden Football II comes 



through. Besides having the 
power provided by the 
large playbooks, you can 
compare players head to 
head, view team rosters and 
statistics screens, test individ- 
ual plays, construct your 
own playbooks, and analyze 
plays with the VCR-like re- 
play feature. 

The game's mediocre 
graphics keep it from tack- 
ling all the competition, but 
it's still a worthy contender 
for your software dollars. 

CLAYTON WALNUM 

IBM PC or compatible (B0286 com- 
patible. 16-UHz 80386 or faster rec- 
ommended), 640K RAM. EGA or 
VGA, hard drive; supports Ad Lib, 
Sound Blaster, Roland, Covox, and 
Tandy sound— $49,95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 

1450 Fasriion Island Blvd. 

San Mateo, CA 94404 

(415) S72-ARTS 

Circle R^der Service Number 443 



HONG KONG 
MAHJONG PRO 

Mahjong, a Chinese gam- 
bling game that's more than 
3000 years old, is played in 
China, Japan, and Taiwan 
with a passion that rivals the 
playing of poker in Atlantic 
City and Las Vegas, The 
game mah-jongg, which 
was popular in Amehca ear- 
ly in this century, uses rules 
modified for Western play. 
Every geographical area to 
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uses its own variation of the 
ancient rules of the game. 
Hong Kong Mahjong Pro us- 
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Mahjong derives its 
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used in the game. The 144 



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SpecHy language(s) desired: 

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System Requirements: IBM PC/XT/AT or 
1 00% compatible: DOS 3,1 ■•■ (DOS 5.x tec- 
ommended lor German): 450K RAW\2 
MB of hard dis< space for Spanistt and 
French; 550K RAM/11 MB ot hard disk 
space for German. 



TO ORDER: Phone or sBnd yDun Chech, 
money order ol Institutional P.O. 



TOLL-FREE 24 HRS: VISA'MC 

1»800»755«7989 

Rush Orders PHONE 9-5 PDT 

You may FAX your credit card order or 

company P.O. to: 

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Or Write to: 

PROFESSIONAL CASSEHE CENTER 

40B SOUTH PASADENA AVE., SUITE 4 

DEPARTMENT CMP 

PASADENA, CA 91105 

Circle Reader Service Number 277 



Name 



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For Credit Card; VISA MASTERCARD (exp, date / I 



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California residents add 8 'A% sales tax. 
All funds payable in U.S. dollars. 



REVIEWS 



tiles are divided into six 
suits: the cliaracters. the 
bamboo sticks, the balls (cir- 
cles or dots), the winds, the 
dragons, and the flowers. 
From a wall of tiles that sur- 
rounds the playing board, a 
hand is dealt to each player. 

You must choose 3 com- 
puter opponents from the 
screen, which shows 12 in- 
creasingly more challenging 
opponents and their distinc- 
tive playing styles. Game- 
play is augmented by 
smoothly animated, high-res- 
olution, black-and-white dig- 
itized picture; the oppo- 
nents' digitized speech; and 
high-resolution, 256-color. Su- 
per VGA still picture. The mu- 
sic, reminiscent of Wing Com- 
mander's, can be turned on 
and off; it generally comple- 
ments the play. Play pro- 
ceeds clockwise, as each 
player picks a tile from the 
wall, according to the throw 
of the dice, and discards a 
tile until a winning hand is 
made. The complex rules 
and nuances of mahjong in- 
clude discard priorities, 
unique winning hands, and 
14 scoring rules, but the ex- 
cellent interactive tutorial 
that comes with the game 
and the instructive help sys- 
tem will get almost anyone 
playing the game and win- 
ning against the easiest op- 
ponents in several hours. 

This computer version of 
mahjong is very unforgiving; 
it lacks a utility to take back 
a move that may have result- 
ed from a careless slip of 
the finger. The documenta- 
tion is flawed concerning 
the selection of alternative 
chows, or straights. When 
presented with one alterna- 
tive of several chows, you 
can select No, and the com- 
puter will immediately select 
another alternative chow. 
The game is for solo play 
and does not support mo- 
dem or multiple human play- 

112 COMPUTE MAY 1993 



ers. Once the little inconven- 
iences of gamepllay are un- 
derstood, the game will 
move along more smoothly. 
Hong Kong fvlahjong Pro 
will make it very easy for a 
beginner to learn this com- 
plex game without embar- 
rassment. Mahjong players 
in search of opponents will 
find this game a godsend. 
Some may benefit from un- 
derstanding the passion 
that drives many to continue 
playing this old-time favorite. 

ALFRED C, GIOVEni 

IBM PC or compalitjie. 640K RAM. 
VGA (640 X 480. 2S6-color Super 
VGA recommended), hard disk, 
mouse; expanded memory recom- 
mended, disk cache recommended, 
supports Roland, Media Vision, Ad 
Lib. Sound Biasler. and 100-percent 
compatible sound boards — S49.95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 

PO. Box 7578 

San Maleo. CA 94403-7578 

(415) 572-ARTS 

Circle Reader Service Number 444 

STAR NX-1 040 
RAINBOW 

Anyone looking for a printer 
these days is sure to be con- 
fused by the literally hun- 
dreds of printers available. 
While IBM and Epson set 
the compatibility standards, 
several companies offer 
high-quality printers at rea- 
sonable prices. 

Star Micronics jumps to 
the front with the new 9-pin 
NX-1040 Rainbow printer. 
This lightweight, Epson- and 
IBfvl-compatible printer not 
only produces high-quality 
monochrome output but al- 
so prints in seven colors in 
eight near letter quality 
fonts with up to eight en- 
hancement modes. That's 
three colors more than the 
nearest competitor — and 
with a lower price tag. The 
NX-1040 is no faster than 
the average 9-pin printer, 
though, so don't buy it ex- 



pecting 24-pin speed. 

Most low-end color print- 
ers require installation of an 
optional color kit. The NX- 
1040 comes ready to print 
in color with the installation 
of the color ribbon. The rib- 
bon cartndge doesn't need 
to be exchanged for anoth- 
er ribbon to switch from mon- 
ochrome to color printing. 

As with the high-end 24- 
pin Star printers, the NX- 
1040 includes the Electronic 
DIP Switch (EDS) mode, 
which changes the power- 
on settings without your hav- 
ing to manually change DIP 
switches. You can control 
up to 15 power-on defaults 
from the front touch panel, 
such as font, pitch, paper 
park, paper feed, panel mac- 
ros, and buffer clear. Anoth- 
er handy feature included 
with the NX-1040 is quiet 
mode, which can also be 
controlled from the front 
panel. 

Thanks to the easy-to-un- 
derstand instruction manual. 
it took only about five min- 
utes to set up the printer. 
The manual includes a com- 
mand summary with page 
numbers in the back and a 
separate quick-reference 
guide to the operations of 
the control panel. 

A variety of paper-han- 
dling features add to the 
printer's ease of use. Multipa- 
per paths, the short tear-off 
function, automatic paper 
loading, top-of-form set, and 
the adjustable sheet-feed pa- 
per guide offer features that 
usually come with more ex- 
pensive 24-pin printers. Pa- 
per parking offers the user 
the option of printing single 
sheets without removing the 
fanfold tractor-feed paper. 

I was impressed with the 
color output of the NX-1040. 
Frankly, I didn't expect high- 
quality output from a 9-pin 
printer, but I was pleasantly 
surprised by the results. 



Even if most of your 
home printing doesn't re- 
quire color output, you 
should take a look at the NX- 
1040. With the low cost, 
ease of use. and quality col- 
or and monochrome output 
of this lightweight 9-pin print- 
er, you can't lose. Even 
though it's limited to 9-pin 
speed, the NX-1040 has cre- 
ated a niche for itself out- 
side the realm of overpriced 
and overrated printers. 

JOYCE SIDES 

Star NX-1040 Rainbow— S269 

STAR MICRONICS AMERICA 

420 Lexington Ave,. Sle. 2702 

New York. NY 10170 

(800) 447-4700 

Circle Reader Service Number 445 

STAR NX-2430 
MULTI-FONT 

What's so different about 
the Star NX-2430 Multi- 
Font? It's just another 24-pin 
dot-matrix printer, right? 
That's what I thought when I 
began reviewing the unit. 

Star Micronics pushes 
dot-matrix printer technolo- 
gy a step closer to that of la- 
ser printers by offering 
eight optional font cartridg- 
es ($39 each) that provide 
more than 21 extra fonts, as 
well as 13 bitmapped scala- 
ble fonts on disk for use 
with Windows 3.0 applica- 
tion software (an upgrade 
for use with Windows 3.1 is 
available from the company 
at no charge). The fonts al- 
so work with DOS-based ap- 
plications such as Harvard 
Graphics 3.0, Lotus 1-2-3 
3.1. and First Publisher 3.0. 
Even without the optional car- 
tridges, there are two draft 
and nine letter-quality resi- 
dent fonts. 

For an extra $49, you can 
add a 32K buffer with a bat- 
tery backup. If you intend to 
use the bitmapped fonts or 



Advertisers Index 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser 



Page Reader Service Number/Advertiser 



Page Reader Service Number/Advertiser 



16Z 8-Bil G-21 300 

293 Access Sollware 36.37 271 

AlCS 63 272 

26B Amish Oullaw Storewa/e Co 125 231 

244 Atiligrav Toolkit G-l? 

170 ATST/Paradyne 11 282 

290 Bare Bones Soltware A-29 117 

151 Bear Technologies A-29 255 

152 Bear Technologies G-17 260 

Besl Personalized Books 121 280 

288 BIX 23 305 

293 Blue Jay Soltware 70 289 

173 Blue Valley Sollware 122 246 

218 Body Cello . . . _ 124 249 

304 Cal Ad Soltwafe „ . - 124 307 

181 Caloke Industries G-ll 191 

149 Chips & Bils 101 141 

294 CIE 25 

166 Cilijen American Corp 19 192 

269 Commodore 13 

235 Commoiloie 29 1B4 

128 ComPro Software Systems 121 1D6 

150 Compsult 122 273 

108 CompuServe 17 250 

Computer Business Services 121 

254 Computer Ffiends 122 IB? 

270 Computer Liquidators 122 103 

284 Computer Technologies G-17 153 

125 Creatii/e Lahs 3 169 

113 Creatii/e Pixels G-ll 185 

226 Crosley Software 125 

161 Delphi 27 277 

131 DeraoSource 120 256 

238 DevWare Video 125 IBS 

253 Disks O'Plehty G-17 

208 Disk-Couhl Software 115 257 

275 Dr. T's Music Software 106 212 

175 D&K Enterprises 120 112 

261 Electronic Arts 32,33 116 

296 Electronic Arts 51 306 

302 Evergresn Technologies 120 148 

FGM Connection G-23 109 

285 Finetastic Computers A-13 121 

115 Free Spirit Sollwre 107 182 

303 Friendly Software 120 126 

Gateway 2000 IFC.I 

215 Genesis Electronic Services A-27 

145 Grapevine Group. Tlie G-13 210 

Grapevine Group. The A-27 190 

295 Grolier Eleclronic Publistlirrj 5 297 

Hope Career Center 121 

234 Horse Featters G-g 



ID Soltware 87 

Interplay 69 

Interplay 91 

Jacksin Marking Products Co, Inc 124 

JPPBM Producis by Mail G-11 

Lawrence Research Group 109 

Leaacy Soltware 125 

Logitech 56.57 

Mad l/an Soltware G-21 

Malla'd Solhrare 55 

Malla'd Software 41 

MicroStorm Soltware - G-17 

Mission Control 99 

MSI/Micro Systems Intemalional A-3 

MultiwavB Innovations 43 

Meedhams Electronics 123 

Odyssey OnLine 122 

Oldsmohile 35 

Qrlgir 32 

OSCS Software Development Inc 119 

Parsons Technology 21 

Farth Galen A-29 

Passport Designs 15 

PC Enterprises , ... 124 

Pendragon Soltware Lltirary 124 

Penthouse Modem 123 

Penthouse Online 109 

Perfarmance Peripherals G-23 

Pixel Perlecl 68 

Poor ^erson Software A-27 

PowerDisk - - - G-ll 

Prolessional Cassette 117 

Profit Group. The 118 

Psygnosis 53 

Pure EnleftainmenI 116 

Ramco A-29 

SaleSoft Systems Inc 124 

School of Computer Training - . . 125 

SeXXy . 122 

Sierra On-Une 71 

Sierra On-Line BC 

Sraad Luck Soltware 122 

SMC Soltwaie Publishers 124 

SollLogic Solutions 47 

SoflStioppe Inc 124 

Sollware Hul A-9 

Soltware Hut , G-7 

Soltware Support International - 125 

Software Support International G-5 

Software Suppport Intemalional A-29 

SOGWAP Software A-13 

SOGWAP Software G-9 



184 SONY 6.7 

252 Sparks Electronics G-17 

286 Spectrum Holobyle 83 

287 Spectrum Holohyte 59 

158 Spirit Of Discovery 92 

203 Star Micronics , 31 

130 Starware Puljltshing 119 

179 SubLogir: 3839 

147 Ttirustmaster 119 

242 Tyconi Inc G-ll 

301 US Robotics IBC 

257 Virgin 74,75 

183 Virgin , - 61 

172 Wedgwood Computer 125 

Windows 9O0 123 

Ciassfieds 126,127 

Product Mad 118.119.120,121,122.123,124,125 



Amiga Best tJtililies Disk A-17 

COMPUTE Books . . . BU-25>27,G-10,103,104,105,1CIB 

COMPUTE'S On Disk 79 

Gazelle Disk index 7? 

Gazette Disk Subscription G-9 

GazBtle Produclivity Ivtanager G-19 

Gazette Specialty Disks G-15 

Gazette Speed Script G-21 

SharePak Disk Subscription 65 







CRED TS 

Cover: Steve Krotngard; page 4: Andy Zito/ 
Image Bank; page 9: Mark Wagoner; page 
10: Mark Wagoner; page 12: Mark Wagon- 
er; page 44: Marianne Hughes; page 66- 
67: Victor Stabin/lmage Bank; page 76- 
77: Mark Wagoner; pages 84-85: Mark 
Wagoner; pages 88-89: Mark Wagoner; 
page 93: Mark Wagoner; page A-4: Andrea 
Baruffi. 


IMPORTANT NOTICE 

FOR 

COMPUTE DISK 

SUBSCRIBERS 

COMPUTE offers two different disk products 
for PC readers; the SharePak disk and PC 
Disk. SharePak is monthly and has a subscrip- 
tion price of $59.95 for SV'S-inch disks and 
$64.95 for 3V2-inch disks. A subscription to 
SharePak does not include a subscription 
to the magazine. PC Disk appears in odd- 
numbered months ond has a subscription 
price of $49.95, which includes a subscription 
to the PC edition of COMPUTE. You can sub- 
scribe to either disk or to both, but a sub- 
scription to one does not include a subscrip- 
tion to the other 



MAY 1993 CON/IPUTE 113 



REVIEWS 



images, you may be interest- 
ed in adding this cartridge 
to permanently store fre- 
quently used downloadable 
fonts or bitmapped images. 

I welcome the absence of 
DIP switches on this printer. 
Instead, Star included a 
built-in Electronic DIP 
Switch (EDS) mode that of- 
fers more options than nor- 
mal DIP switches. This 
saves times and skin, since 
you don't have to be a con- 
tortionist capable of reach- 
ing hidden switches. 

The NX-2430 is as small 
as many 9-pin printers (17.3 
X 13 X 5.9 inches) and with 
the three paper-feed paths 
(rear, bottom, top), it'll fit 
just about anywhere. It han- 
dles forms of up to three 
parts. 

Setting up the printer 
took about ten minutes. The 
installation of the automatic 
sheet feeder took longer 
than the printer setup, but 
the sheet feeder is well 
worth its additional cost in 
time and money ($99). I 
had to keep reminding my- 
self that I was reviewing a 
dot-matrix printer, not a la- 
ser printer. The sheet feed- 
er is exceptional. It worked 
well with all the software I 
tried, including Express Pub- 
lisher, Publish-lt Lite, and 
XyWrite. 

Setup time was short, 
thanks to the easy-to-under- 
stand instruction manual. It in- 
cludes a command summa- 
ry with page numbers in the 
back and a separate quick- 
reference guide to the con- 
trol panel operations. 

The front control panel 
with liquid crystal display in- 
cludes five buttons that con- 
trol more than 20 functions, 
such as font, pitch, paper 
park and feed, macros, 
form feed and micro feed, 
top of form, and quiet 
mode. The special EDS 
mode is set from the front 

114 COMPUTE MAY 1993 




Star NX-2430 Multi-Font— S399 

STAR MICRONICS AMERICA 

420 Lexington Ave,. Ste. 2702-25 

New York, NY 10170 

(800) 447-4700 

Circle Reader Service Number 446 



The Star NX-2430 Multi-Font, a 24-pin dot-matrix printer, rivals the 
quality of laser printers at a much lower price. 

panel as well, and it controls 
up to 15 functions, including 
emulation, RAM usage, and 
graphics print direction. 

Special features include 
automatic paper load, short 
tear-off, automatic bail lever 
closing, paper parking, exter- 
nal paper adjustment, top-of- 
form set, first line printing, 
landscape paper loading, du- 
al sheet feed paper guides, 
and quiet mode (the output 
is slower in this mode). 

The quality of the output 
is not just as good as that of 
any 24-pin dot-matrix printer 
I've ever used — in most cas- 
es, it's better. Of course, the 
weight of the paper used de- 
termines the quality to a cer- 
tain extent. I used 20- 
pound business stationery 
for important documents 
and standard fanfold paper 
for everything else. 

I always look for pros and 
cons, but I simply couldn't 
find anything wrong with 
this printer. It's a great buy 
at $399, even with the addi- 
tional cost of the automatic 
sheet feeder and font car- 
tridges. I'd buy it in a heart- 
beat if I were looking for a 
24-pin dot-matrix printer. 

JOYCE SIDES 



PC FILE 6.5 

PC File 6.5 has made a very 
successful move from share- 
ware powerhouse to commer- 
cial contender, more than 
holding its own with other da- 
tabases in its price range. 
Jostling for shelf space at 
Egghead demands a highly 
competitive product, but PC 
File fills the bill. 

The best changes from 
its shareware predecessor 
are modern, mousing user in- 
terfaces and native support 
of dBASE III PLUS databas- 
es and index files (including 
memo files, which let you 
type in large amounts of 
free-form text). It also reads 
and writes the most popular 
data-interchange formats 
such as 1-2-3, WordPerfect 
merge, and GIF. There is no 
language as such, but you 
can select from a wide vari- 
ety of built-in functions such 
as UPPERO and SOUN- 



DEX() when creating in- 
dexes and reports. 

Installation is automated 
but a little too smart for its 
own good: My Stacker 
drives weren't detected, so 
I had to call tech support for 
a work-around in order to in- 
stall it on my hard disk. The 
documentation is a single 
typeset paperback with 600 
beautifully written pages. 
This is one of the best man- 
uals I've ever seen, some- 
how mixing beginning and 
advanced material with un- 
canny skill. Apart from a glos- 
sary, I could find nothing 
missing from the manual 
and everything was where I 
expected to find it. The on- 
line help is almost as good, 
with the glaring omission of 
context-sensitive help for 
each menu item. So, while 
the FilelOpen dialog has its 
own help screen. Open on 
the File menu doesn't. 

PC File 6.5 Is a good da- 
ta manager, allowing you to 
create, maintain, and alter 
the structure of database 
files. What gives it an edge 
is the extras: bar code sup- 
port, a somewhat complex 
but well-designed mail 
merge, autodialer, macros, 
global search, SOUNDEX 
matching, and a really cool 
calculator. The calculator 
not only does the usual arith- 
metic but also lets you in- 
clude field names in calcula- 
tions, an innovative and uni- 
versally handy fillip. The mail- 
merge feature is unmatched 
by any other I've used and 
is equally good for mass mail- 
ings and the one-offs I find 
myself writing with surpris- 
ing frequency. I found 
merge instantly useful and 
up to the most demanding 
tasks, but I suppose it 
might be a bit much for a be- 
ginner to grasp right away 
Never fear, though, be- 
cause the manual explains 
the merge feature superbly 




DISKICOUNT 
SOFTWARE 



Lowest dellverd prices with great customer service. 

800-448-6658 



A Train 39 

Consiruction Sel 22 
ABPA Baseball 25 
Aces Over Europe 44" 
Aces o( ttw Paalic 39" 

Mission Disk 25 
AD&D Collect Ed 2 42" 
AD&D Starter Ki! 42" 
AD&D Unlimited 31" 
Air Bucks 34" 

Air FE)fce Command 36 
Air Warrior SVGA 35" 
AlgsBlaster Plus 30 
Algebra Made Easy 25 
Aliens Ate Babys!!ter32 
Alphabet Biocks 29" 
Amazon 38" 

Ambush 37*= 

American Civil War 25 
Ancient Art War Sky 35 
Ancient Empires 30 
Animation Studio 75 
Ashes o( Empire 45" 
A.T.A.C. 35 

Automap 49 

Aulomap Winitows 57 
Aulomap Europe 74 
B-17 Flying Fortres 39 
Bane Cosmic Forge 36 
Barbie Design 16 
Barbie Fashion 25 
Barbie Adventure 25 
Bart Simpson Hous 30 
Batltectiess Window 30 
Battlechess 4000 36 
BaltlBlield 37*= 

Battles of Destiny 35" 
Beat the House 29" 
Berenstn Bear Cnl 19 
Bsrenstn Bear Color 25 
Berenstn Bear Lettr 25 
Beliayal at Kro(idor39" 
Beity Otock. Cooktxjok 
Bili Eliiott NASCAR 3D 
Birds !;l Prey 32 

Biuelorce 39'' 

Body Illustrated 47" 
Bodyworks 42 

Bridgemaster 30 

Bug "Bunny WrkShp 31 
Buiz Aldnn 39 

Campaign 35" 

Capitalist Pig 3B" 

Car and Driver 37*' 
Carrier Strike 39 

Carriers at War 37 
Casile 2 35" 

Castle ol Dr. Brain 30 
Challenge 6 Realms 35 
Champions 39 

Chemistry Works 38 
Chessmaster 3000 29" 
Chessnnstr 3000 Win35 
Chiidren Writ & PuU 39 
Civilization 37 

Civilization MPE 45 
Classic Adventure 36 
Coaster 25 

Comanche 42" 

Mission Disk 25" 
Combat Classics 31" 
Comic Book Creator 1 7 
Conquered Kint|(Jom35'' 
Conquest ol Japan 35 
Contraption Zak 25" 
ChSLS in the Kremlin 39 
Cruise for a Corpse 33 
Crusader Drk Savnt39" 
Cuckoo Zoo 31" 

Cyber Empires 32 

Daemonsgate 32" 
Dagger ol Amon Ha 39 
Dark Half 39 

DarklaniJs 38 

Datkseed 39 

Dark Sun 47" 

Daughter ol SerpntSI" 
Dk Paint Animation 85 
Dk Paint II Enhncd 85 
Deja Vu 1 & 2 31" 
Design Yr Own Hra 39 
Design Your Raiird 35 
Designasaurus It 23 
Diet Pro DOS/Win25/36 
Dinosaur Adventure 34 
Dr. Quandry 31 

Dragon's l3\t I 25 

2 or Singe Castle 37 
Dragon Ij? Ill 39" 
Dune 2 36 

Dungeon Master 29" 
Dusk of the Gods 38 
DynamiK Bundle 42 
Eagie Eye Mystery 31" 
Eco-Ouest 1 Of 2 29" 
Entr Pak Win (ea) 26 
Eric the Unready 45 



Eye of Beholder 20" 

Eye 0* Beholder 2 38 

Eye ol Beholder 3 42 

E Z Cosmos 42 

F-14 Tomcat 19 

F 15 III 44 

F 15 III Umited 49" 

Fii7a Stealth n^ht 4i 

Facts in Action 31 

Falcon 3-0 45 

Opef Fight Tiger 25 

Family Tree Maker 42 

Farm Creativity Krt 18 

Fatty Bear Birihday31" 

Femme Fatale 26 

F. F. Data Disk 21 

Flight Simul A.T.P. 37 

Flight Simul (M.S.) 41 

ArcfyScen Dsgn 28 

Airo-aft Adv Factty25 

# 665 17 

#701 17 

Airport Facty loo 17 

California 37 

Flight Planner 25 

f S Pro 24 

Greal Britian 37 

Hawaii 1 9 

Instant Facit Loc. 19 

Instrumnt Pilot Seen 

East/West U.S.ea59 

Rescue Air 911 17 

Scenery St A Of B 37 

Scenery Enhn Ed25 

Sourx) & Graphic 25 

Tahiti 19 

Western Europe 19 

Follovif the Reader 29" 

w/ Sound Source 40 

Four Crystal Trazer 32 

Free DC 37 

Front Page Sports 39" 

Gambit 31" 

Game Maker 5S" 

Games:Summer Chig(35 

Games:Winter Chig 35 

Gateway 35 

Gemlire 31 

Global Conquest 35 

Glotial Effed 32 

Gobblins 25 

Gods 25 

Grand Slam Brdge 1131 

Grandmaster Chess 36 

Great Naval Battle 43" 

Super Ships 20" 

Greens 35 

Gunship 2000 36 

Scenario Disk 24 

GiK Spy 29 

Hardball 3 35 

Data Disk ea. 17" 

Harpoon Designer 32 

Harpoon Signature 49" 

Harrier Assault 34" 

Headline Harrv 37 

Health & Diet Pro 26 

Heaven & Earth 3D 

Heimdall 19" 

Heros ol 357th 32 

Hole in 1 GoH Dk 25 

Hong Kong Mahiong32 

HoyI Bk Game 1/2 22 

Hoyle Bk Game 3 30 

Humans 25 

Incredible Machine 29" 

Indiana Jones 4 37 

Inspector Gadget 35" 

Island ol Or. Brain 29" 

Jack Nicklaus Signtsg" 

Jeopardy Silver 25 

Jeopardy Super 25 

Jetfighter 2 39 

Adv. Mission Disk 19 

Bundle Price 49 

John Madden 2 31" 

Jumj) Jet 39 

KGB 19 

Kid Cuts 35" 

Kid Desk 26 

Kid Pictures 19" 

Kid Pix 35" 

Kid Pi« Companion 25 

Kid Works 2 35" 

Kings Quest 1 VGA 37 

King's Quest 6 45 

Knowledge Advent 42 

L A Law 31" 

teller Utilily 22 

Leather God Phb 2 42 

Legend ol Kyrandia 35 

Legends ol valour 38 

Legton's ol Krella 37 

Leisur Suit Larry 5 39" 

Lemmings 29 

Oh No More Addon 22 

Lemm.-Oh No More 31 



Lemmings 2 35" 

L*Empereur 37 

Liber^ or Death 35 
Life anti Death 2 32 
Line in the Sand 25 
Links 25 

Links 386 Pro 39 

Course Disk ea 1 5 
386 Courses ea 19 
Lord of Rings 2 37 
Lost File SRehck H41" 
Lost Tteas Inlocom 42 
Lost Treasures 2 29 
Lost Tribe 25 

Lure Of Temptress 32 
Magic Candle 3 37" 
Mam St Creatwty Kit 17 
Manhole 31 

Mantis 39 

Mario is Missing 35" 
Mark) Teaches Type 25 
Math Blaster Mystty29" 
Math Blaster Plus 29" 
Math Blaster Wind 36 
Math Copier 26 

Math Rabbit 25 

Math Zone 31 

Mavis Beacon Type29" 
Mavis Beacon Wind35" 
McGee 3 Pack 32 
Mega Fortress 26 

Mission Disk ea 27 
Mental Math Games 37 
Mercenaries 37" 

MetroGnome Music 31 
Michael Jordon Right42 
Mickey ABC's, 

Cofor or 1.2-3's 19" 
Mickey's Crossword 19 
Mckey Jigsaw Pzl 31 
Mickey ABC Combo 37 
Mickey Word Advent 25 
Micro Cookbook 4.0 32 
Microleagu 4 BaseS 32 
Microleague FB Dk 32 
Micfoleague Soccer 25 
Microsoft Golf 39 

Midnight Rescue 35 
Might and Magic 3 38 
Might i Magic 4 40 
Mike Ditka Ottiml FB 37 
Millie Math House 31 
Mixed-Up Fairy Tale 30 
MixedUp Mother Gs30 
Monkey Island 1 or 223 
Monopoly Deluxe 34 
MoorbasB 25 

Muncher Bundle 30 
N.Y. Times X-Word 32 
NFL Challenge Prem59 
NFL F.B, Konami 30 
NFL Pro League FB 35 
NFL Video Pro 45" 
Nigel's World 31 

No Greater Glory 20" 
Nobunagas Ambition37 
Number Maze 36 

Omar Sharif Bridge 37 
Operation Neptune 35 
Orbits 29" 

Oregon Trail 28 

Deluxe 34" 

Origin FX 25 

Once Upon Time 30 
Out of This Wortd 36 
Outnumbered 30 

Pacific Islands 31 

Pacific Wars 47 

Paladin 2 35 

Paperboy 2 27 

Patriot 42" 

PC GkJbe 39 

PC USA 31 

PC Stuffy Bible 42 
Perlecl General 36 
Data Disk 22 

PGA Tour Golf 20 
PGA Golf Windows 38 
Course Disk 1 9 

Phonics Plus 25 

Planets Edge 37 

Playroom w/ Sound 31 
Police Quest 3 39" 
Populous 2 37" 

Power Hils KkJs 25 
Movies 25 

Sports 25 

Sci-Fi 32 

Battletech-Mech 32 
Power Politics 35 

Powermonger 32 

Print Shop Deluxe 45 
Graphic Coll. (ea) 30 
Print Shop. New 36 
Graphics (ea) 22 
Print Sp Companion 31 
Privateer 47" 



PRODUCT INFO & OTHER BUSINESS: 

908-396-S880 



Pro League Baseball3S 
Prophecy ol Shadow38 
Profostar 39" 

Putt Putt Parade 32 
Putl Putl Fun Pack 26 
Quest tor Gtory 1 22 
Quest for Gtory 3 39 
Ragnarok 36 

Railroad Tycoon 19" 
Rampart 25" 

Random Hs Encyci 69 
Reader Rabbit 35" 
Reader Rabbit 2 35" 
Ready lor Letters 35" 
Read 'n Roil VGA 31 
Reading Adv in Oz 36 
Red Baron 39 

Mission Disk 17 
Realms 19" 

Rex Nebular 37 

Riders ol Rohan 31 
Ring World 34" 

Risk lor WindovKS 29" 
Risky Woods 25 

Road & Track Pres 35 
Road to Final Four 37 
Robosports Wind 34" 
Rodney Fun Screen 31 
Romanes 3 King 2 39 
Rules Engagement 37 
Rule Engagmenl 2 38 
Sargon V 36 

Science Adventure 42 
Scooter Magic Caslle32 
Scrabble Deluxe 30 
Scrabble Dk Win 30 
Sea Rogue 19 

Seal Team 37"' 

Second Front 20" 
Scft Weapon Lultv(139" 

Tour of Duty ea, 20 
Sesame St. Lm Cl3s31 
Sesame St. Publish 25 
Sesame SL Vol.10f217 
Seven Cities of Gold 33 
Shadow President 39" 
Shadow Prophecy 30 
Shadowgate 27 

Shadowlands 29" 
Shanghai It 31 

Siege 38 

IJogs at War 20" 
Sierra Action Five 25 
Sierra Award Winner47 
Sierra Family Fun 32 
Sierra Starter Bndl 39" 
Silent Service 2 19" 
Sim Ant 34" 

Sim City 30 

Sim City Vi/indows 34" 
Sim Earth 39" 

Sim Life 39" 

Simpsons 31 

Snap Dragon 32 

Snoopy Game Club 29 
Solitaire Window 29" 
Solitaires Journey 35 
Space Ace 2:Sorl 36 
Space Adventure 42 
Space Hulk 37" 

Space Quest Bundi 39 
Space Quest 4 37 
Space Quest 5 39" 
Spaceward Ho 35" 
Spear ol Destiny 39" 
Special Forces 29 

Spectre 35" 

Speedreader 31 

Spell-a-saurus 30 
Spellbound 31 

Spelicasling 301 35 
Spell Cralt 35 

Spell-il Plus 30 

SpelUammer 37" 
Sports Adventure 33 
Sprout! 39 

Slar Control 2 35" 
Star Legions 37" 

Slar Trelr 25th Aniv. 37 
StarTrek AudiDCIip34" 

Next Generation 38" 
Slar Trek Screen Sav37 
Sllckybr Math Tutor 30 
Stickybr Pre-School 30 
Stickybr Read Tutor 30 
Stickybr Spell Tutor 30 
Stomi Across Europe38 
Storybook Weaver 29" 
Strike Commander 47" 
Strip Poker 3 32 

Data Disk (ea) 1 7 
Sliidyware lor ACT 

GMAT,GRE,SAT 30 
Studyware Biology, 

Calc,Chem.,Econ,, 

Physics. Statistic 25 
Studyware LSAT 37 



Slum Island 37 

Summer Challenge 34 

Summoning 38 

] Super MuncherS 30 

1 Super Teiris 31 

Take a break X-Woid29 

Pinball 29 

Task Force 1942 37" 

i TM.N.Turtle Arcade 25 

- T.M.N.TurtiB Advntr 32 

Tengens Arcade Hit 25 

Terminator 2029 39" 

Teiris Classic 31 

I Telhs Trio 30 

Theatre of War 31" 

I Time Riders America35 

I Time Treks 36 

Time Quest 37 

Tom Landry Foolbali30 

Tony LaRussa Base. 17 

LaRussa addon 1S 

Toiiy URussa II 37" 

Expansion Disk 15 

Top Class Sieries ea 1 6 

Tracon Windows 24" 

Traders 19" 

Treasure Cove 35 

Treasure Math Storm35 

Treasure Mountain 35 



35 

32 

26" 

29" 

30 

69 

29" 

47" 

17 

47" 

37«= 

47" 



Treehouse 
Tristan Pinball 
Trolls 

Trump Castle 3 
Turbo Science 
Turtle Tools 
Twisty History 
Ultima 7 

Forge ol Virtue 
UltimaT Part 2 
Ultima Trilogy 1 
Ultima Trilogy 2 
Ultima Underworld 47" 

Pan 2 47" 

Ultrabots 37" 

Uncharted Waters 42 
Uninvited Windows 31" 
U.S. Atlas DOS 31 
Utopia 29" 

V lor Victory 1/2 ea42" 
Vegas Games Win 19" 
Veil ol Dariiness 37" 
Vengeance ExcaliburSO 
Vrtual Realty St 2 59" 

35" 
35 

22" 
30 



Wacky Funster 
Waxworks 
Wayne Gretzky 3 
Western Front 
What's My Angle 
Wheel Fortune Vana 25 
Where Carm SanDiego 

America's Past 34^' 

Europe 

Tims 

USA 

USA Deluxe 

Worid Deluxe 
Willy Beamish 
Wing ComanOr 2 

Special Oper 

Speech Disk 
Wizard™ Trilogy 
Word Muncher 
Word Torture 

Ital. Germ. Span 25 
Wordtris 29 

World Atlas DOS 39 
Worid Circuit 34" 

Worid Class Soccer 26 
Writer Rabbit 30 

X Wing 39" 

Your Prsnl Train SAT30 
Zodiac Signs 39" 

Zoo Keeper 36 

Zug's Spelling Adv 22 

Adv ol Eco Island 22 

Dinosaur Worid 22 

Race Thru Space 22 



30 

30 

30 

44" 

44" 

25 

47" 

20" 

15 

31" 

30 



msi 



Appoint MousePen 70 

Microsoft Mouse 85 

Mouseman Serial 69 

Trackman Serial 79 



111 



M-l-liiHIJ' 



MaxFax 9624 Fx/Md99 
Praclical Peripherals 
PM 14.4 Int. 129 
PM 14.4 ExL 175 
Sportster 9600 InL 129 
Sponsir 14.4 v42bs309 
Zoom External 62 

Zoom Internal 59 



Aesops Fables 33 
Aircraft Encydopda 45 
Aloha Hawaii 45 

Amer Bus. Phnbk, 39 
Amer Heit Pid Dtet 75 
Arthur Teacher Trbl 41 
Audubon Mammals 37 
Autodesk Explorer 119 
Barney Bear Goes 
to School 26 

into Space 26 

Batik Designs 45 

Battlechess 49 

Beauty 4 Beast 49 
Beethoven Ninth 59 
Berirtz Think & Talk 
French 105 

Spanish 105 

Bitjie Library 49 

Bibles & Religon 30 
Bookshelf 129 

Eritanica Family Che 75 
Business Backgrnd 45 
Business Master 32 
Buzz Aldrin Race 59 
Carmen World Dke 65 
Career Opportuni1ies42 
Cautious Condor 45 
C D Game Pack 55 
C D Speedway 57 
Challenge 5 Realms 
Christmas Carol 33 
CIA Worid Faa 39 
CIA Worid Fact M/M 42 
Clipart Goliath 30 

Conan Cimerion 36 
Corel Draw Upgd 139 
Crossword Cracker 32 
Deathstar Arcade 30 
Dictionaries S Umq 30 
Don Quixote 33 

Education Master 32 
Electronic Cookbook 75 
Elect. Home Library 49 
Elcirn TravelerCalt 33 
European Monarchs49 
Family Doctor 59 

Font Master 39 

Food Analyst 49 

Fresh Arte 49 

Front Page News 29 
Game Master 32 

Game Pack 2 39 

Gettysburg:MM Hist 43 
Gofer Winkles Adv 33 
Golden Immortal 28 
Great Cities Vol l 49 
Guinness Book Rec 59 
Guy Spy 32 

Ham ijall 49 

Interactive StorylimB45 
Interaaive Vol 2 45 
IntI Bus & Econ Atlas39 
Intro Games French 79 
Intro Games Span 79 
Jazz:Multimedia Hist 69 
Jets & Props 55 

Jones in Fast Lane 37 
Just Grandn^ S Me 36 
Kings Quest 5 42 

Languages ol Workj 99 
Learn to Speak Span59 
Leisure Suit Larry 42 
Libry o( ArtiRcnaisn 65 
Libry of Art:0verviewB5 
Library of Future 99 
Loom 39 

Lovely Ladies II 49 
MacMillian Child Dict49 
Manhole 49 

Magazine flack 45 
Mantis 45 

Marketing Master 39 



MASTER CARD, VISA. DISCOVER, AND 
AMERICAN EXPRESS ACCEPTED WITH HO 

SURCHARGE. I 

SHIPPING iS ONLY S4.00 PER ORDER, 
NOT PER FTEM 

Monarch Notes 75 
Monkey Island 39 

M S DOS Archives 35 
MM Music: Mozart 33 
MM Music: Vivaldi 33 
Nat'l Geo Mammals 49 
North Amer Fax Bk 55 
North Amer Indians 57 
Officers Bookcase 50 
Our Solar System 29 
PC Game Room 49 
Peter 4 Wotf 45 

Presdnt:lt SW Geo 105 
Programmers ROM 59 



All Lib Sound Card 65 
Ad Lib MicroChannel 69 
Ad Ub Gold 1000 179 
ATI Stereo F/X 109 
VGA StreoF/X 1MB 369 
Covox Snd Mster 11145 
Gravis Ultra Sound 129 

'isisa 

139 

1199" 

139 



Audio Por 



PubTish iti 69 

RBBS in a Box 65 
Reference Library 59 
RotoryAirbatl/Time 35 
Seals of US Gov't 60 
Seaet Weapons 59 
Seventh Guest 59 
Shakespeare 37 

Sheriock Holme 39 
Sheri Holmes 2 42 
Sleeping Beauty 37 
Sound Works 35 

Space Quest 4 42 
Space Series-Apollo 49 
Spirit ol Exoalibur 37 
Stellar 7 37 

Strange Bedfellows 39 
Star Child 33 

Star Trek Enhanced 49 
Street Atlas 99 

Talking Classic Tale 75 
Talkng Jungle Safari 75 
Time mq Almanac 49 
Time Table History 69 
Time Table Science 59 
Too Many Typefonts35 
Ultima 1-6 49 

Ultimate Shareware 59 
U S Atlas 42 ,„,„^„, 

USA1lasw/Automap49gSnaBox 
US History 39 cadenza 

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■oil 
COPC / XL 
Pro Audio Spec * 

M.M. Upgrade Kit 765 
Pro Audio ^pec 16 194 
Pro 16 Multimedia 

Upgrade Kit 955 

Thunderboard 95 

Thunder & Ughtng 229 
Souivd Blaster 99 
Snd Blast Pro MCA 259 
Sound Blaster Pro 189 
S B Pro 16 239 

S B Multimedia Ktt 560 
S B MM Starter Kit 459 
S B CDROM Intml 360 
Sound Machine incl. 
SB.Speaker.Joystick 95 
Roland SCC-1 GS 375 
Sound Canvas 559 
Roland MA-12C ea 105 
SPEAKERS Snieldea2a 

w/ 3 band Equiiizer 45 
Altec Lansing 200. 219 



US Presiiients 
USA Slate Fact Bk 



AC^0^|ubwo^99 

MSSTSSSSM 
Midiator 101 Serial 95 
PC Midi Card 79 

MOX-32 179 

MPU-IPC 135 

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^15 ZVh'i'^J'^' it Cakewalk Window 240 



USA Wars:Korea 49 



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USA Wars, vyw II 49 p., :. ^ pa, co 

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X'-™ ?J9"?_„. , „„ 19. iMidisoft Studio 159 



Voyage Planel 
White Horse Child 33 
Wild Places 26 

Willy Beamish 42 

Windows Shareware 39 



S^^^i JMusic Bytes Vol 1 65 

Music Mentor 79 

Music Printer Plus 419 

Music Time 169 

Musicator 375 



37 
31 
31 

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65 !CH Virtual PilOl Pro 84 
65 'Eliminator Game Cd 26 



CH Flightstick 
CH Game Card 3 
CH Mach 3 
CH Virtual Pilot 



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J^"9 SSi^5™ ^ ^7 Rhythm Acs 
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Animation i-antasy 65 
PC Pix Vol 1 or 2 65 
Private Collection 65 
Priv. Pictures 1 or 2 65 
Seedy Vol i'7ea. 

Stomi 1 or 2 ._ ., _.„ 

Visual Fantasy 65 'Gravis" Analog Pro" 39 

Volcano 55 .Gravis Joystick 32 

Caddies 7.gSea. 3/S 19 [Gravis PCf GamePad21 

^^o^vr^ m m-i f i W Kfafi KC3 Joystick 18 

^ElilllSil^IiSKraft Thunderstick 28 

Maxx Flight Yoke 69 

Maxx Pedal 39 

Mouse Yoke 29" 

Ouickshol Game Cd14 

Quickshot Warrior IB 

Thrustmaster Flight 69 

Thrustmastet Pro 109 

Weapons Control 79 

Thrustmaster Pedal 109 



Dust Covers 15 

Grounded Wrist Strap 9 
Keyboard Skins 15 
Statk; Pads 

Large- System 1 5 
Wrist Pads 8 

Slax (Dust Repellent) 5 
StaU Connplele 
Cleaning System 15 



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TERMS AND CONDITIONS 

Masiei Card, Visa Airpet icdn Lxpresjy t Discover Accepted. No 
Surcharge on Credit Cards. Bytiail: P.O. Box 3. Carterot, W.J. 
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Circle Reader Service Number 203 




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REVIEWS 



Two of PC File 6.5's most-touted fea- 
tures are its ability to run in graphics 
mode and its ability to do charts, but I 
found neither overly impressive. The 
GUI slowed performance to the point 
that I wouldn't have used PC File if full- 
time graphics mode were the only op- 
tion. Fortunately, you can run in the 
much-snappier text mode and switch 
modes only when graphs are dis- 
played. The graphs are no great 
shakes and only use a magnified sys- 
tem font. 

PC File 6.5 can process large 
amounts of data fast. It indexed a 
13,500-record DBF file in less than a 
minute on my 33-MHz 386 and took on- 
ly a few minutes to export it to DIF. 
This was a real data set, not a toy file 
generated for review purposes. 

The labeler was formerly a separate 
product. It will do just about anything 
that needs to be done but lacks the 
kind of integration that distinguishes oth- 
er features, such as the calculator and 
autodialer. The user interface is outmod- 
ed and bears no resemblance to the 
rest of PC File 6.5. It prints to generic 
labels and lets you create your own con- 
figuration; a selection of Avery presets 
would make life much easier. 

I thought the eclecticism of the new 
features would work against PC File 
6.5, but it didn't. This feels very much 
like a product designed with the prima- 
ry emphasis on user input, labeler ex- 
cepted. It's a solid product and well 
worth its $149.95 price. Just be sure to 
get phone support fast— after 30 
days, you must switch to a 900 extra- 
charge number. 

TOM CAMPBELL 

IBM PC or compatible. 450K available RAM. hard 
disk with 17.jM6 free; supporls graphics monitors — 
S14995 

BUnONWARE 

P.O. Box 96058 

Bellevue, WA 98009-9658 

(206) 454-0479 

Circle Reader Service Number 447 

PUN 9 FROM OUTER 
SPACE 

Celestial saucers from outer space! 
Corpses on the patio! Guest appear- 
ance by Bela Lugosi! fvlix these cinemat- 
ic faux pas with liberal portions of 
schlock horror devices, wooden tomb- 
stones, atrocious acting, and unforgiva- 
bly awkward camera work and you 
have the original Plan 9 from Outer 
Space — the movie. Now, now, earth- 
lings, don't groan in despair just yet. 
While most big-to-small screen adapta- 



tions leave us wanting, Plan 9 from Out- 
er Space doesn't eclipse the flick of Its 
inspiration with its badness. As games 
go, though, if Plan 9 isn't terrible 
enough to rise to cult hit status, how 
bad is it? 

Bad is in the eye of the beholder, of 
course. From a gaming standpoint, 
Plan 9 offers nothing in the way of in- 
novations. The point-and-click interface 
would profit from a more Sierra-like ap- 
proach instead of tedious selection 
from menu options: Use item. Talk, Hit, 
and so on. After choosing Examine, for 
instance, you click on an onscreen 
item for a description, Then it's back to 
the menu to select Examine again so 
you can repeat the process on anoth- 
er item. This procedure alone could 
drive you to distraction. More annoy- 
ing, hiowever, is the tendency of 
dropped objects to disappear, hi- 
jacked by a meddlesome gremlin. 
Then, in a storeroom filled with useful 
items, you discover that you can carry 
only two before the irate producer of 
the movie shows up to berate you. 

Speaking of the sleazy producer, he 
hires you — at a cut rate, of course — to 
find the missing reels of Plan 9. Bela 
Lugosi's double (he's the one who 
stomped around with a cape over his 
face) has stolen the film and plots to re- 
cut it with footage featuring himself 
and, even worse, to colorize it. You'd 
probably stop this conspiracy for free 
if the producer wasn't paying you. 

To track down the missing reels, 
you'll visit both Bela's tomb and his sub- 
urban home — each characteristically 
limited in the number of locations to ex- 
plore and objects to gather. The ubiqui- 
tous taxi proves a cumbersome and bla- 
tant method of design cost-cutting. 
Instead of roving from place to place, 
you take a taxi, and your list of destina- 
tions is limited by characters you've 
talked to or by the fliers you've read. 

As reckoned by Konami, Plan 9 
could supply beginning and intermedi- 
ate players with sufficient challenge. An- 
yone who's seen the movie in all its trag- 
ic pretentiousness would enjoy the 
game. But most younger gamers prob- 
ably haven't seen it: neither have most 
adults. Does a quest to find six reels of 
film set your heart aflutter? Let's hope 
Konami's ready to go with plan 10. 

DAVID SEARS 



IBM PC or compatible (16-MH2 80286 or faster rec- 
ommended), 640K RAM, 256-color VGA; mouse 
recommended, supports Ad Lib, Roland, and 
Sound Blaster— $39.95 

KONAMI 

900 Deerfield Pkwy, 

Buffalo Grove, IL 60089 

(708)215-5111 

Circle Reader Service Number 448 O 



An effective natural solution 
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These unretOiiCi^€Ct pho:os ot George Sawinofrcm Rnode Island clearly defnonBtr^e Ihe 
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Name; 
City:_ 



Address: 



stale; 



-ZIp:_ 



Phone;( ) 



Total Dollar Amt: - 



Credit Card Type (mc, vs, dis, ax): 



-Ac«#:- 



Exp. Dale; 



- Signature: 



Ms. C. Lopez-Before treatment 



Allow 4 weeks delivery. Limit one FREE gift per customer. 



Distributed in the countries of: China, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and Russia — for ttiinning hair! 



Free CD-ROM Disc! 

Demo and Test oxitains 350 megs of PC Sharewaie i PD software. Indudng Speoal CD-RCW Benchma* S Test Utiies written 
by our programming staff, and rOT available on any ottier CD-ROI^ Discs. Our Special Test Utilfes measure thrcxigtiput as well as 
access (mes in a reliable and consistent manner for a meaningfuil real-world tiendimarlf tor CD drives, The Disc and Interface 
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PCShjuoaieSBtciiculir ■--f^.- riUS 




PC Shjttviaie SctciiEulii 

650 Megs 8.036 Files 

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Circle Beader Service Number 131 



Make Money With Your Computer 



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Circle Reader Service Number 126 




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THE MAGIC MIRROR ... a toolbox 
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Clrcle Reader Service Number 173 




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circle Reader Service Numbar 12t 



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125 



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AUTHORIZED COMPUTER REPAIRS: Cfi4/12K. 
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Learn \ 
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Circle Reader Service Numter 364 

^Computer Training At Home^ 

I Intiependent Study in Computer Operation and | 
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EDUCATION 



SOFTWARE 



Ill C"t:)nipLilei- Sc-iencos 



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How To Get 

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ibolUocils. (loorfotki. & some paJliKk?." 
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SOFTWARE 



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IB.M - COMMODORE 64 & I2K - AMIGA. 
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FREE UNIQUE IBIW SHAREWARE CATALOG! 

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Free catalog or $2 for sample & cata- 
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Raytown, MO 64133 



Circle Reader Service Number 359 

FREE! IBM PD & SHAREWARE DISK CATALOG 

Low prices since 1988! .ASP Appnncd Vendor, Finto 
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circle Reader Service Number 357 



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Allow 6-8 weeks for tteUvery. 




SOFTWARE 



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USED SOFTWARE 



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Circle Reader Service Number 369 



Circle Reader Service Number 360 



NEWS BITS 



Jill Champion 



Cods and robbers, 

virtual libraries and 

portfolios, and 

a book for parents 

of cyberkids 



Daryl Gates, Software Author 

Controversial former Los Ange- 
les police chief Daryl Gates re- 
cently signed a publishing 
agreement with Sierra On- 
line to design the next Police 
Quest game, which wili be 
the fourth installment in the 
popular adventure series. 

Police Quest 4, which will 
feature a new, as-yet-un- 
named character, will take 
place in Los Angeles and will 
be set against actual L.A. 
backgrounds that are digital- 
ly scanned fronn photo- 
graphs. Look for a Christmas 
1993 release. 

Paperless Society Approaches 

Qld books deteriorate, and a 
library's shelves can only 
hold so much new material. 
So Columbia University Law Li- 
brary has begun creating a 
time- and space-saving "virtu- 
al library" that can find and dis- 
play on one computer screen 
an actual image of a printed 
page among millions sorted 
digitally. 

Named Project Janus, the 
system is the first library appli- 
cation of digital full-text stored- 
image search and retrieval. 

The superfast system al- 
lows for full-text searches, 
which means that a research- 
er can order the computer to 
search its entire memory for 
any word, phrase, or text us- 
ing the Roman alphabet and 
then retrieve on the same com- 
puter screen an optical image 
of the actual printed page or 
document. 

While you won't see an all- 
electronic library for another 
half-century, imagine what 
such systems will eventually 
bring to your research ses- 
sions — talking, animated histo- 
ry texts, for instance. Libraries 
as we know them will be 
things of the past. 

Not Such a Glorious Thing 

It may be a glorious thing to 
be a pirate king, if you live in 



Penzance. If you live in Board- 
man, Ohio, however, and you 
call yourself Rusty or Edie, 
you could be in big trouble. 

The FBI recently raided 
Rusty & Edie's bulletin board 
service for allegedly distribut- 
ing copyrighted software pro- 
grams free to its many online 
subscribers. 

Following complaints from 
a number of the Software Pub- 
lishers Association members 
that their software was being 
illegally distributed, the SPA 
worked with the FBI, download- 
ing dozens of copyrighted 
business and entertainment 
programs from the board. 

Would-be pirates should 
take warning: This BBS was 
no mom-and-pop operation. 
Rusty & Edie's was one of the 
largest private bulletin board 
systems in the country, with 
124 nodes available to callers 
and more than 14,000 sub- 
scribers throughout the 
United States and several for- 
eign countries. 

Ilene Rosenthal, general 
counsel for the SPA, applaud- 
ed the FBI's action, which, 
she said, "clearly demon- 
strates . . . that the govern- 
ment understands the serious- 
ness of software piracy,' Sim- 
ilar raids on other boards are 
expected soon, as the SPA 
continues to work with the FBI 
on investigations. 

Piracy, the SPA says, adds 
to the cost of computing. The 
previous year saw software 
industry losses to piracy of 
SI. 2 billion in the U.S. alone. 

Who Ought to Be in Pictures? 

Looking for that big break in 
modeling? It's possible that 
you haven't taken the right ap- 
proach. After all, this is the 
age of technology, and the 
newest wave in model portfo- 
lios is to show yours electron- 
ically. Some 20.000 photo- 
graphs of more than 2000 top 
models from the most exclu- 
sive agencies are included in 



tvlodels Showcase, a CD- 
ROfvl disc from Showcase 
Communications {140 West 
22nd Street, New York, New 
York 10011: voice: 212-989- 
5708; fax: 212-989-8049). 

This electronic megaportfo- 
lio allows clients— advertisers, 
photographers, casting agen- 
cies, talent agencies— to 
view models' materials, includ- 
ing their stats, in full, hi-res col- 
or, page by page or even com- 
pared to several other portfo- 
lios at once. 

Annual model-listing costs 
are free for one head shot, 
$200 for one comp card (one 
to three pictures and a 
resume), and S50 for each 
additional new picture. Annu- 
al subscriptions (including all 
software and database up- 
dates made throughout the 
yearly subscription period) 
are S695 each and £495 per 
additional user within the 
same firm. 

Sourcebook for Parents 

Parents. Kids & Computers, a 
new book from Random 
House Electronic Publishing 
(November 1992; $20.00), is 
an activity guide/source book 
for parents that's designed to 
lead the entire family into the 
Information Age. 

Written from a parent's per- 
spective, the book provides in- 
novative suggestions for mak- 
ing computer time quality 
time. Parents can learn how 
to select the best hardware 
and software for their kids, ex- 
plore popular programs, and 
discover how Windows, LO- 
GO, and Prodigy can be 
homework helpers. 

Authors Robin Raskin and 
Carol Ellison (both computer 
experts) encourage parents 
to take a hands-on approach 
to exploring their collection of 
hand-picked programs, and 
they furnish hundreds of ide- 
as on how to extract maxi- 
mum learning and fun from a 
variety of software. D 



128 COMPUTE MAY 1993 





THE WORLD'S MOST RELIABLE FAX MODEMS ARE NOW 40% OFF. 

U.S. Robotics just dropped the price on the 
Sportster and Mac&Fax" fax/data moden:is. So not 
only can you fax graphics and files frorai your PC or 
Macintosh" without getting up,,, but now you can do 
it at a savings of 40%. 

Get Group III fax capabilities. Get 14,400 bps data throughput, Get V.42 / 
V.42 bis error control and data compression, And get all this plus WINFAX'" or 
Fax STF'" fax software for the Mac bundled free with 
ever)' Sportster modem you buy 

So fax, Potato, fax. It now costs 40% less. The intelligent choice in Data communications, 

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IN CANADA, PLEASE CALL 1-800-553-3560, 




Circle Reader Service Mirmbef 301 



U.S.Robotics Inc. 8100 N. McCormick Bl^d. Skokie, Illinois 60076. (708) 982-5010 

SpQni:ef and Ll^tSFai a^e reg-steiKftradeir-aiHS cf U-S. Fteo'.ts, \<-c. 
An brand « pfCdJcT names are fracfefnarhs or registeFMl trademarlts of ^^ respedwe ontms. 





/ 



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' and lead explosive ground support missions. 



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^ PART OF THtSIERPJi FAMILY 



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